Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales - Beginning 773 words

Vocabulary words from The Canterbury Tales, from VocabGrabber.
  1. Theseus
    (Greek mythology) a hero and king of Athens who was noted for his many great deeds: killed Procrustes and the Minotaur and defeated the Amazons and united Attica
    THE KNIGHT'S TALE WHILOM*, as olde stories tellen us, *formerly There was a duke that highte* Theseus. *was called Of Athens he was lord and governor, And in his time such a conqueror That greater was there none under the sun.
  2. narcotise
    administer narcotics to
    It fell that in the seventh year, in May The thirde night (as olde bookes sayn, That all this story tellen more plain), Were it by a venture or destiny (As when a thing is shapen* it shall be), *settled, decreed That soon after the midnight, Palamon By he
  3. citole
    a 16th century musical instrument resembling a guitar with a pear-shaped soundbox and wire strings
    A citole in her right hand hadde she, And on her head, full seemly for to see, A rose garland fresh, and well smelling, Above her head her doves flickering Before her stood her sone Cupido, Upon his shoulders winges had he two; And blind he wa
  4. drey
    the nest of a squirrel
    The broade river some time waxeth drey*. *dry The greate townes see we wane and wend*. *go, disappear Then may ye see that all things have an end.
  5. girasol
    tall perennial with hairy stems and leaves; widely cultivated for its large irregular edible tubers
    Yellow goldes: The sunflower, turnsol, or girasol, which turns with and seems to watch the sun, as a jealous lover his mistress. 41.
  6. Salvia officinalis
    shrubby plant with aromatic greyish-green leaves used as a cooking herb
    And of another thing they were as fain*. *glad That of them alle was there no one slain, All* were they sorely hurt, and namely** one, *although **especially That with a spear was thirled* his breast-bone. *pierced To other woundes, and to broken arms, Some hadden salves, and some hadden charms: And pharmacies of herbs, and eke save* *sage, Salvia officinalis They dranken, for they would their lives have.
  7. Thebes
    an ancient Greek city in Boeotia destroyed by Alexander the Great in 336 BC
    "I, wretched wight, that weep and waile thus, Was whilom wife to king Capaneus, That starf* at Thebes, cursed be that day: *died And alle we that be in this array, And maken all this lamentatioun, We losten all our husbands at that town, While that the siege thereabouten lay.
  8. Saint Thomas
    the Apostle who would not believe the resurrection of Jesus until he saw Jesus with his own eyes
    We drunken, and to reste went each one, Withouten any longer tarrying A-morrow, when the day began to spring, Up rose our host, and was *our aller cock*, *the cock to wake us all* And gather'd us together in a flock, And forth we ridden all a little space, Unto the watering of Saint Thomas: And there our host began his horse arrest, And saide; "Lordes, hearken if you lest.
  9. galingale
    European sedge having rough-edged leaves and spikelets of reddish flowers and aromatic roots
    A COOK they hadde with them for the nones*, *occasion To boil the chickens and the marrow bones, And powder merchant tart and galingale.
  10. indite
    produce a literary work
    He coulde songes make, and well indite, Joust, and eke dance, and well pourtray and write.
  11. nones
    the fifth of the seven canonical hours; about 3 p.m.
    A COOK they hadde with them for the nones*, *occasion To boil the chickens and the marrow bones, And powder merchant tart and galingale.
  12. stent
    a slender tube inserted inside a tubular body part (as a blood vessel) to provide support during and after surgical anastomosis
    Now will I stent* of Palamon a lite**, *pause **little And let him in his prison stille dwell, And of Arcita forth I will you tell.
  13. Mars
    (Roman mythology) Roman god of war and agriculture; father of Romulus and Remus; counterpart of Greek Ares
    And right anon withoute more abode* *delay His banner he display'd, and forth he rode To Thebes-ward, and all his, host beside: No ner* Athenes would he go nor ride, *nearer Nor take his ease fully half a day, But onward on his way that night he lay: And sent anon Hippolyta the queen, And Emily her younge sister sheen* *bright, lovely Unto the town of Athens for to dwell: And forth he rit*; there is no more to tell. *rode The red statue of Mars with spear and targe* *shield So shineth...
  14. pleasance
    a pleasant and secluded part of a garden; usually attached to a mansion
    Of all the remnant of mine other care Ne set I not the *mountance of a tare*, *value of a straw* So that I could do aught to your pleasance."
  15. Chaucer
    English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
    Chaucer uses "palmer" of all pilgrims. 3.
  16. Venus
    the second nearest planet to the sun; it is peculiar in that its rotation is slow and retrograde (in the opposite sense of the Earth and all other planets except Uranus); it is visible from Earth as an early `morning star' or an `evening star'
    I *n'ot wher* she be woman or goddess, *know not whether* But Venus is it, soothly* as I guess, *truly And therewithal on knees adown he fill, And saide: "Venus, if it be your will You in this garden thus to transfigure Before me sorrowful wretched creature, Out of this prison help that we may scape.
  17. mar
    make imperfect
    And right anon withoute more abode* *delay His banner he display'd, and forth he rode To Thebes-ward, and all his, host beside: No ner* Athenes would he go nor ride, *nearer Nor take his ease fully half a day, But onward on his way that night he lay: And sent anon Hippolyta the queen, And Emily her younge sister sheen* *bright, lovely Unto the town of Athens for to dwell: And forth he rit*; there is no more to tell. *rode The red statue of Mars with spear and targe* *shield So shineth...
  18. pardoner
    a person who pardons or forgives or excuses a fault or offense
    His tithes payed he full fair and well, Both of his *proper swink*, and his chattel** *his own labour* **goods In a tabard* he rode upon a mare. *sleeveless jerkin There was also a Reeve, and a Millere, A Sompnour, and a Pardoner also, A Manciple, and myself, there were no mo'.
  19. habergeon
    (Middle Ages) a light sleeveless coat of chain mail worn under the hauberk
    Of fustian he weared a gipon*, *short doublet Alle *besmotter'd with his habergeon,* *soiled by his coat of mail.*
  20. woe
    misery resulting from affliction
    Full many a fat partridge had he in mew*, *cage And many a bream, and many a luce* in stew** *pike **fish-pond Woe was his cook, *but if* his sauce were *unless* Poignant and sharp, and ready all his gear.
  21. lodestar
    guiding star; a star that is used as a reference point in navigation or astronomy
    Lodemanage: pilotage, from Anglo-Saxon "ladman," a leader, guide, or pilot; hence "lodestar," "lodestone." 36.
  22. devise
    a will disposing of real property
    The chamber, and the stables were wide, And *well we weren eased at the best.* *we were well provided And shortly, when the sunne was to rest, with the best* So had I spoken with them every one, That I was of their fellowship anon, And made forword* early for to rise, *promise To take our way there as I you devise*. *describe, relate But natheless, while I have time and space, Ere that I farther in this tale pace, Me thinketh it accordant to reason, To tell you alle the condition Of e...
  23. Peneus
    type genus of the family Peneidae
    There saw I Dane turn'd into a tree, I meane not the goddess Diane, But Peneus' daughter, which that hight Dane.
  24. ceruse
    a poisonous white pigment that contains lead
    There n'as quicksilver, litharge, nor brimstone, Boras, ceruse, nor oil of tartar none, Nor ointement that woulde cleanse or bite, That him might helpen of his whelkes* white, *pustules Nor of the knobbes* sitting on his cheeks. *buttons Well lov'd he garlic, onions, and leeks, And for to drink strong wine as red as blood.
  25. parvis
    a courtyard or portico in front of a building (especially a cathedral)
    A SERGEANT OF THE LAW, wary and wise, That often had y-been at the Parvis, There was also, full rich of excellence.
  26. Anglo-Saxon
    English prior to about 1100
    In y-fall," "y" is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon "ge" prefixed to participles of verbs.
  27. Picardie
    a region of northern France on the English Channel
    Of his stature he was of even length, And *wonderly deliver*, and great of strength. *wonderfully nimble* And he had been some time in chevachie*, *cavalry raids In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardie, And borne him well, *as of so little space*, *in such a short time* In hope to standen in his lady's grace.
  28. poleaxe
    an ax used to slaughter cattle; has a hammer opposite the blade
    No man therefore, on pain of loss of life, No manner* shot, nor poleaxe, nor short knife *kind of Into the lists shall send, or thither bring.
  29. courser
    a huntsman who hunts small animals with fast dogs that use sight rather than scent to follow their prey
    This gentle Duke down from his courser start With hearte piteous, when he heard them speak.
  30. slay
    kill intentionally and with premeditation
    In listes thries, and aye slain his foe.
  31. knight
    originally a person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry; today in Great Britain a person honored by the sovereign for personal merit
    The chamber, and the stables were wide, And *well we weren eased at the best.* *we were well provided And shortly, when the sunne was to rest, with the best* So had I spoken with them every one, That I was of their fellowship anon, And made forword* early for to rise, *promise To take our way there as I you devise*. *describe, relate But natheless, while I have time and space, Ere that I farther in this tale pace, Me thinketh it accordant to reason, To tell you alle the condition Of each of ...
  32. Minotaur
    (Greek mythology) a mythical monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man; slain by Theseus
    And right anon withoute more abode* *delay His banner he display'd, and forth he rode To Thebes-ward, and all his, host beside: No ner* Athenes would he go nor ride, *nearer Nor take his ease fully half a day, But onward on his way that night he lay: And sent anon Hippolyta the queen, And Emily her younge sister sheen* *bright, lovely Unto the town of Athens for to dwell: And forth he rit*; there is no more to tell. *rode The red statue of Mars with spear and targe* *shield So shineth in his...
  33. array
    an impressive display
    The chamber, and the stables were wide, And *well we weren eased at the best.* *we were well provided And shortly, when the sunne was to rest, with the best* So had I spoken with them every one, That I was of their fellowship anon, And made forword* early for to rise, *promise To take our way there as I you devise*. *describe, relate But natheless, while I have time and space, Ere that I farther in this tale pace, Me thinketh it accordant to reason, To tell you alle the condition Of each of ...
  34. aggrieve
    cause to feel sorrow
    There saw I how woful Calistope, When that Dian aggrieved was with her, Was turned from a woman to a bear, And after was she made the lodestar*: *pole star Thus was it painted, I can say no far*; *farther Her son is eke a star as men may see.
  35. guise
    an artful or simulated semblance
    In danger had he at his owen guise The younge girles of the diocese, And knew their counsel, and was of their rede*. *counsel A garland had he set upon his head, As great as it were for an alestake*: *The post of an alehouse sign A buckler had he made him of a cake.
  36. eft
    a newt in its terrestrial stage of development
    The Destiny, minister general, That executeth in the world o'er all The purveyance*, that God hath seen beforn; *foreordination So strong it is, that though the world had sworn The contrary of a thing by yea or nay, Yet some time it shall fallen on a day That falleth not eft* in a thousand year. *again For certainly our appetites here, Be it of war, or peace, or hate, or love, All is this ruled by the sight* above. *eye, intelligence, power This mean I now by mighty Theseus, That for ...
  37. geomancy
    divination by means of signs connected with the earth (as points taken at random or the arrangement of particles thrown down at random or from the configuration of a region and its relation to another)
    Puella and Rubeus were two figures in geomancy, representing two constellations-the one signifying Mars retrograde, the other Mars direct. 52.
  38. laurel-tree
    small tree of southern United States having dark red heartwood
    Dane: Daphne, daughter of the river-god Peneus, in Thessaly; she was beloved by Apollo, but to avoid his pursuit, she was, at her own prayer, changed into a laurel-tree. 54.
  39. judgement
    the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event
    All was fee simple to him, in effect His purchasing might not be in suspect* *suspicion Nowhere so busy a man as he there was And yet he seemed busier than he was In termes had he case' and doomes* all *judgements That from the time of King Will. were fall.
  40. goddess
    a female deity
    For certes, lord, there is none of us all That hath not been a duchess or a queen; Now be we caitives*, as it is well seen: *captives Thanked be Fortune, and her false wheel, That *none estate ensureth to be wele*. *assures no continuance of And certes, lord, t'abiden your presence prosperous estate* Here in this temple of the goddess Clemence We have been waiting all this fortenight: Now help us, lord, since it lies in thy might.
  41. prison
    a correctional institution where persons are confined while on trial or for punishment
    Not fully quick*, nor fully dead they were, *alive But by their coat-armour, and by their gear, The heralds knew them well in special, As those that weren of the blood royal Of Thebes, and *of sistren two y-born*. *born of two sisters* Out of the tas the pillers have them torn, And have them carried soft unto the tent Of Theseus, and he full soon them sent To Athens, for to dwellen in prison Perpetually, he *n'olde no ranson*. *would take no ransom* And when this worthy Duke had thus ...
  42. trisyllable
    a word having three syllables
    The same rule applies in such words as "creature" and "conscience," which are trisyllables. 15.
  43. roundelay
    a song in which a line or phrase is repeated as the refrain
    When that Arcite had roamed all his fill, And *sungen all the roundel* lustily, *sang the roundelay* Into a study he fell suddenly, As do those lovers in their *quainte gears*, *odd fashions* Now in the crop*, and now down in the breres**, *tree-top Now up, now down, as bucket in a well. **briars Right as the Friday, soothly for to tell, Now shineth it, and now it raineth fast, Right so can geary* Venus overcast *changeful The heartes of her folk, right as her day Is gearful*...
  44. Saturn
    (Roman mythology) god of agriculture and vegetation; counterpart of Greek Cronus
    Some wick'* aspect or disposition *wicked Of Saturn, by some constellation, Hath giv'n us this, although we had it sworn, So stood the heaven when that we were born, We must endure; this is the short and plain.
  45. roundel
    English form of rondeau having three triplets with a refrain after the first and third
    When that Arcite had roamed all his fill, And *sungen all the roundel* lustily, *sang the roundelay* Into a study he fell suddenly, As do those lovers in their *quainte gears*, *odd fashions* Now in the crop*, and now down in the breres**, *tree-top Now up, now down, as bucket in a well. **briars Right as the Friday, soothly for to tell, Now shineth it, and now it raineth fast, Right so can geary* Venus overcast *changeful The heartes of her folk, right as her day Is gearful*...
  46. brawn
    possessing muscular strength
    The MILLER was a stout carle for the nones, Full big he was of brawn, and eke of bones; That proved well, for *ov'r all where* he came, *wheresoever* At wrestling he would bear away the ram.
  47. reeve
    pass a rope through
    His tithes payed he full fair and well, Both of his *proper swink*, and his chattel** *his own labour* **goods In a tabard* he rode upon a mare. *sleeveless jerkin There was also a Reeve, and a Millere, A Sompnour, and a Pardoner also, A Manciple, and myself, there were no mo'.
