When you can't help an angry shout or a burst of emotion, that's an outburst. A toddler's outburst might take the form of a full-blown temper tantrum.
An outburst of passion or emotion can be angry words, a broken glass, or a triumphant whoop. There are also figurative outbursts, like the outburst of political enthusiasm within a particular group of voters, or an outburst of energy in the midst of a modern dance performance. The Middle English verb that proceeded outburst was outbresten.