The person who calculates the risks for an insurance company or financial institution is known as an actuary. Her job is to analyze the statistics for accidents and life expectancy, which helps the company set the price of insurance coverage.
An actuary is a risk-management professional who works with mathematical probabilities and other accounting techniques. The current meaning of the word didn't come into use until 1772, although actuarial science had been in use long before that. (The first acknowledged U.S. actuary was Jacob Shoemaker in 1809.) Before that, the word actuary meant someone who was a registrar or clerk. It derives from the Latin word actuarius "account-keeper," which in turn came from āctus "public business."