"Animal Farm," Vocabulary from Ch's 5-6 30 words

As you read George Orwell's 1945 allegorical novella, learn these word lists: Ch’s 1-2, Ch’s 3-4, Ch’s 5-6, Ch’s 7-8, and Ch’s 9-10.
  1. hedge
    a fence formed by a row of closely planted shrubs or bushes
    This morning I saw you looking over the hedge that divides Animal Farm from Foxwood.
  2. stroke
    touch lightly and repeatedly, as with brushing motions
    And—I was a long way away, but I am almost certain I saw this—he was talking to you and you were allowing him to stroke your nose.
  3. improvement
    a change for the better; progress in development
    Snowball had made a close study of some back numbers of the Farmer and Stockbreeder which he had found in the farmhouse, and was full of plans for innovations and improvements.
  4. complicated
    difficult to analyze or understand
    He talked learnedly about field-drains, silage, and basic slag, and had worked out a complicated scheme for all the animals to drop their dung directly in the fields, at a different spot every day, to save the labour of cartage.
  5. pasture
    a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock
    In the long pasture, not far from the farm buildings, there was a small knoll which was the highest point on the farm.
  6. chaff
    material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds
    This would light the stalls and warm them in winter, and would also run a circular saw, a chaff-cutter, a mangel-slicer, and an electric milking machine.
  7. procure
    get by special effort
    (How these were to be procured, Snowball did not say.)
  8. faction
    a dissenting clique
    The animals formed themselves into two factions under the slogans, “Vote for Snowball and the three-day week” and “Vote for Napoleon and the full manger.”
  9. assemble
    get people together
    When the animals had assembled in the big barn, Snowball stood up and, though occasionally interrupted by bleating from the sheep, set forth his reasons for advocating the building of the windmill.
  10. advocate
    push for something
    When the animals had assembled in the big barn, Snowball stood up and, though occasionally interrupted by bleating from the sheep, set forth his reasons for advocating the building of the windmill.
  11. expulsion
    the act of forcing out someone or something
    In spite of the shock that Snowball’s expulsion had given them, the animals were dismayed by this announcement.
  12. disinter
    dig up for reburial or for medical investigation; of dead bodies
    The skull of old Major, now clean of flesh, had been disinterred from the orchard and set up on a stump at the foot of the flagstaff, beside the gun.
  13. harvest
    the gathering of a ripened crop
    The harvest was a little less successful than in the previous year, and two fields which should have been sown with roots in the early summer were not sown because the ploughing had not been completed early enough.
  14. sow
    place (seeds) in or on the ground for future growth
    The harvest was a little less successful than in the previous year, and two fields which should have been sown with roots in the early summer were not sown because the ploughing had not been completed early enough.
  15. quarry
    a surface excavation for extracting stone or slate
    There was a good quarry of limestone on the farm, and plenty of sand and cement had been found in one of the outhouses, so that all the materials for building were at hand.
  16. boulder
    a large smooth mass of rock detached from its place of origin
    Huge boulders, far too big to be used as they were, were lying all over the bed of the quarry.
  17. slope
    an elevated geological formation
    The animals lashed ropes round these, and then all together, cows, horses, sheep, any animal that could lay hold of the rope—even the pigs sometimes joined in at critical moments—they dragged them with desperate slowness up the slope to the top of the quarry, where they were toppled over the edge, to shatter to pieces below.
  18. store
    a supply of something available for future use
    By late summer a sufficient store of stone had accumulated, and then the building began, under the superintendence of the pigs.
  19. unassisted
    unsupported by other people
    And in his spare moments, of which there were not many nowadays, he would go alone to the quarry, collect a load of broken stone, and drag it down to the site of the windmill unassisted.
  20. unforeseen
    not anticipated
    Nevertheless, as the summer wore on, various unforeseen shortages began to make themselves felt.
  21. cryptic
    having a secret or hidden meaning
    Only old Benjamin refused to grow enthusiastic about the windmill, though, as usual, he would utter nothing beyond the cryptic remark that donkeys live a long time.
  22. traitor
    someone who betrays his country by committing treason
    In sheer malignity, thinking to set back our plans and avenge himself for his ignominious expulsion, this traitor has crept here under cover of night and destroyed our work of nearly a year.
  23. pronounce
    pronounce judgment on
    Comrades, here and now I pronounce the death sentence upon Snowball
  24. shortage
    an acute insufficiency
    Nevertheless, as the summer wore on, various unforeseen shortages began to make themselves felt.
  25. intermediary
    a negotiator who acts as a link between parties
    A Mr. Whymper, a solicitor living in Willingdon, had agreed to act as intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world, and would visit the farm every Monday morning to receive his instructions.
  26. restive
    being in a tense state
    They had all the more reason for doing so because the news of their defeat had spread across the countryside and made the animals on the neighbouring farms more restive than ever.
  27. cog
    tooth on the rim of gear wheel
    Gradually the plans grew into a complicated mass of cranks and cog-wheels, covering more than half the floor, which the other animals found completely unintelligible but very impressive.
  28. reaper
    farm machine that gathers a food crop from the fields
    Electricity, he said, could operate threshing machines, ploughs, harrows, rollers, and reapers and binders, besides supplying every stall with its own electric light, hot and cold water, and an electric heater.
  29. aloof
    remote in manner
    Only Napoleon held aloof. He had declared him¬self against the windmill from the start.
  30. reconciled
    made compatible or consistent
    Nevertheless, the sight of Napoleon, on all fours, delivering orders to Whymper, who stood on two legs, roused their pride and partly reconciled them to the new arrangement.