  48. rehearse
    engage in a rehearsal (of)
    For this ye knowen all so well as I, Whoso shall tell a tale after a man, He must rehearse, as nigh as ever he can, Every word, if it be in his charge, *All speak he* ne'er so rudely and so large; *let him speak* Or elles he must tell his tale untrue, Or feigne things, or finde wordes new.
  49. prologue
    an introduction to a play
    THE PROLOGUE.
  50. hart
    a male deer, especially an adult male red deer
    The Destiny, minister general, That executeth in the world o'er all The purveyance*, that God hath seen beforn; *foreordination So strong it is, that though the world had sworn The contrary of a thing by yea or nay, Yet some time it shall fallen on a day That falleth not eft* in a thousand year. *again For certainly our appetites here, Be it of war, or peace, or hate, or love, All is this ruled by the sight* above. *eye, intelligence, power This mean I now by mighty Theseus, That for to hunt...
  51. seemly
    according with custom or propriety
    An horn he bare, the baldric was of green: A forester was he soothly* as I guess. *certainly There was also a Nun, a PRIORESS, That of her smiling was full simple and coy; Her greatest oathe was but by Saint Loy; And she was cleped* Madame Eglentine. *called Full well she sang the service divine, Entuned in her nose full seemly; And French she spake full fair and fetisly* *properly After the school of Stratford atte Bow, For French of Paris was to her unknow.
  52. Athens
    the capital and largest city of Greece; named after Athena (its patron goddess)
    THE KNIGHT'S TALE WHILOM*, as olde stories tellen us, *formerly There was a duke that highte* Theseus. *was called Of Athens he was lord and governor, And in his time such a conqueror That greater was there none under the sun.
  53. stint
    supply sparingly and with restricted quantities
    But stint* I will of Theseus a lite**, *cease speaking **little And speak of Palamon and of Arcite.
  54. Thrace
    an ancient country and wine producing region in the east of the Balkan Peninsula to the north of the Aegean Sea; colonized by ancient Greeks; later a Roman province; now divided between Bulgaria and Greece and Turkey
    Then change gan the colour of their face; Right as the hunter in the regne* of Thrace *kingdom That standeth at a gappe with a spear When hunted is the lion or the bear, And heareth him come rushing in the greves*, *groves And breaking both the boughes and the leaves, Thinketh, "Here comes my mortal enemy, Withoute fail, he must be dead or I; For either I must slay him at the gap; Or he must slay me, if that me mishap:" So fared they, in changing of their hue *As far as either of them...
  55. gyre
    a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals)
    Gear: behaviour, fashion, dress; but, by another reading, the word is "gyre," and means fit, trance -- from the Latin, "gyro," I turn round. 20.
  56. gentle
    soft and mild; not harsh or stern or severe
    He was a very perfect gentle knight.
  57. abase
    cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of
    Him thoughte that his heart would all to-break, When he saw them so piteous and so mate* *abased That whilom weren of so great estate.
  58. minstrelsy
    the art of a minstrel
    This Theseus, this Duke, this worthy knight When he had brought them into his city, And inned* them, ev'reach at his degree, *lodged He feasteth them, and doth so great labour To *easen them*, and do them all honour, *make them comfortable* That yet men weene* that no mannes wit *think Of none estate could amenden* it. *improve The minstrelsy, the service at the feast, The greate giftes to the most and least, The rich array of Theseus' palace, Nor who sate first or last upon the dais.
  59. grove
    a small growth of trees without underbrush
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); ...
  60. buckler
    armor carried on the arm to intercept blows
    A nut-head had he, with a brown visiage: Of wood-craft coud* he well all the usage: *knew Upon his arm he bare a gay bracer*, *small shield And by his side a sword and a buckler, And on that other side a gay daggere, Harnessed well, and sharp as point of spear: A Christopher on his breast of silver sheen.
  61. hauberk
    a long (usually sleeveless) tunic of chain mail formerly worn as defensive armor
    The fires burn'd upon the altar bright, That it gan all the temple for to light; A sweete smell anon the ground up gaf*, *gave And Arcita anon his hand up haf*, *lifted And more incense into the fire he cast, With other rites more and at the last The statue of Mars began his hauberk ring; And with that sound he heard a murmuring Full low and dim, that saide thus, "Victory."
  62. garland
    flower arrangement consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes
    In danger had he at his owen guise The younge girles of the diocese, And knew their counsel, and was of their rede*. *counsel A garland had he set upon his head, As great as it were for an alestake*: *The post of an alehouse sign A buckler had he made him of a cake.
  63. dais
    a platform raised above the surrounding level to give prominence to the person on it
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles cert...
  64. clary
    aromatic herb of southern Europe; cultivated in Great Britain as a potherb and widely as an ornamental
    It fell that in the seventh year, in May The thirde night (as olde bookes sayn, That all this story tellen more plain), Were it by a venture or destiny (As when a thing is shapen* it shall be), *settled, decreed That soon after the midnight, Palamon By helping of a friend brake his prison, And fled the city fast as he might go, For he had given drink his gaoler so Of a clary , made of a certain wine, With *narcotise and opie* of Thebes fine, *narcotics and opium* That all the nigh...
  65. Pluto
    (Greek mythology) the god of the underworld in ancient mythology; brother of Zeus and husband of Persephone
    In gaudy green her statue clothed was, With bow in hand, and arrows in a case*. *quiver Her eyen caste she full low adown, Where Pluto hath his darke regioun.
  66. malady
    impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
    He knew the cause of every malady, Were it of cold, or hot, or moist, or dry, And where engender'd, and of what humour.
  67. Canterbury
    a town in Kent in southeastern England; site of the cathedral where Thomas a Becket was martyred in 1170; seat of the archbishop and primate of the Anglican Church
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  68. red coral
    corals of especially the Mediterranean having pink or red color used for ornaments and jewelry
    And for to do his rite and sacrifice He eastward hath upon the gate above, In worship of Venus, goddess of love, *Done make* an altar and an oratory; *caused to be made* And westward, in the mind and in memory Of Mars, he maked hath right such another, That coste largely of gold a fother*. *a great amount And northward, in a turret on the wall, Of alabaster white and red coral An oratory riche for to see, In worship of Diane of chastity, Hath Theseus done work in noble wise.
  69. caduceus
    an insignia used by the medical profession; modeled after the staff of Hermes
    The "caduceus." 23.
  70. wether
    male sheep especially a castrated one
    The tapes of her white volupere* *head-kerchief Were of the same suit of her collere; Her fillet broad of silk, and set full high: And sickerly* she had a likerous** eye. *certainly **lascivious Full small y-pulled were her browes two, And they were bent*, and black as any sloe. *arched She was well more *blissful on to see* *pleasant to look upon* Than is the newe perjenete* tree; *young pear-tree And softer than the wool is of a wether.
  71. joust
    joust against somebody in a tournament by fighting on horseback
    He coulde songes make, and well indite, Joust, and eke dance, and well pourtray and write.
  72. mead
    made of fermented honey and water
    Embroider'd was he, as it were a mead All full of freshe flowers, white and red.
  73. armourer
    a worker skilled in making armor or arms
    There were also of Mars' division, The armourer, the bowyer*, and the smith, *maker of bows That forgeth sharp swordes on his stith*. *anvil And all above depainted in a tower Saw I Conquest, sitting in great honour, With thilke* sharpe sword over his head *that Hanging by a subtle y-twined thread.
  74. weal
    a raised mark on the skin (as produced by the blow of a whip); characteristic of many allergic reactions
    There *as I left*, I will again begin. *where I left off* This Duke, of whom I make mentioun, When he was come almost unto the town, In all his weal, and in his moste pride, He was ware, as he cast his eye aside, Where that there kneeled in the highe way A company of ladies, tway and tway, Each after other, clad in clothes black: But such a cry and such a woe they make, That in this world n'is creature living, That hearde such another waimenting* *lamenting And of this crying woul...
  75. replication
    a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)
    My will is this, for plain conclusion Withouten any replication*, *reply If that you liketh, take it for the best, That evereach of you shall go where *him lest*, *he pleases Freely without ransom or danger; And this day fifty weekes, *farre ne nerre*, *neither more nor less* Evereach of you shall bring an hundred knights, Armed for listes up at alle rights All ready to darraine* her by bataille, *contend for And this behete* I you withoute fail *promise Upon my troth, and as I am a k...
  76. chivalry
    the medieval principles governing knighthood and knightly conduct
    A KNIGHT there was, and that a worthy man, That from the time that he first began To riden out, he loved chivalry, Truth and honour, freedom and courtesy.
  77. Scythia
    an ancient area of Eurasia extending from the Black Sea to the Aral Sea that was populated by Scythians from the eighth to the fourth century BC
    What with his wisdom and his chivalry, He conquer'd all the regne of Feminie, That whilom was y-cleped Scythia; And weddede the Queen Hippolyta And brought her home with him to his country With muchel* glory and great solemnity, *great And eke her younge sister Emily, And thus with vict'ry and with melody Let I this worthy Duke to Athens ride, And all his host, in armes him beside.
  78. Jupiter
    (Roman mythology) supreme god of Romans; counterpart of Greek Zeus
    As fain* as fowl is of the brighte sun. *glad And right anon such strife there is begun For thilke* granting, in the heav'n above, *that Betwixte Venus the goddess of love, And Mars the sterne god armipotent, That Jupiter was busy it to stent*: *stop Till that the pale Saturnus the cold, That knew so many of adventures old, Found in his old experience such an art, That he full soon hath pleased every part.
  79. knave
    a deceitful and unreliable scoundrel
    There mayst thou see devising* of harness *decoration So uncouth* and so rich, and wrought so weel *unkown, rare Of goldsmithry, of brouding*, and of steel; *embroidery The shieldes bright, the testers*, and trappures** *helmets Gold-hewen helmets, hauberks, coat-armures; **trappings Lordes in parements* on their coursers, *ornamental garb ; Knightes of retinue, and eke squiers, Nailing the spears, and helmes buckeling, Gniding* of shieldes, with lainers** lacing; *polishing The...
  80. portraiture
    the activity of making portraits
    But yet had I forgotten to devise* *describe The noble carving, and the portraitures, The shape, the countenance of the figures That weren in there oratories three.
  81. dwell
    inhabit or live in; be an inhabitant of
    But great harm was it, as it thoughte me, That, on his shin a mormal* hadde he. *ulcer For blanc manger, that made he with the best A SHIPMAN was there, *wonned far by West*: *who dwelt far For ought I wot, be was of Dartemouth. to the West* He rode upon a rouncy*, as he couth, *hack All in a gown of falding* to the knee. *coarse cloth A dagger hanging by a lace had he About his neck under his arm adown; The hot summer had made his hue all brown; And certainly he was a good fellaw.
  82. salvia
    any of various plants of the genus Salvia; a cosmopolitan herb
    And of another thing they were as fain*. *glad That of them alle was there no one slain, All* were they sorely hurt, and namely** one, *although **especially That with a spear was thirled* his breast-bone. *pierced To other woundes, and to broken arms, Some hadden salves, and some hadden charms: And pharmacies of herbs, and eke save* *sage, Salvia officinalis They dranken, for they would their lives have.
  83. offertory
    the offerings of the congregation at a religious service
    Well could he read a lesson or a story, But alderbest* he sang an offertory: *best of all For well he wiste, when that song was sung, He muste preach, and well afile* his tongue, *polish To winne silver, as he right well could: Therefore he sang full merrily and loud.
  84. lineage
    the kinship relation between an individual and the individual's progenitors
    And if so be our destiny be shape By etern word to dien in prison, Of our lineage have some compassion, That is so low y-brought by tyranny."
  85. Hephaestus
    (Greek mythology) the lame god of fire and metalworking in ancient mythology; identified with Roman Vulcan
    Las: net; the invisible toils in which Hephaestus caught Ares and the faithless Aphrodite, and exposed them to the "inextinguishable laughter" of Olympus. 70.
  86. Boethius
    a Roman who was an early Christian philosopher and statesman who was executed for treason; Boethius had a decisive influence on medieval logic (circa 480-524)
    The saying of the old scholar Boethius, in his treatise "De Consolatione Philosophiae", which Chaucer translated, and from which he has freely borrowed in his poetry.
  87. wend
    direct one's course or way
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  88. gyro
    rotating mechanism in the form of a universally mounted spinning wheel that offers resistance to turns in any direction
    Gear: behaviour, fashion, dress; but, by another reading, the word is "gyre," and means fit, trance -- from the Latin, "gyro," I turn round. 20.
  89. baldric
    a wide (ornamented) belt worn over the right shoulder to support a sword or bugle by the left hip
    An horn he bare, the baldric was of green: A forester was he soothly* as I guess. *certainly There was also a Nun, a PRIORESS, That of her smiling was full simple and coy; Her greatest oathe was but by Saint Loy; And she was cleped* Madame Eglentine. *called Full well she sang the service divine, Entuned in her nose full seemly; And French she spake full fair and fetisly* *properly After the school of Stratford atte Bow, For French of Paris was to her unknow.
  90. wont
    an established custom
    To liven in delight was ever his won*, *wont For he was Epicurus' owen son, That held opinion, that plein* delight *full Was verily felicity perfite.
  91. yeoman
    in former times was free and cultivated his own land
    A YEOMAN had he, and servants no mo' At that time, for *him list ride so* *it pleased him so to ride* And he was clad in coat and hood of green.
  92. churlish
    having a bad disposition; surly
    Mine is the drowning in the sea so wan; Mine is the prison in the darke cote*, *cell Mine the strangling and hanging by the throat, The murmur, and the churlish rebelling, The groyning*, and the privy poisoning. *discontent I do vengeance and plein* correction, *full I dwell in the sign of the lion.
  93. tourney
    a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner
    And if *so fall* the chiefetain be take *should happen* On either side, or elles slay his make*, *equal, match No longer then the tourneying shall last.
  94. mystery play
    a medieval play representing episodes from the life of Christ
    Pilate, an unpopular personage in the mystery-plays of the middle ages, was probably represented as having a gruff, harsh voice. 2.
  95. rout
    an overwhelming defeat
    Of Norfolk was this Reeve, of which I tell, Beside a town men clepen* Baldeswell, *call Tucked he was, as is a friar, about, And ever rode the *hinderest of the rout*. *hindmost of the group* A SOMPNOUR* was there with us in that place, *summoner That had a fire-red cherubinnes face, For sausefleme* he was, with eyen narrow. *red or pimply As hot he was and lecherous as a sparrow, With scalled browes black, and pilled* beard: *scanty Of his visage children were sore afeard.
