Fractions are smaller parts of whole numbers: one-quarter, one-tenth, one-half, and a faction is a smaller portion of a larger group that breaks away from it. A faction might take a fraction of the people from a large group and start a new group.
The Latin source of the word faction means to "do" or "make," though a faction can seem to be a taking away or un-doing. Politics is one area where faction gets a lot of use, because a political party often starts with a large group but has some members who disagree with a belief or direction. These members separate from the larger party and become a faction of their own, with many of the same beliefs as the original group but with a few new differences, too.
n a dissenting clique
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a faction or sect that has broken away from its parent organization
left, left wing
those who support varying degrees of social or political or economic change designed to promote the public welfare
right, right wing
those who support political or social or economic conservatism; those who believe that things are better left unchanged
a faction that is unwilling to accept new ideas
those who argue that the decision to have an induced abortion should be made by the mother
those who argue that induced abortion is killing and should be prohibited
United States political faction that advocates social and political conservativism, school prayer, and federal aid for religious groups and schools
the extreme right wing