Play by the Rules: Arch

Learn these words derived from the Greek word arkhos, meaning "ruler, chief, principal, or leader."

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definitions & notes only words
  1. anarchist
    an advocate of the abolition of governments
    “I’m not anti-authority. I’m not an anarchist. I believe in the rule of law, otherwise there would be complete chaos. I’m anti-hypocrisy.”The Guardian (Jul 28, 2018)
  2. anarchy
    a state of lawlessness and disorder
    “Chaos and anarchy rule the country. The lives and rights of people are threatened, particularly in the southeast and in Crimea.”New York Times (Jan 24, 2019)
  3. arch
    naughtily or annoyingly playful
    In a tone both arch and light, Sarai replied, “I kiss dozens of people every night.”Strange the Dreamer
    Don't confuse the adjective arch with the noun and verb meanings related to curves. The latter derive from the Latin word arcus, or "bow." The adjective, on the other hand, comes from Greek arkhos, and it was originally used in compound words like arch-rogue, meaning "the chief rogue." By the 19th century, arch was regularly used as a stand-alone adjective meaning "cheeky" or "forward."
  4. archaeologist
    an anthropologist who studies prehistoric culture
    While Paabo continued to work on the Neanderthal period, Reich devoted his energy to obtaining samples from the last 10,000 or so years — the historical domain of archaeologists.New York Times (Jan 17, 2019)
  5. archaeology
    the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people
    Back then, few people were interested in the bones of the ancient Maya; Mexican archaeology was about temples, pottery and jade masks.Nature (Feb 11, 2019)
  6. archaic
    so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period
    Their first language is Plautdietsch, or Low German, an archaic unwritten dialect that dates back to sixteenth-century Polish Prussia, where many of their ancestors settled after persecution drove them from home.The New Yorker (Mar 18, 2019)
  7. archetype
    something that serves as a model
    I always say, pull from the canon of classic cinema and the archetypes that resonate with you and then put a modern twist on it.The Guardian (Feb 9, 2019)
  8. archipelago
    a group of many islands in a large body of water
    Tonga is an archipelago comprised of 169 islands, many of which are uninhabited.Fox News (Jan 24, 2019)
  9. architect
    someone who creates plans to be used in making something
    The tower was the work of Robert Smith, one of America’s earliest architects.Washington Times (Mar 28, 2019)
  10. architecture
    the profession of designing buildings and environments
    Dad was a partner in an architecture firm that mostly designed museums and concert halls and other “centerpieces for urban living.”Darius the Great Is Not Okay
  11. archival
    of a depository containing historical records and documents
    This formidable film is sometimes zealous to a fault: The credits cite more than 200 sources of archival material, from The Washington Post to YouTube channels.New York Times (Aug 30, 2018)
  12. archive
    put into a depository of documents
    Her private sides emerge, in part, in her biographies, especially those written by her nephew, Alex Prud’homme, as well as in her own voluminous correspondence, much of which is archived at Harvard’s Schlesinger Library.The New Yorker (Mar 26, 2019)
  13. matriarch
    a female head of a family or tribe
    Dona Zaida, once a formidable matriarch who ruled her eight sons by a resolute jealousy, spent long afternoons watching novelas on television and perfuming her thickening wrists.Dreaming in Cuban
  14. matriarchy
    social organization in which a female is the family head
    “The strongest warriors in Wakanda are the women, and the smartest,” Jordan noted, likening that lineage to the matriarchies found in many African-American communities.New York Times (Jan 9, 2019)
  15. monarch
    a nation's ruler usually by hereditary right
    Elizabeth, the English monarch, wields great power in her own realm, but Mary’s return presents an immediate threat to her rule, so Elizabeth plots with her advisers what to do about it.Wall Street Journal (Dec 6, 2018)
  16. monarchy
    autocracy governed by a ruler who usually inherits authority
    Today’s British royal family largely perform ceremonial duties – a stark contrast to the days of absolute monarchy, when the king or queen’s power enabled them to form armies and redistribute land.The Guardian (Mar 13, 2019)
  17. oligarch
    member of a small group that runs a country, business, etc.
    Key economic sectors - especially energy and heavy industry - remain in the hands of oligarchs powerful enough to fix prices and intimidate challengers.BBC (Mar 26, 2019)
  18. oligarchy
    a political system governed by a few people
    While many continental municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, towards government by a close “select body.”Various
  19. patriarch
    a man who is older and higher in rank than yourself
    In The Man Who Invented Christmas, Dickens is not the bearded patriarch and arch-sentimentalist of Victorian culture, but a young chap startled by his sudden fame and with no confidence that it will last.The Guardian (Dec 2, 2017)
  20. patriarchy
    a form of social organization in which men hold power
    This photograph is what patriarchy looks like – a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded.The Guardian (Jan 24, 2017)

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