  96. fee simple
    a fee without limitation to any class of heirs; they can sell it or give it away
    All was fee simple to him, in effect His purchasing might not be in suspect* *suspicion Nowhere so busy a man as he there was And yet he seemed busier than he was In termes had he case' and doomes* all *judgements That from the time of King Will. were fall.
  97. holy day
    a day specified for religious observance
    Then fell it thus, that to the parish church, Of Christe's owen workes for to wirch*, *work This good wife went upon a holy day; Her forehead shone as bright as any day, So was it washen, when she left her werk.
  98. poundage
    a charge based on weight measured in pounds
    "The old subsidy of tonnage and poundage," says Tyrwhitt, "was given to the king 'pour la saufgarde et custodie del mer.' -- for the safeguard and keeping of the sea" (12 E. IV. C.3). 23.
  99. Callisto
    the second largest of Jupiter's satellites
    Calistope: or Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, seduced by Jupiter, turned into a bear by Diana, and placed afterwards, with her son, as the Great Bear among the stars. 53.
  100. past participle
    a participle that expresses completed action
    "Couth," past participle of "conne" to know, exists in "uncouth." 4.
  101. fleur-de-lis
    plants with sword-shaped leaves and erect stalks bearing bright-colored flowers composed of three petals and three drooping sepals
    His tippet was aye farsed* full of knives *stuffed And pinnes, for to give to faire wives; And certainly he had a merry note: Well could he sing and playen *on a rote*; *from memory* Of yeddings* he bare utterly the prize. *songs His neck was white as is the fleur-de-lis.
  102. Aegean Sea
    an arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey; a main trade route for the ancient civilizations of Crete and Greece and Rome and Persia
    Citheron: The Isle of Venus, Cythera, in the Aegean Sea; now called Cerigo: not, as Chaucer's form of the word might imply, Mount Cithaeron, in the south-west of Boetia, which was appropriated to other deities than Venus -- to Jupiter, to Bacchus, and the Muses. 42.
  103. distrain
    levy a distress on
    And therefore since I know of love's pain, And wot how sore it can a man distrain*, *distress As he that oft hath been caught in his last*, *snare I you forgive wholly this trespass, At request of the queen that kneeleth here, And eke of Emily, my sister dear.
  104. knead
    make uniform
    Anon go get us fast into this inn* *house A kneading trough, or else a kemelin*, *brewing-tub For each of us; but look that they be large, In whiche we may swim* as in a barge: *float And have therein vitaille suffisant But for one day; fie on the remenant; The water shall aslake* and go away *slacken, abate Aboute prime* upon the nexte day. *early morning But Robin may not know of this, thy knave*, *servant Nor eke thy maiden Gill I may not save: Ask me not why: for though thou aske ...
  105. strife
    bitter conflict; heated often violent dissension
    Great was the strife and long between these tway, If that I hadde leisure for to say; But to the effect: it happen'd on a day (To tell it you as shortly as I may), A worthy duke that hight Perithous That fellow was to the Duke Theseus Since thilke* day that they were children lite** *that **little Was come to Athens, his fellow to visite, And for to play, as he was wont to do; For in this world he loved no man so; And he lov'd him as tenderly again.
  106. pole star
    the brightest star in Ursa Minor; at the end of the handle of the Little Dipper; the northern axis of the earth points toward it
    There saw I how woful Calistope, When that Dian aggrieved was with her, Was turned from a woman to a bear, And after was she made the lodestar*: *pole star Thus was it painted, I can say no far*; *farther Her son is eke a star as men may see.
  107. astrolabe
    an early form of sextant
    A chamber had he in that hostelry Alone, withouten any company, Full *fetisly y-dight* with herbes swoot*, *neatly decorated* And he himself was sweet as is the root *sweet Of liquorice, or any setewall*. *valerian His Almagest, and bookes great and small, His astrolabe, belonging to his art, His augrim stones, layed fair apart On shelves couched* at his bedde's head, *laid, set His press y-cover'd with a falding* red. *coarse cloth And all above there lay a gay psalt'ry On w...
  108. homecoming
    a coming to or returning home
    And certes, if it n'ere* too long to hear, *were not I would have told you fully the mannere, How wonnen* was the regne of Feminie, *won By Theseus, and by his chivalry; And of the greate battle for the nonce Betwixt Athenes and the Amazons; And how assieged was Hippolyta, The faire hardy queen of Scythia; And of the feast that was at her wedding And of the tempest at her homecoming.
  109. grace
    elegance and beauty of movement or expression
    Of his stature he was of even length, And *wonderly deliver*, and great of strength. *wonderfully nimble* And he had been some time in chevachie*, *cavalry raids In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardie, And borne him well, *as of so little space*, *in such a short time* In hope to standen in his lady's grace.
  110. pilgrimage
    a journey to a sacred place
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  111. ribald
    humorously vulgar
    Questio quid juris: "I ask which law (applies)"; a cant law- Latin phrase. 52 Harlot: a low, ribald fellow; the word was used of both sexes; it comes from the Anglo-Saxon verb to hire. 53.
  112. dulcimer
    a stringed instrument used in American folk music; an elliptical body and a fretted fingerboard and three strings
    Citole: a kind of dulcimer. 45.
  113. rote
    memorization by repetition
    His tippet was aye farsed* full of knives *stuffed And pinnes, for to give to faire wives; And certainly he had a merry note: Well could he sing and playen *on a rote*; *from memory* Of yeddings* he bare utterly the prize. *songs His neck was white as is the fleur-de-lis.
  114. chastity
    abstaining from sexual relations (as because of religious vows)
    And for to do his rite and sacrifice He eastward hath upon the gate above, In worship of Venus, goddess of love, *Done make* an altar and an oratory; *caused to be made* And westward, in the mind and in memory Of Mars, he maked hath right such another, That coste largely of gold a fother*. *a great amount And northward, in a turret on the wall, Of alabaster white and red coral An oratory riche for to see, In worship of Diane of chastity, Hath Theseus done work in noble wise.
  115. shire
    a former administrative district of England; equivalent to a county
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  116. whelp
    young of any of various canines such as a dog or wolf
    And rage he could and play as any whelp, In lovedays ; there could he muchel* help. *greatly For there was he not like a cloisterer, With threadbare cope as is a poor scholer; But he was like a master or a pope.
  117. greyhound
    a tall slender dog of an ancient breed noted for swiftness and keen sight; used as a racing dog
    Therefore he was a prickasour* aright: *hard rider Greyhounds he had as swift as fowl of flight; Of pricking* and of hunting for the hare *riding Was all his lust,* for no cost would he spare. *pleasure I saw his sleeves *purfil'd at the hand *worked at the end with a With gris,* and that the finest of the land. fur called "gris"* And for to fasten his hood under his chin, He had of gold y-wrought a curious pin; A love-knot in the greater end there was.
  118. amazon
    a large strong and aggressive woman
    And certes, if it n'ere* too long to hear, *were not I would have told you fully the mannere, How wonnen* was the regne of Feminie, *won By Theseus, and by his chivalry; And of the greate battle for the nonce Betwixt Athenes and the Amazons; And how assieged was Hippolyta, The faire hardy queen of Scythia; And of the feast that was at her wedding And of the tempest at her homecoming.
  119. adversity
    a state of misfortune or affliction
    His parishens* devoutly would he teach. *parishioners Benign he was, and wonder diligent, And in adversity full patient: And such he was y-proved *often sithes*. *oftentimes* Full loth were him to curse for his tithes, But rather would he given out of doubt, Unto his poore parishens about, Of his off'ring, and eke of his substance.
  120. troth
    a solemn pledge of fidelity
    Eke thereto was he right a merry man, And after supper playen he began, And spake of mirth amonges other things, When that we hadde made our reckonings; And saide thus; "Now, lordinges, truly Ye be to me welcome right heartily: For by my troth, if that I shall not lie, I saw not this year such a company At once in this herberow*, am is now. *inn Fain would I do you mirth, an* I wist* how. *if I knew* And of a mirth I am right now bethought.
  121. sleight
    adroitness in using the hands
    His hair was by his eares round y-shorn; His top was docked like a priest beforn Full longe were his legges, and full lean Y-like a staff, there was no calf y-seen Well could he keep a garner* and a bin* *storeplaces for grain There was no auditor could on him win Well wist he by the drought, and by the rain, The yielding of his seed and of his grain His lorde's sheep, his neat*, and his dairy *cattle His swine, his horse, his store, and his poultry, Were wholly in this Reeve's governing, An...
  122. gear
    a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion
    Full many a fat partridge had he in mew*, *cage And many a bream, and many a luce* in stew** *pike **fish-pond Woe was his cook, *but if* his sauce were *unless* Poignant and sharp, and ready all his gear.
  123. clad
    having an outer covering especially of thin metal
    A YEOMAN had he, and servants no mo' At that time, for *him list ride so* *it pleased him so to ride* And he was clad in coat and hood of green.
  124. fetter
    a shackle for the ankles or feet
    For elles had I dwelt with Theseus Y-fettered in his prison evermo'.
  125. liquorice
    deep-rooted coarse-textured plant native to the Mediterranean region having blue flowers and pinnately compound leaves; widely cultivated in Europe for its long thick sweet roots
    A chamber had he in that hostelry Alone, withouten any company, Full *fetisly y-dight* with herbes swoot*, *neatly decorated* And he himself was sweet as is the root *sweet Of liquorice, or any setewall*. *valerian His Almagest, and bookes great and small, His astrolabe, belonging to his art, His augrim stones, layed fair apart On shelves couched* at his bedde's head, *laid, set His press y-cover'd with a falding* red. *coarse cloth And all above there lay a gay psalt'ry On w...
  126. disport
    occupy in an agreeable, entertaining or pleasant fashion
    In courtesy was set full much her lest*. *pleasure Her over-lippe wiped she so clean, That in her cup there was no farthing* seen *speck Of grease, when she drunken had her draught; Full seemely after her meat she raught*: *reached out her hand And *sickerly she was of great disport*, *surely she was of a lively And full pleasant, and amiable of port, disposition* And *pained her to counterfeite cheer *took pains to assume Of court,* and be estately of mannere, a courtly disposition* ...
  127. cupping
    a treatment in which evacuated cups are applied to the skin to draw blood through the surface
    The clotted blood, for any leache-craft* *surgical skill Corrupteth and is *in his bouk y-laft* *left in his body* That neither *veine blood nor ventousing*, *blood-letting or cupping* Nor drink of herbes may be his helping.
  128. tarry
    leave slowly and hesitantly
    We drunken, and to reste went each one, Withouten any longer tarrying A-morrow, when the day began to spring, Up rose our host, and was *our aller cock*, *the cock to wake us all* And gather'd us together in a flock, And forth we ridden all a little space, Unto the watering of Saint Thomas : And there our host began his horse arrest, And saide; "Lordes, hearken if you lest.
  129. degree
    a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process
    The chamber, and the stables were wide, And *well we weren eased at the best.* *we were well provided And shortly, when the sunne was to rest, with the best* So had I spoken with them every one, That I was of their fellowship anon, And made forword* early for to rise, *promise To take our way there as I you devise*. *describe, relate But natheless, while I have time and space, Ere that I farther in this tale pace, Me thinketh it accordant to reason, To tell you alle the condition Of each of ...
  130. childbirth
    the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
    As the goddess of Light, or the goddess who brings to light, Diana -- as well as Juno -- was invoked by women in childbirth: so Horace, Odes iii. 22, says:-- "Montium custos nemorumque, Virgo, Quae laborantes utero puellas Ter vocata audis adimisque leto, Diva triformis."
  131. fluting
    a groove or furrow in cloth etc (particularly a shallow concave groove on the shaft of a column)
    Singing he was, or fluting all the day; He was as fresh as is the month of May. Short was his gown, with sleeves long and wide.
  132. hue
    the quality of a color as determined by its dominant wavelength
    But great harm was it, as it thoughte me, That, on his shin a mormal* hadde he. *ulcer For blanc manger, that made he with the best A SHIPMAN was there, *wonned far by West*: *who dwelt far For ought I wot, be was of Dartemouth. to the West* He rode upon a rouncy*, as he couth, *hack All in a gown of falding* to the knee. *coarse cloth A dagger hanging by a lace had he About his neck under his arm adown; The hot summer had made his hue all brown; And certainly he was a good fellaw.
  133. spear
    a long pointed rod used as a tool or weapon
    A nut-head had he, with a brown visiage: Of wood-craft coud* he well all the usage: *knew Upon his arm he bare a gay bracer*, *small shield And by his side a sword and a buckler, And on that other side a gay daggere, Harnessed well, and sharp as point of spear: A Christopher on his breast of silver sheen.
  134. visage
    the human face (`kisser' and `smiler' and `mug' are informal terms for `face' and `phiz' is British)
    Of Norfolk was this Reeve, of which I tell, Beside a town men clepen* Baldeswell, *call Tucked he was, as is a friar, about, And ever rode the *hinderest of the rout*. *hindmost of the group* A SOMPNOUR* was there with us in that place, *summoner That had a fire-red cherubinnes face, For sausefleme* he was, with eyen narrow. *red or pimply As hot he was and lecherous as a sparrow, With scalled browes black, and pilled* beard: *scanty Of his visage children were sore afeard.
  135. Virgo
    a large zodiacal constellation on the equator; between Leo and Libra
    As the goddess of Light, or the goddess who brings to light, Diana -- as well as Juno -- was invoked by women in childbirth: so Horace, Odes iii. 22, says:-- "Montium custos nemorumque, Virgo, Quae laborantes utero puellas Ter vocata audis adimisque leto, Diva triformis."
  136. chamber
    a natural or artificial enclosed space
    The chamber, and the stables were wide, And *well we weren eased at the best.* *we were well provided And shortly, when the sunne was to rest, with the best* So had I spoken with them every one, That I was of their fellowship anon, And made forword* early for to rise, *promise To take our way there as I you devise*. *describe, relate But natheless, while I have time and space, Ere that I farther in this tale pace, Me thinketh it accordant to reason, To tell you alle the condition Of e...
  137. mastiff
    an old breed of powerful deep-chested smooth-coated dog used chiefly as a watchdog and guard dog
    Alauns: greyhounds, mastiffs; from the Spanish word "Alano," signifying a mastiff. 59.
  138. pustule
    a small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus; a blister filled with pus
    There n'as quicksilver, litharge, nor brimstone, Boras, ceruse, nor oil of tartar none, Nor ointement that woulde cleanse or bite, That him might helpen of his whelkes* white, *pustules Nor of the knobbes* sitting on his cheeks. *buttons Well lov'd he garlic, onions, and leeks, And for to drink strong wine as red as blood.
