In books or movies, a caveman is a character based on early prehistoric humans. Cavemen live in caves and hunt with simple weapons like rocks and clubs. You can also use caveman to refer to any crude and uncivilized guy — like your older brother who tries to impress dates with his belching skills.
"The Flintstones" is a perfect example of a cartoon caveman stereotype—the characters live with dinosaurs and wear animal hides as clothing. In reality, the early humans who lived in caves and left behind Paleolithic cave paintings existed at a completely different time than dinosaurs. And scholars believe that most humans during this period lived in simple tents or other temporary structures.