Civil law is the legal branch that covers private rights, rather than crimes. If your neighbor decides to sue you because your dog barks constantly, that's a matter of civil law
In many of the world's legal systems, civil law refers to non-criminal law. Civil has a Latin root, civilis, which means "relating to a society." This system of law has to do with interactions between members of a community, and it covers divorce, property rights, contracts, and other conflicts between people. Most civil cases are tried in state courts, and if someone is convicted under civil law, they usually have to pay a fine.
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