Something that does the opposite of what you intend is counterproductive. Staying up all night to study for that history test will be counterproductive — you'll be so tired that you won't remember any of the information you reviewed.
Putting off your homework until tomorrow may seem like a good strategy now, but it may be counterproductive if you have to rush to get it done. On a larger scale, when governments give small tax breaks in an attempt to stimulate the economy, it's often counterproductive, since people may decide to save that extra money instead of spending it. Counterproductive things don't do what you think they will — in fact, they make it much harder to achieve your goals.