Something noxious is harmful and could be even fatal — whether it is colorless, odorless, and invisible like carbon monoxide, or dark, strong-smelling, and obvious, like black smoke from a fire. People are called noxious too when they hurt others with cruelty or mental anguish.
English and Latin roots for noxious are related to the meanings of "harm," "damage," and "injury." While obnoxious might come to mind when seeing the word noxious, obnoxious is a much less damaging adjective to describe someone annoying. Most uses for noxious involve real physical or emotional damage unless the word is used in exaggeration. Examples range from "the noxious gas fumes made the dog pass out" to "his cologne was so noxious I had to exit the elevator and take the stairs."