Use the adverb throughout for things that keep going from beginning to end. If you mention your perfect grades several times throughout a conversation, your interviewer will know you're smart, but might also think you're kind of obnoxious.
Throughout means "from start to finish," although it doesn't have to mean constantly from start to finish. Your brother might complain that you had to stop and pee throughout the entire road trip, but he doesn't mean you were literally doing it the whole time, just like every two hours. In academic writing, throughout, or sometimes passim ("throughout" in Latin) is a way of saying that an idea shows up all over a book, not just on a certain page.