Something that's golden is made out of gold. A queen in a fairy tale might wear an elaborate golden crown.

Aside from golden ornaments and jewelry, things the color of gold are also golden, like a boy's golden hair or golden fields of wheat. If you talk about a golden time or a golden opportunity, you mean something marked by luck, peace, and happiness. In Old English, it was common to add the suffix -en to mean "made of," but golden is one of just a few of these words in modern English (including wooden and waxen).

Definitions of golden

adj made from or covered with gold

“the golden calf”
gilded, gold
metal, metallic
containing or made of or resembling or characteristic of a metal

adj having the deep slightly brownish color of gold

aureate, gilded, gilt, gold
being or having or characterized by hue

adj suggestive of gold

“a golden voice”
euphonious, euphonous
having a pleasant sound

adj marked by peace and prosperity

“a golden era”
halcyon, prosperous
enjoying or showing or marked by joy or pleasure

adj supremely favored

golden lads and girls all must / like chimney sweepers come to dust”
blessed, blest
highly favored or fortunate (as e.g. by divine grace)

adj presaging or likely to bring good luck

favorable, favourable, lucky, prosperous
presenting favorable circumstances; likely to result in or show signs of success

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