  139. maidenhead
    a fold of tissue that partly covers the entrance to the vagina of a virgin
    Since thou art maid, and keeper of us all, My maidenhead thou keep and well conserve, And, while I live, a maid I will thee serve.
  140. palfrey
    especially a light saddle horse for a woman
    His palfrey was as brown as is a berry.
  141. buffoon
    a person who amuses others by ridiculous behavior
    He was a jangler, and a goliardais*, *buffoon And that was most of sin and harlotries.
  142. incense
    make furious
    Her maidens, that she thither with her lad*, *led Th' incense, the clothes, and the remnant all That to the sacrifice belonge shall, The hornes full of mead, as was the guise; There lacked nought to do her sacrifice.
  143. Luna
    (Roman mythology) the goddess of the Moon; counterpart of Greek Selene
    The third hour unequal: In the third planetary hour; Palamon had gone forth in the hour of Venus, two hours before daybreak; the hour of Mercury intervened; the third hour was that of Luna, or Diana.
  144. enunciate
    express or state clearly
    "Perithous" and "Theseus" must, for the metre, be pronounced as words of four and three syllables respectively -- the vowels at the end not being diphthongated, but enunciated separately, as if the words were printed Pe-ri-tho-us, The-se-us.
  145. retinue
    the group following and attending to some important person
    About his car there wente white alauns*, *greyhounds Twenty and more, as great as any steer, To hunt the lion or the wilde bear, And follow'd him, with muzzle fast y-bound, Collars of gold, and torettes* filed round. *rings An hundred lordes had he in his rout* *retinue Armed full well, with heartes stern and stout.
  146. donjon
    the main tower within the walls of a medieval castle or fortress
    The donjon was originally the central tower or "keep" of feudal castles; it was employed to detain prisoners of importance.
  147. sunflower
    any plant of the genus Helianthus having large flower heads with dark disk florets and showy yellow rays
    Pleasance and Hope, Desire, Foolhardiness, Beauty and Youth, and Bawdry and Richess, Charms and Sorc'ry, Leasings* and Flattery, *falsehoods Dispence, Business, and Jealousy, That wore of yellow goldes* a garland, *sunflowers And had a cuckoo sitting on her hand, Feasts, instruments, and caroles and dances, Lust and array, and all the circumstances Of Love, which I reckon'd and reckon shall In order, were painted on the wall, And more than I can make of mention.
  148. estate
    extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the owner for his own use
    His bootes supple, his horse in great estate, Now certainly he was a fair prelate; He was not pale as a forpined* ghost; *wasted A fat swan lov'd he best of any roast.
  149. purse
    a container used for carrying money and small personal items or accessories (especially by women)
    Full often time he was *knight of the shire* *Member of Parliament* An anlace*, and a gipciere** all of silk, *dagger **purse Hung at his girdle, white as morning milk.
  150. benign
    kindness of disposition or manner
    His parishens* devoutly would he teach. *parishioners Benign he was, and wonder diligent, And in adversity full patient: And such he was y-proved *often sithes*. *oftentimes* Full loth were him to curse for his tithes, But rather would he given out of doubt, Unto his poore parishens about, Of his off'ring, and eke of his substance.
  151. hardy
    having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
    And certes, if it n'ere* too long to hear, *were not I would have told you fully the mannere, How wonnen* was the regne of Feminie, *won By Theseus, and by his chivalry; And of the greate battle for the nonce Betwixt Athenes and the Amazons; And how assieged was Hippolyta, The faire hardy queen of Scythia; And of the feast that was at her wedding And of the tempest at her homecoming.
  152. defame
    charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone
    It is a sin, and eke a great folly To apeiren* any man, or him defame, *injure And eke to bringe wives in evil name.
  153. benefice
    an endowed church office giving income to its holder
    He would the sea were kept for any thing Betwixte Middleburg and Orewell Well could he in exchange shieldes* sell *crown coins This worthy man full well his wit beset*; *employed There wiste* no wight** that he was in debt, *knew **man So *estately was he of governance* *so well he managed* With his bargains, and with his chevisance*. *business contract For sooth he was a worthy man withal, But sooth to say, I n'ot* how men him call. *know not A CLERK there was of Oxenford* als...
  154. melody
    a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); ...
  155. endure
    undergo or be subjected to
    Some wick'* aspect or disposition *wicked Of Saturn , by some constellation, Hath giv'n us this, although we had it sworn, So stood the heaven when that we were born, We must endure; this is the short and plain.
  156. Croesus
    last king of Lydia (died in 546 BC)
    For soothly all the mount of Citheron, Where Venus hath her principal dwelling, Was showed on the wall in pourtraying, With all the garden, and the lustiness*. *pleasantness Nor was forgot the porter Idleness, Nor Narcissus the fair of *yore agone*, *olden times* Nor yet the folly of King Solomon, Nor yet the greate strength of Hercules, Th' enchantments of Medea and Circes, Nor of Turnus the hardy fierce courage, The rich Croesus *caitif in servage.* *abased into slavery* Th...
  157. prioress
    the superior of a group of nuns
    An horn he bare, the baldric was of green: A forester was he soothly* as I guess. *certainly There was also a Nun, a PRIORESS, That of her smiling was full simple and coy; Her greatest oathe was but by Saint Loy; And she was cleped* Madame Eglentine. *called Full well she sang the service divine, Entuned in her nose full seemly; And French she spake full fair and fetisly* *properly After the school of Stratford atte Bow, For French of Paris was to her unknow.
  158. fare
    the sum charged for riding in a public conveyance
    We fare as he that drunk is as a mouse.
  159. victuals
    a source of materials to nourish the body
    It is not honest, it may not advance, As for to deale with no such pouraille*, *offal, refuse But all with rich, and sellers of vitaille*. *victuals And *ov'r all there as* profit should arise, *in every place where& Courteous he was, and lowly of service; There n'as no man nowhere so virtuous.
  160. mace
    spice made from the dried fleshy covering of the nutmeg seed
    And some will have *a pair of plates* large; *back and front armour* And some will have a Prusse* shield, or targe; *Prussian Some will be armed on their legges weel; Some have an axe, and some a mace of steel.
  161. briar
    Eurasian rose with prickly stems and fragrant leaves and bright pink flowers followed by scarlet hips
    When that Arcite had roamed all his fill, And *sungen all the roundel* lustily, *sang the roundelay* Into a study he fell suddenly, As do those lovers in their *quainte gears*, *odd fashions* Now in the crop*, and now down in the breres**, *tree-top Now up, now down, as bucket in a well. **briars Right as the Friday, soothly for to tell, Now shineth it, and now it raineth fast, Right so can geary* Venus overcast *changeful The heartes of her folk, right as her day Is gearful*...
  162. assent
    to agree or express agreement
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles cert...
  163. sundry
    consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  164. remnant
    a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists
    And after will I tell of our voyage, And all the remnant of our pilgrimage.
  165. sate
    fill to satisfaction
    He coulde better than his lord purchase Full rich he was y-stored privily His lord well could he please subtilly, To give and lend him of his owen good, And have a thank, and yet* a coat and hood. *also In youth he learned had a good mistere* *trade He was a well good wright, a carpentere This Reeve sate upon a right good stot*, *steed That was all pomely* gray, and highte** Scot. *dappled **called A long surcoat of perse* upon he had, *sky-blue And by his side he bare a rusty blade.
  166. wimple
    headdress of cloth; worn over the head and around the neck and ears by medieval women
    Full seemly her wimple y-pinched was; Her nose tretis;* her eyen gray as glass; *well-formed Her mouth full small, and thereto soft and red; But sickerly she had a fair forehead.
  167. mirth
    great merriment
    Eke thereto was he right a merry man, And after supper playen he began, And spake of mirth amonges other things, When that we hadde made our reckonings; And saide thus; "Now, lordinges, truly Ye be to me welcome right heartily: For by my troth, if that I shall not lie, I saw not this year such a company At once in this herberow*, am is now. *inn Fain would I do you mirth, an* I wist* how. *if I knew* And of a mirth I am right now bethought.
  168. aghast
    struck with fear, dread, or consternation
    And at the brandes end outran anon As it were bloody droppes many one: For which so sore aghast was Emily, That she was well-nigh mad, and gan to cry, For she ne wiste what it signified; But onely for feare thus she cried, And wept, that it was pity for to hear.
  169. beguile
    attract; cause to be enamored
    "Ye muste be full derne* as in this case." *secret "Nay, thereof care thee nought," quoth Nicholas: "A clerk had *litherly beset his while*, *ill spent his time* *But if* he could a carpenter beguile." *unless And thus they were accorded and y-sworn To wait a time, as I have said beforn.
  170. rend
    tear or be torn violently
    For though a widow hadde but one shoe, So pleasant was his In Principio, Yet would he have a farthing ere he went; His purchase was well better than his rent.
  171. bliss
    a state of extreme happiness
    Then had I been in bliss, and not in woe.
  172. trespass
    enter unlawfully on someone's property
    And on their bare knees adown they fall And would have kissed his feet there as he stood, Till at the last *aslaked was his mood* *his anger was (For pity runneth soon in gentle heart); appeased* And though at first for ire he quoke and start He hath consider'd shortly in a clause The trespass of them both, and eke the cause: And although that his ire their guilt accused Yet in his reason he them both excused; As thus; he thoughte well that every man Will help himself in love if that ...
  173. adamant
    very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem
    Then said; "O cruel goddess, that govern This world with binding of your word etern* *eternal And writen in the table of adamant Your parlement* and your eternal grant, *consultation What is mankind more *unto you y-hold* *by you esteemed Than is the sheep, that rouketh* in the fold! *lie huddled together For slain is man, right as another beast; And dwelleth eke in prison and arrest, And hath sickness, and great adversity, And oftentimes guilteless, pardie* *by God What governance is...
  174. statue
    a sculpture representing a human or animal
    And right anon withoute more abode* *delay His banner he display'd, and forth he rode To Thebes-ward, and all his, host beside: No ner* Athenes would he go nor ride, *nearer Nor take his ease fully half a day, But onward on his way that night he lay: And sent anon Hippolyta the queen, And Emily her younge sister sheen* *bright, lovely Unto the town of Athens for to dwell: And forth he rit*; there is no more to tell. *rode The red statue of Mars with spear and targe* *shield So shineth...
  175. babbler
    an obnoxious and foolish and loquacious talker
    Goliardais: a babbler and a buffoon; Golias was the founder of a jovial sect called by his name. 47.
  176. rue
    feel remorse for; feel sorry for; be contrite about
    *And God so wisly on my soule rue*, *may God as surely have As I shall even judge be and true. mercy on my soul* Ye shall none other ende with me maken Than one of you shalle be dead or taken.
  177. sloe
    a thorny Eurasian bush with plumlike fruits
    The tapes of her white volupere* *head-kerchief Were of the same suit of her collere; Her fillet broad of silk, and set full high: And sickerly* she had a likerous** eye. *certainly **lascivious Full small y-pulled were her browes two, And they were bent*, and black as any sloe. *arched She was well more *blissful on to see* *pleasant to look upon* Than is the newe perjenete* tree; *young pear-tree And softer than the wool is of a wether.
  178. yore
    time long past
    But all must be assayed hot or cold; A man must be a fool, or young or old; I wot it by myself *full yore agone*: *long years ago* For in my time a servant was I one.
  179. ward
    a person who is under the protection or in the custody of another
    Full many a draught of wine he had y-draw From Bourdeaux-ward, while that the chapmen sleep; Of nice conscience took he no keep.
  180. threadbare
    having the nap worn away so that the threads show through
    And rage he could and play as any whelp, In lovedays ; there could he muchel* help. *greatly For there was he not like a cloisterer, With threadbare cope as is a poor scholer; But he was like a master or a pope.
  181. Hecate
    (Greek mythology) Greek goddess of fertility who later became associated with Persephone as goddess of the underworld and protector of witches
    Diana was Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate in hell; hence the direction of the eyes of her statue to "Pluto's dark region."
  182. astronomy
    the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole
    With us there was a DOCTOR OF PHYSIC; In all this worlde was there none him like To speak of physic, and of surgery: For he was grounded in astronomy.
  183. banner
    long strip of cloth or paper used for decoration or advertising
    And right anon withoute more abode* *delay His banner he display'd, and forth he rode To Thebes-ward, and all his, host beside: No ner* Athenes would he go nor ride, *nearer Nor take his ease fully half a day, But onward on his way that night he lay: And sent anon Hippolyta the queen, And Emily her younge sister sheen* *bright, lovely Unto the town of Athens for to dwell: And forth he rit*; there is no more to tell. *rode The red statue of Mars with spear and targe* *shield So shineth...
  184. Damascene
    a native or inhabitant of Damascus
    He was a very perfect practisour The cause y-know,* and of his harm the root, *known Anon he gave to the sick man his boot* *remedy Full ready had he his apothecaries, To send his drugges and his lectuaries For each of them made other for to win Their friendship was not newe to begin Well knew he the old Esculapius, And Dioscorides, and eke Rufus; Old Hippocras, Hali, and Gallien; Serapion, Rasis, and Avicen; Averrois, Damascene, and Constantin; Bernard, and Gatisden, and Gilbertin.
  185. pilgrim
    someone who journeys in foreign lands
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  186. bream
    any of numerous marine percoid fishes especially (but not exclusively) of the family Sparidae
    Full many a fat partridge had he in mew*, *cage And many a bream, and many a luce* in stew** *pike **fish-pond Woe was his cook, *but if* his sauce were *unless* Poignant and sharp, and ready all his gear.
  187. gelding
    castrated male horse
    As smooth it was as it were new y-shave; I trow he were a gelding or a mare.
  188. signify
    denote or connote
    Moist; here used in the sense of "new", as in Latin, "mustum" signifies new wine; and elsewhere Chaucer speaks of "moisty ale", as opposed to "old". 40.
  189. strangle
    kill by squeezing the throat of so as to cut off the air
    Yet saw I brent* the shippes hoppesteres, *burnt The hunter strangled with the wilde bears: The sow freting* the child right in the cradle; *devouring The cook scalded, for all his longe ladle.
  190. parish
    a local church community
    A good WIFE was there OF beside BATH, But she was somedeal deaf, and that was scath*. *damage; pity Of cloth-making she hadde such an haunt*, *skill She passed them of Ypres, and of Gaunt. In all the parish wife was there none, That to the off'ring* before her should gon, *the offering at mass And if there did, certain so wroth was she, That she was out of alle charity Her coverchiefs* were full fine of ground *head-dresses I durste swear, they weighede ten pound That on the...
  191. physic
    a purging medicine; stimulates evacuation of the bowels
    With us there was a DOCTOR OF PHYSIC; In all this worlde was there none him like To speak of physic, and of surgery: For he was grounded in astronomy.
