Maximization refers to the act of making something as large or great as possible. If you are interested in the maximization of profits, you want to get as much money as possible out of your investments.
Maximization comes from the Latin word maximum or "greatest." The maximization of output is a reasonable goal for a manufacturing company, though it should not be at the expense of the workers' health and safety. Your art teacher is not interested in talent — he or she is going for the maximization of each student's creative potential.