In medicine, radiology is the specialty that deals with imaging techniques to diagnose or treat disease. If you need an x-ray of your broken thumb, you need an expert in radiology.
The area of a hospital where x-rays or MRIs are taken might be referred to as radiology: "We need to get a look at your brain. We'll send you down to radiology." Radiology also takes the form of ultrasound and CT scans, and all of these various techniques are performed by a radiologist. The Latin root is radiationem, "a shining."