The period of time when you physically and emotionally transition from childhood to adulthood is called adolescence. Basically it's when you're old enough to want to be an adult, but young enough that no one takes you seriously!
The noun adolescence comes from the Latin word adolescere, which means "to ripen" or "to grow up." So it makes sense that we use it to describe that unique age when kids start growing into something closer to grown-ups. Adolescence can also refer more specifically to puberty. When you were in your adolescence, it bothered you when your parents pried into your life. But now that your kids are adolescents, you do the same thing to them.