Disobedience means not following rules or instructions given to you by an authority figure. The disobedience of the kids at summer camp might drive their counselor batty.
Ordinary disobedience includes things like your dog chasing your cat even after you tell her not to, or a party guest refusing to hand over a gift to the birthday boy despite being instructed to do it. Civil disobedience is a special type of defiance: it's refusing to follow the laws or demands of a governing power that you disagree with. During the Civil Rights Movement, protesters used civil disobedience (including sit-ins and boycotts) to protest segregation.