A situation or fact that means you're not allowed or able to participate in something is a disqualification. Being born in a non-US country is a disqualification for becoming President of the United States.

Not speaking French might be a disqualification for studying in France, and being over 18 is a disqualification for participating in Little League baseball. Another kind of disqualification is the action of preventing someone from doing something, often for a specific time period: "His disqualification from participating in bowling tournaments lasts until next year." Qualify, from the Latin qualis, "of what sort?" came to mean "be fit for a job." The prefix dis- means "not."

Definitions of disqualification
  1. noun
    unfitness that bars you from participation
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    type of:
    the quality of not being suitable
  2. noun
    the act of preventing someone from participating by finding them unqualified
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    recusal, recusation
    (law) the disqualification of a judge or jury by reason of prejudice or conflict of interest; a judge can be recused by objections of either party or judges can disqualify themselves
    type of:
    bar, prevention
    the act of preventing
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