  192. mortal
    subject to death
    At mortal battles had he been fifteen, And foughten for our faith at Tramissene.
  193. broad
    having great (or a certain) extent from one side to the other
    It was almost a spanne broad I trow; For *hardily she was not undergrow*. *certainly she was not small* Full fetis* was her cloak, as I was ware. *neat Of small coral about her arm she bare A pair of beades, gauded all with green; And thereon hung a brooch of gold full sheen, On which was first y-written a crown'd A, And after, *Amor vincit omnia.* *love conquers all* Another Nun also with her had she, [That was her chapelleine, and PRIESTES three.]
  194. tippet
    a woman's fur shoulder cape with hanging ends; often consisting of the whole fur of a fox or marten
    His tippet was aye farsed* full of knives *stuffed And pinnes, for to give to faire wives; And certainly he had a merry note: Well could he sing and playen *on a rote*; *from memory* Of yeddings* he bare utterly the prize. *songs His neck was white as is the fleur-de-lis.
  195. hindmost
    located farthest to the rear
    Of Norfolk was this Reeve, of which I tell, Beside a town men clepen* Baldeswell, *call Tucked he was, as is a friar, about, And ever rode the *hinderest of the rout*. *hindmost of the group* A SOMPNOUR* was there with us in that place, *summoner That had a fire-red cherubinnes face, For sausefleme* he was, with eyen narrow. *red or pimply As hot he was and lecherous as a sparrow, With scalled browes black, and pilled* beard: *scanty Of his visage children were sore afeard.
  196. grisly
    shockingly repellent; inspiring horror
    His sleep, his meat, his drink is *him byraft*, *taken away from him* That lean he wex*, and dry as any shaft. *became His eyen hollow, grisly to behold, His hue sallow, and pale as ashes cold, And solitary he was, ever alone, And wailing all the night, making his moan.
  197. sone
    a unit of perceived loudness equal to the loudness of a 1000-hertz tone at 40 dB above threshold
    A citole in her right hand hadde she, And on her head, full seemly for to see, A rose garland fresh, and well smelling, Above her head her doves flickering Before her stood her sone Cupido, Upon his shoulders winges had he two; And blind he was, as it is often seen; A bow he bare, and arrows bright and keen.
  198. augur
    predict from an omen
    It was the custom for soldiers to march thrice around the funeral pile of an emperor or general; "on the left hand" is added, in reference to the belief that the left hand was propitious -- the Roman augur turning his face southward, and so placing on his left hand the east, whence good omens came.
  199. travail
    use of physical or mental energy; hard work
    A woman travailing was her beforn, But, for her child so longe was unborn, Full piteously Lucina gan she call, And saide; "Help, for thou may'st best of all."
  200. cage
    an enclosure made or wire or metal bars in which birds or animals can be kept
    Full many a fat partridge had he in mew*, *cage And many a bream, and many a luce* in stew** *pike **fish-pond Woe was his cook, *but if* his sauce were *unless* Poignant and sharp, and ready all his gear.
  201. Bretagne
    a former province of northwestern France on a peninsula between the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay
    He knew well all the havens, as they were, From Scotland to the Cape of Finisterre, And every creek in Bretagne and in Spain: His barge y-cleped was the Magdelain.
  202. shrine
    a place of worship hallowed by association with some sacred thing or person
    Dante, in the "Vita Nuova," distinguishes three classes of pilgrims: palmieri - palmers who go beyond sea to the East, and often bring back staves of palm-wood; peregrini, who go the shrine of St Jago in Galicia; Romei, who go to Rome.
  203. peacock
    male peafowl; having a crested head and very large fanlike tail marked with iridescent eyes or spots
    A sheaf of peacock arrows bright and keen Under his belt he bare full thriftily.
  204. brooch
    a decorative pin worn by women
    It was almost a spanne broad I trow; For *hardily she was not undergrow*. *certainly she was not small* Full fetis* was her cloak, as I was ware. *neat Of small coral about her arm she bare A pair of beades, gauded all with green; And thereon hung a brooch of gold full sheen, On which was first y-written a crown'd A, And after, *Amor vincit omnia.* *love conquers all* Another Nun also with her had she, [That was her chapelleine, and PRIESTES three.]
  205. blithe
    carefree and happy and lighthearted
    Anon to drawen every wight began, And shortly for to tellen as it was, Were it by a venture, or sort*, or cas**, *lot **chance The sooth is this, the cut fell to the Knight, Of which full blithe and glad was every wight; And tell he must his tale as was reason, By forword, and by composition, As ye have heard; what needeth wordes mo'?
  206. outwit
    beat through cleverness and wit
    Of masters had he more than thries ten, That were of law expert and curious: Of which there was a dozen in that house, Worthy to be stewards of rent and land Of any lord that is in Engleland, To make him live by his proper good, In honour debtless, *but if he were wood*, *unless he were mad* Or live as scarcely as him list desire; And able for to helpen all a shire In any case that mighte fall or hap; And yet this Manciple *set their aller cap* *outwitted them all* The REEVE was ...
  207. doublet
    a man's close-fitting jacket; worn during the Renaissance
    Of fustian he weared a gipon*, *short doublet Alle *besmotter'd with his habergeon,* *soiled by his coat of mail.*
  208. woodbine
    common North American vine with compound leaves and bluish-black berrylike fruit
    And to the grove, of which I have you told, By a venture his way began to hold, To make him a garland of the greves*, *groves Were it of woodbine, or of hawthorn leaves, And loud he sang against the sun so sheen*. *shining bright "O May, with all thy flowers and thy green, Right welcome be thou, faire freshe May, I hope that I some green here getten may."
  209. sanguine
    confidently optimistic and cheerful
    Of his complexion he was sanguine.
  210. chaste
    abstaining from unlawful sexual intercourse
    The statue of Mars upon a carte* stood *chariot Armed, and looked grim as he were wood*, *mad And over his head there shone two figures Of starres, that be cleped in scriptures, That one Puella, that other Rubeus. This god of armes was arrayed thus: A wolf there stood before him at his feet With eyen red, and of a man he eat: With subtle pencil painted was this story, In redouting* of Mars and of his glory. *reverance, fear Now to the temple of Dian the chaste As shortly as I can...
  211. boorish
    ill-mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance
    What should I more say, but that this Millere He would his wordes for no man forbear, But told his churlish* tale in his mannere; *boorish, rude Me thinketh, that I shall rehearse it here.
  212. chattel
    personal as opposed to real property; any tangible movable property (furniture or domestic animals or a car etc)
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles cert...
  213. laxative
    stimulating evacuation of feces
    The virtue expulsive or animal, From thilke virtue called natural, Nor may the venom voide, nor expel The pipes of his lungs began to swell And every lacert* in his breast adown *sinew, muscle Is shent* with venom and corruption. *destroyed Him gaineth* neither, for to get his life, *availeth Vomit upward, nor downward laxative; All is to-bursten thilke region; Nature hath now no domination.
  214. bane
    something causing misery or death
    This prison caused me not for to cry; But I was hurt right now thorough mine eye Into mine heart; that will my bane* be. *destruction The fairness of the lady that I see Yond in the garden roaming to and fro, Is cause of all my crying and my woe.
  215. oratory
    addressing an audience formally (usually a long and rhetorical address and often pompous)
    And for to do his rite and sacrifice He eastward hath upon the gate above, In worship of Venus, goddess of love, *Done make* an altar and an oratory; *caused to be made* And westward, in the mind and in memory Of Mars, he maked hath right such another, That coste largely of gold a fother*. *a great amount And northward, in a turret on the wall, Of alabaster white and red coral An oratory riche for to see, In worship of Diane of chastity, Hath Theseus done work in noble wise.
  216. boar
    an uncastrated male hog
    And after that, with sharpe speares strong They foined* each at other wonder long. *thrust Thou mightest weene*, that this Palamon *think In fighting were as a wood* lion, *mad And as a cruel tiger was Arcite: As wilde boars gan they together smite, That froth as white as foam, *for ire wood*. *mad with anger* Up to the ancle fought they in their blood.
  217. pierce
    penetrate or cut through with a sharp instrument
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); ...
  218. venom
    toxin secreted by animals; secreted by certain snakes and poisonous insects (e.g., spiders and scorpions)
    The virtue expulsive or animal, From thilke virtue called natural, Nor may the venom voide, nor expel The pipes of his lungs began to swell And every lacert* in his breast adown *sinew, muscle Is shent* with venom and corruption. *destroyed Him gaineth* neither, for to get his life, *availeth Vomit upward, nor downward laxative; All is to-bursten thilke region; Nature hath now no domination.
  219. propitious
    presenting favorable circumstances; likely to result in or show signs of success
    Mars the Red: referring to the ruddy colour of the planet, to which was doubtless due the transference to it of the name of the God of War. In his "Republic," enumerating the seven planets, Cicero speaks of the propitious and beneficent light of Jupiter: "Tum (fulgor) rutilis horribilisque terris, quem Martium dicitis" -- "Then the red glow, horrible to the nations, which you say to be that of Mars."
  220. delve
    turn up, loosen, or remove earth
    He woulde thresh, and thereto dike*, and delve, *dig ditches For Christe's sake, for every poore wight, Withouten hire, if it lay in his might.
  221. Mercury
    (Roman mythology) messenger of Jupiter and god of commerce; counterpart of Greek Hermes
    When he endured had a year or two This cruel torment, and this pain and woe, At Thebes, in his country, as I said, Upon a night in sleep as he him laid, Him thought how that the winged god Mercury Before him stood, and bade him to be merry.
  222. thick
    not thin; of a specific thickness or of relatively great extent from one surface to the opposite usually in the smallest of the three solid dimensions
    The greate tower, that was so thick and strong, Which of the castle was the chief dungeon (Where as these knightes weren in prison, Of which I tolde you, and telle shall), Was even joinant* to the garden wall, *adjoining There as this Emily had her playing.
  223. Member of Parliament
    an elected member of the British Parliament: a member of the House of Commons
    Full often time he was *knight of the shire* *Member of Parliament* An anlace*, and a gipciere** all of silk, *dagger **purse Hung at his girdle, white as morning milk.
  224. enumerate
    determine the number or amount of
    Tramissene, or Tremessen, is enumerated by Froissart among the Moorish kingdoms in Africa.
  225. wick
    a loosely woven cord (in a candle or oil lamp) that draws fuel by capillary action up into the flame
    Some wick'* aspect or disposition *wicked Of Saturn , by some constellation, Hath giv'n us this, although we had it sworn, So stood the heaven when that we were born, We must endure; this is the short and plain.
  226. trivia
    something of small importance
    Her statue was set up where three ways met, so that with a different face she looked down each of the three; from which she was called Trivia.
  227. hence
    (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result
    Lodemanage: pilotage, from Anglo-Saxon "ladman," a leader, guide, or pilot; hence "lodestar," "lodestone." 36.
  228. scape
    erect leafless flower stalk growing directly from the ground as in a tulip
    I *n'ot wher* she be woman or goddess, *know not whether* But Venus is it, soothly* as I guess, *truly And therewithal on knees adown he fill, And saide: "Venus, if it be your will You in this garden thus to transfigure Before me sorrowful wretched creature, Out of this prison help that we may scape.
  229. drought
    a shortage of rainfall
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); ...
  230. rent
    a payment or series of payments made by the lessee to an owner for use of some property, facility, equipment, or service
    For though a widow hadde but one shoe, So pleasant was his In Principio, Yet would he have a farthing ere he went; His purchase was well better than his rent.
  231. renown
    the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed
    Discreet he was, and of great reverence: He seemed such, his wordes were so wise, Justice he was full often in assize, By patent, and by plein* commission; *full For his science, and for his high renown, Of fees and robes had he many one.
  232. geld
    cut off the testicles (of male animals such as horses)
    As smooth it was as it were new y-shave; I trow he were a gelding or a mare.
  233. well-formed
    conforming to the rules of grammar or usage accepted by native speakers
    Full seemly her wimple y-pinched was; Her nose tretis;* her eyen gray as glass; *well-formed Her mouth full small, and thereto soft and red; But sickerly she had a fair forehead.
  234. trivium
    (Middle Ages) an introductory curriculum at a medieval university involving grammar and logic and rhetoric; considered to be a triple way to eloquence
    Her statue was set up where three ways met, so that with a different face she looked down each of the three; from which she was called Trivia.
  235. abridge
    lessen, diminish, or curtail
    "The firste mover of the cause above When he first made the faire chain of love, Great was th' effect, and high was his intent; Well wist he why, and what thereof he meant: For with that faire chain of love he bond* *bound The fire, the air, the water, and the lond In certain bondes, that they may not flee: That same prince and mover eke," quoth he, "Hath stablish'd, in this wretched world adown, Certain of dayes and duration To all that are engender'd in this place, Over the whiche day ...
  236. privy
    hidden from general view or use
    Mine is the drowning in the sea so wan; Mine is the prison in the darke cote*, *cell Mine the strangling and hanging by the throat, The murmur, and the churlish rebelling, The groyning*, and the privy poisoning. *discontent I do vengeance and plein* correction, *full I dwell in the sign of the lion.
  237. skittish
    unpredictably excitable (especially of horses)
    Wincing* she was as is a jolly colt, *skittish Long as a mast, and upright as a bolt.
  238. torment
    intense feelings of suffering; acute mental or physical pain
    For I must weep and wail, while that I live, With all the woe that prison may me give, And eke with pain that love me gives also, That doubles all my torment and my woe."
  239. prescience
    the power to foresee the future
    Then said; "O cruel goddess, that govern This world with binding of your word etern* *eternal And writen in the table of adamant Your parlement* and your eternal grant, *consultation What is mankind more *unto you y-hold* *by you esteemed Than is the sheep, that rouketh* in the fold! *lie huddled together For slain is man, right as another beast; And dwelleth eke in prison and arrest, And hath sickness, and great adversity, And oftentimes guilteless, pardie* *by God What governance is in you...
  240. shrive
    grant remission of a sin to
    He was an easy man to give penance, *There as he wist to have a good pittance:* *where he know he would For unto a poor order for to give get good payment* Is signe that a man is well y-shrive.
  241. Great Bear
    a constellation outside the zodiac that rotates around the North Star
    Calistope: or Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, seduced by Jupiter, turned into a bear by Diana, and placed afterwards, with her son, as the Great Bear among the stars. 53.
  242. slither
    to pass or move unobtrusively or smoothly
    A drunken man wot well he hath an house, But he wot not which is the right way thither, And to a drunken man the way is slither*. *slippery And certes in this world so fare we.
