 Types:
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argument
a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value determines the dependent variable; if f(x)=y, x is the independent variable

experimental variable, independent variable
(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables

correlate, correlative
either of two or more related or complementary variables

degree of freedom
(statistics) an unrestricted variable in a frequency distribution

dependent variable
(statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends on the independent variable

predictor variable
a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)

infinitesimal
(mathematics) a variable that has zero as its limit

chance variable, random variable, stochastic variable, variant, variate
a variable quantity that is random

scalar
a variable quantity that cannot be resolved into components

tensor
a generalization of the concept of a vector

vector
a variable quantity that can be resolved into components

factor
an independent variable in statistics

cross product, vector product
a vector that is the product of two other vectors

resultant, vector sum
a vector that is the sum of two or more other vectors

radius vector
a line connecting a point in space to the origin of a polar coordinate system

radius vector
a line connecting a satellite to the center of the body around which it is rotating