A litigant is someone involved in a lawsuit. The person who sues and the person who gets sued are both litigants.

To litigate is to use the legal system, and to be litigious is to be prone to filing lawsuits. Litigant refers to someone who is part of a lawsuit. If you sue a doctor, you’re a litigant, as is the doctor. If your landlord sues you, you’re both litigants. A company can be a litigant too. Litigants require lawyers. In fact, without litigants, lawyers would have nothing to do. Lucky for them, there are many litigants in the world.

Definitions of litigant
  1. noun
    (law) a party to a lawsuit; someone involved in litigation
    “plaintiffs and defendants are both litigants
    synonyms: litigator
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    defendant, suspect
    a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused
    appellant, plaintiff in error
    the party who appeals a decision of a lower court
    a party who files a notice with a law court
    complainant, plaintiff
    a person who brings an action in a court of law
    prevailing party
    the party in a lawsuit who obtains a judgment in their own favor
    a defendant in a criminal proceeding
    co-defendant, codefendant
    a defendant who has been joined together with one or more other defendants in a single action
    petitioner, suer
    someone who petitions a court for redress of a grievance or recovery of a right
    type of:
    a person involved in legal proceedings
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