  243. valerian
    a plant of the genus Valeriana having lobed or dissected leaves and cymose white or pink flowers
    A chamber had he in that hostelry Alone, withouten any company, Full *fetisly y-dight* with herbes swoot*, *neatly decorated* And he himself was sweet as is the root *sweet Of liquorice, or any setewall*. *valerian His Almagest, and bookes great and small, His astrolabe, belonging to his art, His augrim stones, layed fair apart On shelves couched* at his bedde's head, *laid, set His press y-cover'd with a falding* red. *coarse cloth And all above there lay a gay psalt'ry On w...
  244. Mauritania
    a country in northwestern Africa with a provisional military government; achieved independence from France in 1960; largely western Sahara Desert
    Galaphay: Galapha, in Mauritania. 83.
  245. squeamish
    excessively fastidious and easily disgusted
    In twenty manners could he trip and dance, After the school of Oxenforde tho*, *then And with his legges caste to and fro; And playen songes on a small ribible*; *fiddle Thereto he sung sometimes a loud quinible* *treble And as well could he play on a gitern.* *guitar In all the town was brewhouse nor tavern, That he not visited with his solas*, *mirth, sport There as that any *garnard tapstere* was. *licentious barmaid* But sooth to say he was somedeal squaimous* *squeamish Of fa...
  246. Holy Writ
    the sacred writings of the Christian religions
    Christ spake Himself full broad in Holy Writ, And well ye wot no villainy is it.
  247. drake
    adult male of a wild or domestic duck
    Then shalt thou swim as merry, I undertake, As doth the white duck after her drake: Then will I clepe,* 'How, Alison?
  248. participle
    a non-finite form of the verb; in English it is used adjectivally and to form compound tenses
    "Couth," past participle of "conne" to know, exists in "uncouth." 4.
  249. licence
    a legal document giving official permission to do something
    Limitour: A friar with licence or privilege to beg, or exercise other functions, within a certain district: as, "the limitour of Holderness". 19.
  250. fell
    cause to fall by or as if by delivering a blow
    Well could she carry a morsel, and well keep, That no droppe ne fell upon her breast.
  251. grant
    let have
    He was the beste beggar in all his house: And gave a certain farme for the grant, None of his bretheren came in his haunt.
  252. solemnity
    a trait of dignified seriousness
    What with his wisdom and his chivalry, He conquer'd all the regne of Feminie, That whilom was y-cleped Scythia; And weddede the Queen Hippolyta And brought her home with him to his country With muchel* glory and great solemnity, *great And eke her younge sister Emily, And thus with vict'ry and with melody Let I this worthy Duke to Athens ride, And all his host, in armes him beside.
  253. decree
    a legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)
    A fewe termes knew he, two or three, That he had learned out of some decree; No wonder is, he heard it all the day.
  254. desire
    the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state
    Of masters had he more than thries ten, That were of law expert and curious: Of which there was a dozen in that house, Worthy to be stewards of rent and land Of any lord that is in Engleland, To make him live by his proper good, In honour debtless, *but if he were wood*, *unless he were mad* Or live as scarcely as him list desire; And able for to helpen all a shire In any case that mighte fall or hap; And yet this Manciple *set their aller cap* *outwitted them all* The REEVE was ...
  255. lascivious
    driven by lust; preoccupied with or exhibiting lustful desires
    The tapes of her white volupere* *head-kerchief Were of the same suit of her collere; Her fillet broad of silk, and set full high: And sickerly* she had a likerous** eye. *certainly **lascivious Full small y-pulled were her browes two, And they were bent*, and black as any sloe. *arched She was well more *blissful on to see* *pleasant to look upon* Than is the newe perjenete* tree; *young pear-tree And softer than the wool is of a wether.
  256. uncouth
    lacking refinement or cultivation or taste
    "Couth," past participle of "conne" to know, exists in "uncouth." 4.
  257. choleric
    characterized by anger
    Of masters had he more than thries ten, That were of law expert and curious: Of which there was a dozen in that house, Worthy to be stewards of rent and land Of any lord that is in Engleland, To make him live by his proper good, In honour debtless, *but if he were wood*, *unless he were mad* Or live as scarcely as him list desire; And able for to helpen all a shire In any case that mighte fall or hap; And yet this Manciple *set their aller cap* *outwitted them all* The REEVE was a slend...
  258. dappled
    having spots or patches of color
    He coulde better than his lord purchase Full rich he was y-stored privily His lord well could he please subtilly, To give and lend him of his owen good, And have a thank, and yet* a coat and hood. *also In youth he learned had a good mistere* *trade He was a well good wright, a carpentere This Reeve sate upon a right good stot*, *steed That was all pomely* gray, and highte** Scot. *dappled **called A long surcoat of perse* upon he had, *sky-blue And by his side he bare a rusty blade.
  259. Aegean
    an arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey; a main trade route for the ancient civilizations of Crete and Greece and Rome and Persia
    Citheron: The Isle of Venus, Cythera, in the Aegean Sea; now called Cerigo: not, as Chaucer's form of the word might imply, Mount Cithaeron, in the south-west of Boetia, which was appropriated to other deities than Venus -- to Jupiter, to Bacchus, and the Muses. 42.
  260. beset
    assail or attack on all sides: "The zebra was beset by leopards"
    He would the sea were kept for any thing Betwixte Middleburg and Orewell Well could he in exchange shieldes* sell *crown coins This worthy man full well his wit beset*; *employed There wiste* no wight** that he was in debt, *knew **man So *estately was he of governance* *so well he managed* With his bargains, and with his chevisance*. *business contract For sooth he was a worthy man withal, But sooth to say, I n'ot* how men him call. *know not A CLERK there was of Oxenfo...
  261. censer
    a container for burning incense (especially one that is swung on a chain in a religious ritual)
    This Absolon, that jolly was and gay, Went with a censer on the holy day, Censing* the wives of the parish fast; *burning incense for And many a lovely look he on them cast, And namely* on this carpenter's wife: *especially To look on her him thought a merry life.
  262. Scheldt
    a river that rises in France and flows northeast across Belgium and empties into the North Sea
    Middleburg, at the mouth of the Scheldt, in Holland; Orwell, a seaport in Essex. 24.
  263. heed
    paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people)
    But all be that he was a philosopher, Yet hadde he but little gold in coffer, But all that he might of his friendes hent*, *obtain On bookes and on learning he it spent, And busily gan for the soules pray Of them that gave him wherewith to scholay* *study Of study took he moste care and heed.
  264. Saint Paul
    (New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles; author of several Epistles in the New Testament; even though Paul was not present at the Last Supper he is considered an Apostle
    He sette not his benefice to hire, And left his sheep eucumber'd in the mire, And ran unto London, unto Saint Paul's, To seeke him a chantery for souls, Or with a brotherhood to be withold:* *detained But dwelt at home, and kepte well his fold, So that the wolf ne made it not miscarry.
  265. Galicia
    a region (and former kingdom) in northwestern Spain on the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay
    Dante, in the "Vita Nuova," distinguishes three classes of pilgrims: palmieri - palmers who go beyond sea to the East, and often bring back staves of palm-wood; peregrini, who go the shrine of St Jago in Galicia; Romei, who go to Rome.
  266. shape
    a perceptual structure
    And if ye vouchesafe that it be so, Tell me anon withoute wordes mo'*, *more And I will early shape me therefore."
  267. pummel
    strike, usually with the fist
    *Lord But hearken me, and stinte noise a lite, What a miracle there befell anon This fierce Arcite hath off his helm y-done, And on a courser for to shew his face He *pricketh endelong* the large place, *rides from end to end* Looking upward upon this Emily; And she again him cast a friendly eye (For women, as to speaken *in commune*, *generally* They follow all the favour of fortune), And was all his in cheer*, as his in heart. *countenance Out of the ground a fire infernal start, From Plut...
  268. myrrh
    aromatic resin that is burned as incense and used in perfume
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryades; Nor...
  269. pennon
    a long flag; often tapering
    And right anon withoute more abode* *delay His banner he display'd, and forth he rode To Thebes-ward, and all his, host beside: No ner* Athenes would he go nor ride, *nearer Nor take his ease fully half a day, But onward on his way that night he lay: And sent anon Hippolyta the queen, And Emily her younge sister sheen* *bright, lovely Unto the town of Athens for to dwell: And forth he rit*; there is no more to tell. *rode The red statue of Mars with spear and targe* *shield So shineth in his...
  270. nightingale
    European songbird noted for its melodious nocturnal song
    So hot he loved, that by nightertale* *night-time He slept no more than doth the nightingale.
  271. sea
    a division of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially enclosed by land
    In Grenade at the siege eke had he be Of Algesir, and ridden in Belmarie. At Leyes was he, and at Satalie, When they were won; and in the Greate Sea At many a noble army had he be.
  272. stumble
    miss a step and fall or nearly fall
    With mighty maces the bones they to-brest*. *burst He through the thickest of the throng gan threst*. *thrust There stumble steedes strong, and down go all.
  273. writ
    (law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer
    Christ spake Himself full broad in Holy Writ, And well ye wot no villainy is it.
  274. devour
    eat immoderately
    Yet saw I brent* the shippes hoppesteres, *burnt The hunter strangled with the wilde bears: The sow freting* the child right in the cradle; *devouring The cook scalded, for all his longe ladle.
  275. Artois
    a former province of northern France near the English Channel (between Picardy and Flanders)
    Of his stature he was of even length, And *wonderly deliver*, and great of strength. *wonderfully nimble* And he had been some time in chevachie*, *cavalry raids In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardie, And borne him well, *as of so little space*, *in such a short time* In hope to standen in his lady's grace.
  276. assay
    a quantitative or qualitative test of a substance (especially an ore or a drug) to determine its components; frequently used to test for the presence or concentration of infectious agents or antibodies etc.
    But all must be assayed hot or cold; A man must be a fool, or young or old; I wot it by myself *full yore agone*: *long years ago* For in my time a servant was I one.
  277. parson
    a person authorized to conduct religious worship
    In fellowship well could she laugh and carp* *jest, talk Of remedies of love she knew perchance For of that art she coud* the olde dance. *knew A good man there was of religion, That was a poore PARSON of a town: But rich he was of holy thought and werk*. *work He was also a learned man, a clerk, That Christe's gospel truly woulde preach.
  278. tithe
    a levy of one tenth of something
    His parishens* devoutly would he teach. *parishioners Benign he was, and wonder diligent, And in adversity full patient: And such he was y-proved *often sithes*. *oftentimes* Full loth were him to curse for his tithes, But rather would he given out of doubt, Unto his poore parishens about, Of his off'ring, and eke of his substance.
  279. condense
    cause a gas or vapor to change into a liquid
    The "Theseida" contained ten thousand lines; Chaucer has condensed it into less than one-fourth of the number.
  280. licentiate
    holds a license (degree) from a (European) university
    Unto his order he was a noble post; Full well belov'd, and familiar was he With franklins *over all* in his country, *everywhere* And eke with worthy women of the town: For he had power of confession, As said himselfe, more than a curate, For of his order he was licentiate.
  281. paramour
    a woman's lover
    The moon at night full clear and brighte shone, And Absolon his gitern hath y-taken, For paramours he thoughte for to waken, And forth he went, jolif* and amorous, *joyous Till he came to the carpentere's house, A little after the cock had y-crow, And *dressed him* under a shot window , *stationed himself.*
  282. metre
    the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)
    It is used by Chaucer merely to help the metre In German, "y-fall," or y-falle," would be "gefallen", "y-run," or "y-ronne", would be "geronnen." 6.
  283. labour
    productive work (especially physical work done for wages)
    Why should he study, and make himselfe wood* *mad Upon a book in cloister always pore, Or swinken* with his handes, and labour, *toil As Austin bid? how shall the world be served?
  284. court
    an assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business
    In courtesy was set full much her lest*. *pleasure Her over-lippe wiped she so clean, That in her cup there was no farthing* seen *speck Of grease, when she drunken had her draught; Full seemely after her meat she raught*: *reached out her hand And *sickerly she was of great disport*, *surely she was of a lively And full pleasant, and amiable of port, disposition* And *pained her to counterfeite cheer *took pains to assume Of court,* and be estately of mannere, a courtly disposition* ...
  285. jest
    activity characterized by good humor
    In fellowship well could she laugh and carp* *jest, talk Of remedies of love she knew perchance For of that art she coud* the olde dance. *knew A good man there was of religion, That was a poore PARSON of a town: But rich he was of holy thought and werk*. *work He was also a learned man, a clerk, That Christe's gospel truly woulde preach.
  286. amorous
    inclined toward or displaying love
    And at the last he took conclusion, That there as first Arcite and Palamon Hadde for love the battle them between, That in that selve* grove, sweet and green, *self-same There as he had his amorous desires, His complaint, and for love his hote fires, He woulde make a fire*, in which th' office *funeral pyre Of funeral he might all accomplice; And *let anon command* to hack and hew *immediately gave orders* The oakes old, and lay them *on a rew* *in a row* In culpons*, well arrayed for...
  287. slew
    (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent
    And right anon withoute more abode* *delay His banner he display'd, and forth he rode To Thebes-ward, and all his, host beside: No ner* Athenes would he go nor ride, *nearer Nor take his ease fully half a day, But onward on his way that night he lay: And sent anon Hippolyta the queen, And Emily her younge sister sheen* *bright, lovely Unto the town of Athens for to dwell: And forth he rit*; there is no more to tell. *rode The red statue of Mars with spear and targe* *shield So shineth in his...
  288. wake
    stop sleeping
    We drunken, and to reste went each one, Withouten any longer tarrying A-morrow, when the day began to spring, Up rose our host, and was *our aller cock*, *the cock to wake us all* And gather'd us together in a flock, And forth we ridden all a little space, Unto the watering of Saint Thomas : And there our host began his horse arrest, And saide; "Lordes, hearken if you lest.
  289. kindle
    catch fire
    Thy temple will I worship evermo', And on thine altar, where I ride or go, I will do sacrifice, and fires bete*. *make, kindle And if ye will not so, my lady sweet, Then pray I you, to-morrow with a spear That Arcita me through the hearte bear Then reck I not, when I have lost my life, Though that Arcita win her to his wife.
  290. town
    an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city
    Unto his order he was a noble post; Full well belov'd, and familiar was he With franklins *over all* in his country, *everywhere* And eke with worthy women of the town: For he had power of confession, As said himselfe, more than a curate, For of his order he was licentiate.
  291. totality
    the state of being total and complete
    "Crop and root," top and bottom, is used to express the perfection or totality of anything. 30.
