a medical dressing consisting of a soft heated mass of meal or clay that is spread on a cloth and applied to the skin to treat inflamed areas or improve circulation etc.
Clover treated the hoof with
poultices of herbs which she prepared by chewing them, and both she and Benjamin urged Boxer to work less
a regular payment to a person that is intended to allow them to subsist without working
pensions had been agreed upon.
too old to be useful
Now that the small field beyond the orchard had been set aside for barley, it was rumoured that a corner of the large pasture was to be fenced off and turned into a grazing-ground for
the act of adjusting again (to changed circumstances)
For the time being, certainly, it had been found necessary to make a
readjustment of rations (Squealer always spoke of it as a “
readjustment,” never as a “reduction”), but in comparison with the days of Jones, the improvement was enormous.
having sections or patches colored differently and usually brightly
The young pigs were
piebald, and as Napoleon was the only boar on the farm, it was possible to guess at their parentage.
large deep serving dish with a cover; for serving soups and stews
And the news soon leaked out that every pig was now receiving a ration of a pint of beer daily, with half a gallon for Napoleon himself, which was always served to him in the Crown Derby soup
said or done without having been planned or written in advance
Note the irony of a planned Spontaneous Demonstration
Napoleon had commanded that once a week there should be held something called a
Spontaneous Demonstration, the object of which was to celebrate the struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm.
brief description accompanying an illustration
Boxer and Clover always carried between them a green banner marked with the hoof and the horn and the
caption, “Long live Comrade Napoleon!”
guilt as an accomplice in a crime or offense
On the same day it was given out that fresh documents had been discovered which revealed further details about Snowball’s
complicity with Jones.
get or gather together
He did not care what happened so long as a good store of stone was
accumulated before he went on pension.
(medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
The pigs had sent out a large bottle of pink
medicine which they had found in the
medicine chest in the bathroom, and Clover administered it to Boxer twice a day after meals.
a ceremonial dinner party for many people
And in a few days’ time the pigs intended to hold a memorial
banquet in Boxer’s honour.
marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive laughter
That night there was the sound of
uproarious singing, which was followed by what sounded like a violent quarrel and ended at about eleven o’clock with a tremendous crash of glass.
horny projecting mouth of a bird
“Up there, comrades,” he would say solemnly, pointing to the sky with his large
beak—“up there, just on the other side of that dark cloud that you can see—there it lies, Sugarcandy Mountain, that happy country where we poor animals shall rest for ever from our labours!”
a state in which all hope is lost or absent
desperation the animals began appealing to the two horses which drew the van to stop.
a chronic drinker
Jones too was dead—he had died in an
inebriates’ home in another part of the country.
showing a brooding ill humor
Only old Benjamin was much the same as ever, except for being a little greyer about the muzzle, and, since Boxer’s death, more
morose and taciturn than ever.
habitually reserved and uncommunicative
Only old Benjamin was much the same as ever, except for being a little greyer about the muzzle, and, since Boxer’s death, more morose and
taciturn than ever.
set up for use
The animals were hard at work building yet another windmill; when that one was finished, so it was said, the dynamos would be
admitting of no solution or explanation
There was nothing with which they could compare their present lives: they had nothing to go upon except Squealer’s lists of figures, which invariably demonstrated that everything was getting better and better. The animals found the problem
insoluble; in any case, they had little time for speculating on such things now.
One day in early summer Squealer ordered the sheep to follow him, and led them out to a piece of waste ground at the other end of the farm, which had become overgrown with birch
fill with terror; frighten greatly
It was just after the sheep had returned, on a pleasant evening when the animals had finished work and were making their way back to the farm buildings, that the
terrified neighing of a horse sounded from the yard.
walk leisurely and with no apparent aim
A little awkwardly, as though not quite used to supporting his considerable bulk in that position, but with perfect balance, he was
strolling across the yard.
He would end his remarks, he said, by emphasising once again the friendly feelings that
subsisted, and ought to
subsist, between Animal Farm and its neighbours.
a message whose ingenuity or verbal skill or incongruity has the power to evoke laughter
Here it became apparent that Mr. Pilkington was about to spring some carefully prepared
witticism on the company, but for a moment he was too overcome by amusement to be able to utter it.
in opposition to a civil authority or government
For a long time there had been rumours—circulated, he had reason to think, by some malignant enemy—that there was something
subversive and even revolutionary in the outlook of himself and his colleagues.
manifesting or subjected to suppression
Hitherto the animals on the farm had had a rather foolish custom of addressing one another as “Comrade.” This was to be
sediment that has settled at the bottom of a liquid
There was the same hearty cheering as before, and the mugs were emptied to the
not capable of being changed or altered
Only old Benjamin professed to remember every detail of his long life and to know that things never had been, nor ever could be much better or much worse—hunger, hardship, and disappointment being, so he said, the
unalterable law of life.
necessary (for someone) as a duty or responsibility; morally binding
But before doing so, there were a few words that he felt it
incumbent upon him to say.