Deceleration is a slowing down: the unexpected deceleration of your car might mean that you've run out of gas.
Use the noun deceleration when you talk about a gradual decrease in speed. When you're on a Ferris wheel, its deceleration tells you that the ride is almost over, and the deceleration of a train at a railroad crossing happens for safety reasons. The opposite of deceleration is acceleration, or speeding up. The word deceleration was originally an 1890's railroad term, constructed by adding de, or "the opposite of" to acceleration.