  292. Narcissus
    (Greek mythology) a beautiful young man who fell in love with his own reflection
    For soothly all the mount of Citheron, Where Venus hath her principal dwelling, Was showed on the wall in pourtraying, With all the garden, and the lustiness*. *pleasantness Nor was forgot the porter Idleness, Nor Narcissus the fair of *yore agone*, *olden times* Nor yet the folly of King Solomon, Nor yet the greate strength of Hercules, Th' enchantments of Medea and Circes, Nor of Turnus the hardy fierce courage, The rich Croesus *caitif in servage.* *abased into slavery* Th...
  293. vise
    a holding device attached to a workbench; has two jaws to hold workpiece firmly in place
    And thereout came *a rage and such a vise*, *such a furious voice* That it made all the gates for to rise.
  294. capon
    castrated male chicken
    The things the cook could make: "marchand tart", some now unknown ingredient used in cookery; "galingale," sweet or long rooted cyprus; "mortrewes", a rich soup made by stamping flesh in a mortar; "Blanc manger", not what is now called blancmange; one part of it was the brawn of a capon. 35.
  295. parlance
    a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language
    Shepen: stable; Anglo-Saxon, "scypen;" the word "sheppon" still survives in provincial parlance. 47.
  296. host
    a person who invites guests to a social event (such as a party in his or her own home) and who is responsible for them while they are there
    We drunken, and to reste went each one, Withouten any longer tarrying A-morrow, when the day began to spring, Up rose our host, and was *our aller cock*, *the cock to wake us all* And gather'd us together in a flock, And forth we ridden all a little space, Unto the watering of Saint Thomas : And there our host began his horse arrest, And saide; "Lordes, hearken if you lest.
  297. leek
    plant having a large slender white bulb and flat overlapping dark green leaves; used in cooking; believed derived from the wild Allium ampeloprasum
    There n'as quicksilver, litharge, nor brimstone, Boras, ceruse, nor oil of tartar none, Nor ointement that woulde cleanse or bite, That him might helpen of his whelkes* white, *pustules Nor of the knobbes* sitting on his cheeks. *buttons Well lov'd he garlic, onions, and leeks, And for to drink strong wine as red as blood.
  298. ordinance
    an authoritative rule
    Up go the trumpets and the melody, And to the listes rode the company *By ordinance*, throughout the city large, *in orderly array* Hanged with cloth of gold, and not with sarge*. *serge Full like a lord this noble Duke gan ride, And these two Thebans upon either side: And after rode the queen and Emily, And after them another company Of one and other, after their degree.
  299. surplice
    a loose-fitting white ecclesiastical vestment with wide sleeves
    Curl'd was his hair, and as the gold it shone, And strutted* as a fanne large and broad; *stretched Full straight and even lay his jolly shode*. *head of hair His rode* was red, his eyen grey as goose, *complexion With Paule's windows carven on his shoes In hosen red he went full fetisly*. *daintily, neatly Y-clad he was full small and properly, All in a kirtle* of a light waget*; *girdle **sky blue Full fair and thicke be the pointes set, And thereupon he had a gay surplice, As ...
  300. pestilence
    any epidemic disease with a high death rate
    In sanguine* and in perse** he clad was all *red **blue Lined with taffeta, and with sendall*. *fine silk And yet *he was but easy of dispense*: *he spent very little* He kept *that he won in the pestilence*. *the money he made For gold in physic is a cordial; during the plague* Therefore he loved gold in special.
  301. trumpet
    a brass musical instrument with a brilliant tone; has a narrow tube and a flared bell and is played by means of valves
    His nose was high, his eyen bright citrine*, *pale yellow His lips were round, his colour was sanguine, A fewe fracknes* in his face y-sprent**, *freckles **sprinkled Betwixte yellow and black somedeal y-ment* *mixed And as a lion he *his looking cast* *cast about his eyes* Of five and twenty year his age I cast* *reckon His beard was well begunnen for to spring; His voice was as a trumpet thundering.
  302. rite
    any customary observance or practice
    And for to do his rite and sacrifice He eastward hath upon the gate above, In worship of Venus, goddess of love, *Done make* an altar and an oratory; *caused to be made* And westward, in the mind and in memory Of Mars, he maked hath right such another, That coste largely of gold a fother*. *a great amount And northward, in a turret on the wall, Of alabaster white and red coral An oratory riche for to see, In worship of Diane of chastity, Hath Theseus done work in noble wise.
  303. sickness
    impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
    *He could in little thing have suffisance*. *he was satisfied with Wide was his parish, and houses far asunder, very little* But he ne left not, for no rain nor thunder, In sickness and in mischief to visit The farthest in his parish, *much and lit*, *great and small* Upon his feet, and in his hand a staff.
  304. diocese
    the territorial jurisdiction of a bishop
    In danger had he at his owen guise The younge girles of the diocese, And knew their counsel, and was of their rede*. *counsel A garland had he set upon his head, As great as it were for an alestake*: *The post of an alehouse sign A buckler had he made him of a cake.
  305. earnest
    characterized by a firm and humorless belief in the validity of your opinions
    This Palamon, when he these wordes heard, Dispiteously* he looked, and answer'd: *angrily "Whether say'st thou this in earnest or in play?"
  306. burgess
    a citizen of an English borough
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles cert...
  307. stake
    a strong wooden or metal post with a point at one end so it can be driven into the ground
    *He who wishes can And he that is at mischief shall be take*, fence on foot to defend And not slain, but be brought unto the stake, himself, and he that That shall be ordained on either side; is in peril shall be taken* Thither he shall by force, and there abide.
  308. anoint
    administer an oil or ointment to ; often in a religious ceremony of blessing
    His head was bald, and shone as any glass, And eke his face, as it had been anoint; He was a lord full fat and in good point; His eyen steep,* and rolling in his head, *deep-set That steamed as a furnace of a lead.
  309. solace
    comfort in disappointment or misery
    And which of you that bear'th him best of all, That is to say, that telleth in this case Tales of best sentence and most solace, Shall have a supper *at your aller cost* *at the cost of you all* Here in this place, sitting by this post, When that ye come again from Canterbury.
  310. constellation
    a configuration of stars as seen from the earth
    Some wick'* aspect or disposition *wicked Of Saturn , by some constellation, Hath giv'n us this, although we had it sworn, So stood the heaven when that we were born, We must endure; this is the short and plain.
  311. coat of mail
    armor that protects the wearer's whole body
    Of fustian he weared a gipon*, *short doublet Alle *besmotter'd with his habergeon,* *soiled by his coat of mail.*
  312. navel
    a scar where the umbilical cord was attached
    The statue of Venus, glorious to see Was naked floating in the large sea, And from the navel down all cover'd was With waves green, and bright as any glass.
  313. pharmacy
    a retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold
    And of another thing they were as fain*. *glad That of them alle was there no one slain, All* were they sorely hurt, and namely** one, *although **especially That with a spear was thirled* his breast-bone. *pierced To other woundes, and to broken arms, Some hadden salves, and some hadden charms: And pharmacies of herbs, and eke save* *sage, Salvia officinalis They dranken, for they would their lives have.
  314. Hippocrates
    medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine; author of the Hippocratic oath (circa 460-377 BC)
    The names of Galen and Hippocrates were then usually spelt "Gallien" and "Hypocras" or "Ypocras". 37.
  315. single combat
    a fight between two people
    In listes: in the lists, prepared for such single combats between champion and accuser, &c. 36.
  316. spring
    move forward by leaps and bounds
    We drunken, and to reste went each one, Withouten any longer tarrying A-morrow, when the day began to spring, Up rose our host, and was *our aller cock*, *the cock to wake us all* And gather'd us together in a flock, And forth we ridden all a little space, Unto the watering of Saint Thomas : And there our host began his horse arrest, And saide; "Lordes, hearken if you lest.
  317. purchaser
    a person who buys
    So great a purchaser was nowhere none.
  318. retrograde
    moving or directed or tending in a backward direction or contrary to a previous direction
    Puella and Rubeus were two figures in geomancy, representing two constellations-the one signifying Mars retrograde, the other Mars direct. 52.
  319. credo
    any system of principles or beliefs
    Men should know nought of Godde's privity*. *secrets Yea, blessed be alway a lewed* man, *unlearned That *nought but only his believe can*. *knows no more So far'd another clerk with astronomy: than his "credo."*
  320. jollity
    feeling jolly and jovial and full of good humor
    Full thin it lay, by culpons* one and one, *locks, shreds But hood for jollity, he weared none, For it was trussed up in his wallet.
  321. subtle
    difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze
    She gathereth flowers, party* white and red, *mingled To make a sotel* garland for her head, *subtle, well-arranged And as an angel heavenly she sung.
  322. dance
    taking a series of rhythmical steps (and movements) in time to music
    He coulde songes make, and well indite, Joust, and eke dance, and well pourtray and write.
  323. Thessaly
    a fertile plain on the Aegean Sea in east central Greece; Thessaly was a former region of ancient Greece
    Dane: Daphne, daughter of the river-god Peneus, in Thessaly; she was beloved by Apollo, but to avoid his pursuit, she was, at her own prayer, changed into a laurel-tree. 54.
  324. transference
    the act of transfering something from one form to another
    Mars the Red: referring to the ruddy colour of the planet, to which was doubtless due the transference to it of the name of the God of War. In his "Republic," enumerating the seven planets, Cicero speaks of the propitious and beneficent light of Jupiter: "Tum (fulgor) rutilis horribilisque terris, quem Martium dicitis" -- "Then the red glow, horrible to the nations, which you say to be that of Mars."
  325. Edward III
    son of Edward II and King of England from 1327-1377; his claim to the French throne provoked the Hundred Years' War; his reign was marked by an epidemic of the Black Plague and by the emergence of the House of Commons as the powerful arm of British Parliament (1312-1377)
    Edward III., according to Froissart, declared that he would either succeed in the war against France or die in the pain -- "Ou il mourroit en la peine."
  326. ornamental
    serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose
    There mayst thou see devising* of harness *decoration So uncouth* and so rich, and wrought so weel *unkown, rare Of goldsmithry, of brouding*, and of steel; *embroidery The shieldes bright, the testers*, and trappures** *helmets Gold-hewen helmets, hauberks, coat-armures; **trappings Lordes in parements* on their coursers, *ornamental garb ; Knightes of retinue, and eke squiers, Nailing the spears, and helmes buckeling, Gniding* of shieldes, with lainers** lacing; *polishing
  327. sacrifice
    the act of killing (an animal or person) in order to propitiate a deity
    And for to do his rite and sacrifice He eastward hath upon the gate above, In worship of Venus, goddess of love, *Done make* an altar and an oratory; *caused to be made* And westward, in the mind and in memory Of Mars, he maked hath right such another, That coste largely of gold a fother*. *a great amount And northward, in a turret on the wall, Of alabaster white and red coral An oratory riche for to see, In worship of Diane of chastity, Hath Theseus done work in noble wise.
  328. contrive
    make or work out a plan for; devise
    The night was short, and *faste by the day *close at hand was That needes cast he must himself to hide*. the day during which And to a grove faste there beside he must cast about, or contrive, With dreadful foot then stalked Palamon. to conceal himself.*
  329. cell
    (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals
    Full many a dainty horse had he in stable: And when he rode, men might his bridle hear Jingeling in a whistling wind as clear, And eke as loud, as doth the chapel bell, There as this lord was keeper of the cell.
  330. pittance
    an inadequate payment
    He was an easy man to give penance, *There as he wist to have a good pittance:* *where he know he would For unto a poor order for to give get good payment* Is signe that a man is well y-shrive.
  331. landholder
    a holder or proprietor of land
    Vavasour: A landholder of consequence; holding of a duke, marquis, or earl, and ranking below a baron. 32.
  332. morsel
    a small amount of solid food; a mouthful
    At meate was she well y-taught withal; She let no morsel from her lippes fall, Nor wet her fingers in her sauce deep.
  333. Epicurus
    Greek philosopher who believed that the world is a random combination of atoms and that pleasure is the highest good (341-270 BC)
    To liven in delight was ever his won*, *wont For he was Epicurus' owen son, That held opinion, that plein* delight *full Was verily felicity perfite.
  334. plain
    not elaborate or elaborated; simple
    Thereto he could indite, and make a thing There coulde no wight *pinch at* his writing. *find fault with* And every statute coud* he plain by rote *knew He rode but homely in a medley* coat, *multicoloured Girt with a seint* of silk, with barres small; *sash Of his array tell I no longer tale.
  335. friar
    a male member of a religious order that originally relied solely on alms
    A FRIAR there was, a wanton and a merry, A limitour , a full solemne man.
  336. vouchsafe
    grant in a condescending manner
    With piteous* heart and high devotion *pious Right thus to Mars he said his orison "O stronge god, that in the regnes* old *realms Of Thrace honoured art, and lord y-hold* *held And hast in every regne, and every land Of armes all the bridle in thine hand, And *them fortunest as thee list devise*, *send them fortune Accept of me my piteous sacrifice. as you please* If so be that my youthe may deserve, And that my might be worthy for to serve Thy godhead, that I may be one of thine, Then pray...
  337. gird
    bind with something round or circular
    Thereto he could indite, and make a thing There coulde no wight *pinch at* his writing. *find fault with* And every statute coud* he plain by rote *knew He rode but homely in a medley* coat, *multicoloured Girt with a seint* of silk, with barres small; *sash Of his array tell I no longer tale.
  338. absolve
    grant remission of a sin to
    But well I wot, he lied right indeed: Of cursing ought each guilty man to dread, For curse will slay right as assoiling* saveth; *absolving And also 'ware him of a significavit .
  339. fresh
    recently made, produced, or harvested
    Singing he was, or fluting all the day; He was as fresh as is the month of May. Short was his gown, with sleeves long and wide.
  340. complicate
    make more complicated
    The confusion, frequent in classical writers, is complicated here by the fact that Chaucer's description of the funeral of Arcite is taken from Statius' "Thebaid" -- from a Roman's account of a Greek solemnity. 90.
  341. caste
    (Hinduism) a hereditary social class among Hindus; stratified according to ritual purity
    In gaudy green her statue clothed was, With bow in hand, and arrows in a case*. *quiver Her eyen caste she full low adown, Where Pluto hath his darke regioun.
  342. purchase
    obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction
    For though a widow hadde but one shoe, So pleasant was his In Principio, Yet would he have a farthing ere he went; His purchase was well better than his rent.
  343. franklin
    a landowner (14th and 15th centuries) who was free but not of noble birth
    Unto his order he was a noble post; Full well belov'd, and familiar was he With franklins *over all* in his country, *everywhere* And eke with worthy women of the town: For he had power of confession, As said himselfe, more than a curate, For of his order he was licentiate.
