Censure is a noun referring to very strong criticism; the verb means to criticize very strongly. If you take your dad's car without telling him, you can expect him to censure you severely, and maybe even ground you as well.
The noun and verb are most closely associated with official expressions of disapproval, as when Congress censures a senator. The noun is from Latin cēnsūra "censorship," from cēnsor "an ancient Roman censor." The job of a Roman censor was to take the census and to supervise public morals and behavior. Our English word censor––which means to suppress speech or other forms of expression––is from this Latin word.