In math, factorization is when you break a number down into smaller numbers that, multiplied together, give you that original number.
When you split a number into its factors or divisors, that's factorization. For example, factorization of the number 12 might look like 3 times 4. You can break that down even further using prime factorization, when you reduce a number to prime factors. In this case, 12 can be factorized to 3 times 2 times 2. The word factorization comes from factor, which has had a mathematical meaning since the 1600s.
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