A widely accepted belief or theory is an orthodoxy. You could call the scientific theory of gravity an orthodoxy, since it's generally considered to be an established fact.

The word orthodoxy comes from the Greek root words orthos, which means right, true or straight, and doxa, opinion. So orthodoxy describes the one true opinion. The noun orthodoxy, pronounced "OR-thuh-dock-see," is most commonly used to talk about religious beliefs. When you conform to the orthodoxy of a particular religion, you follow its accepted doctrines, like a Christian's belief in an all-powerful God.

Definitions of orthodoxy
  1. noun
    the quality of being orthodox (especially in religion)
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    heterodoxy, unorthodoxy
    the quality of being unorthodox
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    convention, conventionalism, conventionality
    orthodoxy as a consequence of being conventional
    traditionalism, traditionality
    strict adherence to traditional methods or teachings
    conformity, ossification
    hardened conventionality
    academicism, academism, scholasticism
    close adherence to traditional teachings or methods
    type of:
    the quality of being unoriginal
  2. noun
    a belief or orientation agreeing with conventional standards
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    heresy, heterodoxy, unorthodoxy
    any opinions or doctrines at variance with the official or orthodox position
    conformism, conformity
    orthodoxy in thoughts and belief
    conformity with conventional thought and behavior
    strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit
    type of:
    an integrated set of attitudes and beliefs
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