A Confucian is a person who believes in the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. The adjective Confucian describes an idea that's similar to those teachings. Respecting your elders is a Confucian ideal.
Confucius was a teacher and philosopher who lived from 550 to 479 BC. His ideas stemmed primarily from a version of the Golden Rule, the Confucian premise, "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself." Confucian beliefs center on humanism, rather than an afterlife or gods, and the perfectibility of human beings. Many Asian countries have Confucian influences, and even people who follow other religions cite Confucian ethics as important to their belief systems.