The flat surface people sit around when they eat together is a table. A table can also be a chart full of information. When doing your taxes, you might use a tax table to determine how much you owe.
Table is a very common noun, but it can also be used as a verb. In American English, the verb table means to set a matter aside indefinitely. For example, if state senators can't come to a compromise about new zoning laws, they might simply decide to table the issue. Confusingly, British English uses the verb table in precisely the opposite way: if members of the English Parliament table a piece of legislation, they formally submit it for discussion or debate.