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Niels Henrik Abel
Norwegian mathematician (18021829)

AlHasan ibn alHaytham
an Egyptian polymath (born in Iraq) whose research in geometry and optics was influential into the 17th century; established experiments as the norm of proof in physics (died in 1040)

Archimedes
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287212 BC)

Thomas Bayes
English mathematician for whom Bayes' theorem is named (17021761)

Jacques Bernoulli
Swiss mathematician (16541705)

Johann Bernoulli
Swiss mathematician (16671748)

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
German mathematician and astronomer who made accurate measurements of stellar distances and who predicted the existence on an 8th planet (17841846)

George Boole
English mathematician; creator of Boolean algebra (18151864)

Nathaniel Bowditch
United States mathematician and astronomer noted for his works on navigation (17731838)

Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat
French mathematician and philosopher (17431794)

Rene Descartes
French philosopher and mathematician; developed dualistic theory of mind and matter; introduced the use of coordinates to locate a point in two or three dimensions (15961650)

Diophantus
Greek mathematician who was the first to try to develop an algebraic notation (3rd century)

Eratosthenes
Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the Moon and sun (276194 BC)

Leonhard Euler
Swiss mathematician (17071783)

Pierre de Fermat
French mathematician who founded number theory; contributed (with Pascal) to the theory of probability (16011665)

Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier
French mathematician who developed Fourier analysis and studied the conduction of heat (17681830)

Evariste Galois
French mathematician who described the conditions for solving polynomial equations; was killed in a duel at the age of 21 (18111832)

Karl Friedrich Gauss
German mathematician who developed the theory of numbers and who applied mathematics to electricity and magnetism and astronomy and geodesy (17771855)

Kurt Godel
United States mathematician (born in Austria) who is remembered principally for demonstrating the limitations of axiomatic systems (19061978)

Sir William Rowan Hamilton
Irish mathematician (18061865)

Hero of Alexandria
Greek mathematician and inventor who devised a way to determine the area of a triangle and who described various mechanical devices (first century)

David Hilbert
German mathematician (18621943)

Hipparchus
Greek astronomer and mathematician who discovered the precession of the equinoxes and made the first known star chart and is said to have invented trigonometry (second century BC)

Karl Gustav Jacob Jacobi
German mathematician (18041851)

Felix Klein
German mathematician who created the Klein bottle (18491925)

Leopold Kronecker
German mathematician (18231891)

Pierre Simon de Laplace
French mathematician and astronomer who formulated the nebular hypothesis concerning the origins of the solar system and who developed the theory of probability (17491827)

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz
German philosopher and mathematician who thought of the universe as consisting of independent monads and who devised a system of the calculus independent of Newton (16461716)

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky
Russian mathematician who independently discovered nonEuclidean geometry (17921856)

Benoit Mandelbrot
French mathematician (born in Poland) noted for inventing fractals (born in 1924)

Andre Markoff
Russian mathematician (18561922)

Hermann Minkowski
German mathematician (born in Russia) who suggested the concept of fourdimensional spacetime (18641909)

August Ferdinand Mobius
German mathematician responsible for the Mobius strip (17901868)

Johann Muller
German mathematician and astronomer (14361476)

John Napier
Scottish mathematician who invented logarithms; introduced the use of the decimal point in writing numbers (15501617)

Sir Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (16421727)

Emmy Noether
German mathematician (18821935)

Omar Khayyam
Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation (10501123)

Blaise Pascal
French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist; invented an adding machine; contributed (with Fermat) to the theory of probability (16231662)

Benjamin Peirce
United States mathematician and astronomer remembered for his studies of Uranus and Saturn and Neptune (18091880)

Pythagoras
Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem; considered to be the first true mathematician (circa 580500 BC)

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann
pioneer of nonEuclidean geometry (18261866)

Alan Mathison Turing
English mathematician who conceived of the Turing machine and broke German codes during World War II (19121954)

Oswald Veblen
United States mathematician (18801960)

Paul Vernier
French mathematician who described the vernier scale (15801637)

John von Neumann
United States mathematician who contributed to the development of atom bombs and of storedprogram digital computers (19031957)

Andre Weil
United States mathematician (born in France) (19061998)

Alfred North Whitehead
English philosopher and mathematician who collaborated with Bertrand Russell (18611947)

Norbert Wiener
United States mathematician and founder of cybernetics (18941964)

Euclid
Greek geometer (3rd century BC)