Something that's contested is argued over or questioned. Contested election results may need to be re-counted, since the two sides can't agree on their validity.
Controversial and contentious issues — like debated topics or lawsuits — are often described as "hotly contested," or energetically argued over. Elections, community issues, sporting matches, and scientific ideas are all frequently contested. The word has been used since the 1770s to describe political elections in the US, and it comes from the Latin word contestari, "to call to witness or bring action."
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