When someone deliberately tries to trick you by making a false statement, that's a sophism. Inventing statistics to back up your personal belief that dogs are smarter than humans is one example of sophism.
Fact-checking the statements politicians make is important, in order to uncover sophisms they might be using. If a candidate falsely claims that the crime rate in a city is rising so that he can gain the support of voters who believe he'll be tough on crime, his statement is a sophism. The word comes from the Old French sophime, "fallacy or false argument," and its root, the Greek sophisma, "clever device or stage trick."