Insurrection is an uprising against a larger force that's in power. An insurrection can lead to revolution, but it is just as likely to be put down.
Other words for insurrection include rebellion, revolt and uprising, the last of which is the translation of insurrection's Latin roots. The Boston Tea Party is probably the most famous American act of insurrection. One who rises up in insurrection is called an insurgent by the force they are rising against. Like Paul Revere, insurgents are often called heroes by the people they are rising up to support.