A louse is a tiny insect that lives on the skin of animals and people. If you find a louse in your hair, you'll have to treat your scalp to get rid of any of its friends that might still be lurking there.
Since they tend to travel in groups, the plural form of louse, lice, is much more common than the singular. Lice are small parasites that live on skin cells, blood, or other tiny bits of some host animal. If you're the host animal, you'll probably have an itchy head, and anyone who borrows your pillow or wears your hat will likely get lice too. A louse, informally, is also "an obnoxious person."