  344. tower
    a structure taller than its diameter; can stand alone or be attached to a larger building
    And in a tower, in anguish and in woe, Dwellen this Palamon, and eke Arcite, For evermore, there may no gold them quite* *set free Thus passed year by year, and day by day, Till it fell ones in a morn of May That Emily, that fairer was to seen Than is the lily upon his stalke green, And fresher than the May with flowers new (For with the rose colour strove her hue; I n'ot* which was the finer of them two), *know not Ere it was day, as she was wont to do, She was arisen, and all ready ...
  345. writhe
    to move in a twisting or contorted motion, (especially when struggling)
    And she sprang as a colt doth in the trave : And with her head she writhed fast away, And said; "I will not kiss thee, by my fay*. *faith Why let be," quoth she, "let be, Nicholas, Or I will cry out harow and alas!
  346. oath
    a solemn promise, usually invoking a divine witness, regarding your future acts or behavior
    This thing was granted, and our oath we swore With full glad heart, and prayed him also, That he would vouchesafe for to do so, And that he woulde be our governour, And of our tales judge and reportour, And set a supper at a certain price; And we will ruled be at his device, In high and low: and thus by one assent, We be accorded to his judgement.
  347. planet
    (astronomy) any of the nine large celestial bodies in the solar system that revolve around the sun and shine by reflected light; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto in order of their proximity to the sun; viewed from the constellation Hercules, all the planets rotate around the sun in a counterclockwise direction
    Mars the Red: referring to the ruddy colour of the planet, to which was doubtless due the transference to it of the name of the God of War. In his "Republic," enumerating the seven planets, Cicero speaks of the propitious and beneficent light of Jupiter: "Tum (fulgor) rutilis horribilisque terris, quem Martium dicitis" -- "Then the red glow, horrible to the nations, which you say to be that of Mars."
  348. severance
    the act of severing
    Alas departing* of our company! *the severance Alas, mine hearte's queen! alas, my wife!
  349. asunder
    into parts or pieces
    *He could in little thing have suffisance*. *he was satisfied with Wide was his parish, and houses far asunder, very little* But he ne left not, for no rain nor thunder, In sickness and in mischief to visit The farthest in his parish, *much and lit*, *great and small* Upon his feet, and in his hand a staff.
  350. deed
    a legal document signed and sealed and delivered to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it
    Eke Plato saith, whoso that can him read, The wordes must be cousin to the deed.
  351. knotty
    tangled in knots or snarls
    In which there dwelled neither man nor beast, With knotty gnarry* barren trees old *gnarled Of stubbes sharp and hideous to behold; In which there ran a rumble and a sough*, *groaning noise As though a storm should bursten every bough: And downward from an hill under a bent* *slope There stood the temple of Mars Armipotent, Wrought all of burnish'd steel, of which th' entry Was long and strait, and ghastly for to see.
  352. commune
    communicate intimately with; be in a state of heightened, intimate receptivity
    But I that am exiled, and barren Of alle grace, and in so great despair, That there n'is earthe, water, fire, nor air, Nor creature, that of them maked is, That may me helpe nor comfort in this, Well ought I *sterve in wanhope* and distress. *die in despair* Farewell my life, my lust*, and my gladness. *pleasure Alas, *why plainen men so in commune *why do men so often complain Of purveyance of God*, or of Fortune, of God's providence?*
  353. blame
    an accusation that you are responsible for some lapse or misdeed
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles certain the...
  354. concave
    curving inward
    Heart-spoon: The concave part of the breast, where the lower ribs join the cartilago ensiformis. 80.
  355. employ
    put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose
    He would the sea were kept for any thing Betwixte Middleburg and Orewell Well could he in exchange shieldes* sell *crown coins This worthy man full well his wit beset*; *employed There wiste* no wight** that he was in debt, *knew **man So *estately was he of governance* *so well he managed* With his bargains, and with his chevisance*. *business contract For sooth he was a worthy man withal, But sooth to say, I n'ot* how men him call. *know not A CLERK there was of Oxenfo...
  356. gait
    a horse's manner of moving
    Newe get: new gait, or fashion; "gait" is still used in this sense in some parts of the country. 57.
  357. miscarry
    suffer a miscarriage
    He sette not his benefice to hire, And left his sheep eucumber'd in the mire, And ran unto London, unto Saint Paul's, To seeke him a chantery for souls, Or with a brotherhood to be withold:* *detained But dwelt at home, and kepte well his fold, So that the wolf ne made it not miscarry.
  358. Cadmus
    (Greek mythology) the brother of Europa and traditional founder of Thebes in Boeotia
    How longe, Juno, through thy cruelty Wilt thou warrayen* Thebes the city? *torment Alas! y-brought is to confusion The blood royal of Cadm' and Amphion: Of Cadmus, which that was the firste man, That Thebes built, or first the town began, And of the city first was crowned king.
  359. wince
    draw back, as with fear or pain
    Wincing* she was as is a jolly colt, *skittish Long as a mast, and upright as a bolt.
  360. grudge
    a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation
    Why grudge we, why have we heaviness, That good Arcite, of chivalry the flower, Departed is, with duty and honour, Out of this foule prison of this life?
  361. reprove
    take to task
    To drawen folk to heaven, with fairness, By good ensample, was his business: *But it were* any person obstinate, *but if it were* What so he were of high or low estate, Him would he snibbe* sharply for the nones**. *reprove **nonce,occasion A better priest I trow that nowhere none is.
  362. meek
    humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness
    And of his port as meek as is a maid.
  363. husband
    a married man; a woman's partner in marriage
    She was a worthy woman all her live, Husbands at the church door had she had five, Withouten other company in youth; But thereof needeth not to speak as nouth*. *now And thrice had she been at Jerusalem; She hadde passed many a strange stream At Rome she had been, and at Bologne, In Galice at Saint James, and at Cologne; She coude* much of wand'rng by the Way. *knew Gat-toothed* was she, soothly for to say.
  364. brimstone
    an old name for sulfur
    There n'as quicksilver, litharge, nor brimstone, Boras, ceruse, nor oil of tartar none, Nor ointement that woulde cleanse or bite, That him might helpen of his whelkes* white, *pustules Nor of the knobbes* sitting on his cheeks. *buttons Well lov'd he garlic, onions, and leeks, And for to drink strong wine as red as blood.
  365. huddle
    a disorganized and densely packed crowd
    Then said; "O cruel goddess, that govern This world with binding of your word etern* *eternal And writen in the table of adamant Your parlement* and your eternal grant, *consultation What is mankind more *unto you y-hold* *by you esteemed Than is the sheep, that rouketh* in the fold! *lie huddled together For slain is man, right as another beast; And dwelleth eke in prison and arrest, And hath sickness, and great adversity, And oftentimes guilteless, pardie* *by God What governance is...
  366. covenant
    (Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
    First in the temple of Venus may'st thou see Wrought on the wall, full piteous to behold, The broken sleepes, and the sikes* cold, *sighes The sacred teares, and the waimentings*, *lamentings The fiery strokes of the desirings, That Love's servants in this life endure; The oathes, that their covenants assure.
  367. Aphrodite
    goddess of love and beauty and daughter of Zeus in ancient mythology; identified with Roman Venus
    Las: net; the invisible toils in which Hephaestus caught Ares and the faithless Aphrodite, and exposed them to the "inextinguishable laughter" of Olympus. 70.
  368. quicksilver
    a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures
    There n'as quicksilver, litharge, nor brimstone, Boras, ceruse, nor oil of tartar none, Nor ointement that woulde cleanse or bite, That him might helpen of his whelkes* white, *pustules Nor of the knobbes* sitting on his cheeks. *buttons Well lov'd he garlic, onions, and leeks, And for to drink strong wine as red as blood.
  369. conclusion
    a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration
    This worthy Duke answer'd anon again, And said, "This is a short conclusion.
  370. wail
    a cry of sorrow and grief
    For I must weep and wail, while that I live, With all the woe that prison may me give, And eke with pain that love me gives also, That doubles all my torment and my woe."
  371. eschew
    avoid and stay away from deliberately; stay clear of
    Then is it wisdom, as it thinketh me, To make a virtue of necessity, And take it well, that we may not eschew*, *escape And namely what to us all is due.
  372. disjoint
    having no elements in common
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryades; Nor...
  373. Galen
    Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)
    The names of Galen and Hippocrates were then usually spelt "Gallien" and "Hypocras" or "Ypocras". 37.
  374. patron saint
    a saint who is considered to be a defender of some group or nation
    St Julian: The patron saint of hospitality, celebrated for supplying his votaries with good lodging and good cheer. 28.
  375. unkempt
    not properly maintained or cared for
    Kemped: combed; the word survives in "unkempt." 58.
  376. fiddle
    bowed stringed instrument that is the highest member of the violin family; this instrument has four strings and a hollow body and an unfretted fingerboard and is played with a bow
    For him was lever* have at his bed's head *rather Twenty bookes, clothed in black or red, Of Aristotle, and his philosophy, Than robes rich, or fiddle, or psalt'ry.
  377. fief
    a piece of land held under the feudal system
    Palatie, or Palathia, in Anatolia, was a fief held by the Christian knights after the Turkish conquests -- the holders paying tribute to the infidel.
  378. verb
    a content word that denotes an action, occurrence, or state of existence
    In y-fall," "y" is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon "ge" prefixed to participles of verbs.
  379. discreet
    marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint
    Discreet he was, and of great reverence: He seemed such, his wordes were so wise, Justice he was full often in assize, By patent, and by plein* commission; *full For his science, and for his high renown, Of fees and robes had he many one.
  380. granted
    acknowledged as a supposition
    And if you liketh all by one assent Now for to standen at my judgement, And for to worken as I shall you say To-morrow, when ye riden on the way, Now by my father's soule that is dead, *But ye be merry, smiteth off* mine head. *unless you are merry, Hold up your hands withoute more speech. smite off my head* Our counsel was not longe for to seech*: *seek Us thought it was not worth to *make it wise*, *discuss it at length* And granted him withoute more avise*, *consideration And bade ...
  381. betray
    deliver to an enemy by treachery
    I have no language to tell Th'effecte, nor the torment of mine hell; Mine hearte may mine harmes not betray; I am so confused, that I cannot say.
  382. undertake
    enter upon an activity or enterprise
    He would the sea were kept for any thing Betwixte Middleburg and Orewell Well could he in exchange shieldes* sell *crown coins This worthy man full well his wit beset*; *employed There wiste* no wight** that he was in debt, *knew **man So *estately was he of governance* *so well he managed* With his bargains, and with his chevisance*. *business contract For sooth he was a worthy man withal, But sooth to say, I n'ot* how men him call. *know not A CLERK there was of Oxenford* als...
  383. mischance
    an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate
    Amiddes of the temple sat Mischance, With discomfort and sorry countenance; Eke saw I Woodness* laughing in his rage, *Madness Armed Complaint, Outhees*, and fierce Outrage; *Outcry The carrain* in the bush, with throat y-corve**, *corpse **slashed A thousand slain, and not *of qualm y-storve*; *dead of sickness* The tyrant, with the prey by force y-reft; The town destroy'd, that there was nothing left.
  384. stroke
    a single complete movement
    This Duke will have a course at him or tway With houndes, such as him lust* to command. *pleased And when this Duke was come to the laund, Under the sun he looked, and anon He was ware of Arcite and Palamon, That foughte breme*, as it were bulles two. *fiercely The brighte swordes wente to and fro So hideously, that with the leaste stroke It seemed that it woulde fell an oak, But what they were, nothing yet he wote*. *knew This Duke his courser with his spurres smote, *And at a start*...
  385. wild boar
    Old World wild swine having a narrow body and prominent tusks from which most domestic swine come; introduced in United States
    There saw I Actaeon an hart y-maked*, *made For vengeance that he saw Dian all naked: I saw how that his houndes have him caught, And freten* him, for that they knew him not. *devour Yet painted was, a little farthermore How Atalanta hunted the wild boar; And Meleager, and many other mo', For which Diana wrought them care and woe.
  386. felicity
    pleasing and appropriate manner or style (especially manner or style of expression)
    To liven in delight was ever his won*, *wont For he was Epicurus' owen son, That held opinion, that plein* delight *full Was verily felicity perfite.
  387. hawthorn
    a spring-flowering shrub or small tree of the genus Crataegus
    And to the grove, of which I have you told, By a venture his way began to hold, To make him a garland of the greves*, *groves Were it of woodbine, or of hawthorn leaves, And loud he sang against the sun so sheen*. *shining bright "O May, with all thy flowers and thy green, Right welcome be thou, faire freshe May, I hope that I some green here getten may."
  388. wane
    a gradual decline (in size or strength or power or number)
    This goddess on an hart full high was set*, *seated With smalle houndes all about her feet, And underneath her feet she had a moon, Waxing it was, and shoulde wane soon.
  389. wart
    any small rounded protuberance (as on certain plants or animals)
    Upon the cop* right of his nose he had *head A wart, and thereon stood a tuft of hairs Red as the bristles of a sowe's ears.
  390. Grenada
    an island state in the West Indies in the southeastern Caribbean Sea; an independent state within the British Commonwealth
    Algesiras was taken from the Moorish king of Grenada, in 1344: the Earls of Derby and Salisbury took part in the siege.
  391. Lithuania
    a republic in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea
    The knight had been placed at the head of the table, above knights of all nations, in Prussia, whither warriors from all countries were wont to repair, to aid the Teutonic Order in their continual conflicts with their heathen neighbours in "Lettowe" or Lithuania (German.
  392. scaffold
    a temporary arrangement erected around a building for convenience of workers
    The great Theseus that of his sleep is waked With minstrelsy, and noise that was maked, Held yet the chamber of his palace rich, Till that the Theban knightes both y-lich* *alike Honoured were, and to the palace fet*. *fetched Duke Theseus is at a window set, Array'd right as he were a god in throne: The people presseth thitherward full soon Him for to see, and do him reverence, And eke to hearken his hest* and his sentence**. *command **speech An herald on a scaffold made an O, ...
  393. override
    ride (a horse) too hard
    Nor was forgot, *by th'infortune of Mart* *through the misfortune The carter overridden with his cart; of war* Under the wheel full low he lay adown.
  394. cloister
    residence that is a place of religious seclusion (such as a monastery)
    He *gave not of the text a pulled hen,* *he cared nothing That saith, that hunters be not holy men: for the text* Ne that a monk, when he is cloisterless; Is like to a fish that is waterless; This is to say, a monk out of his cloister.
  395. fierce
    marked by extreme and violent energy
    This Arcite then, with full dispiteous* heart, *wrathful When he him knew, and had his tale heard, As fierce as lion pulled out a swerd, And saide thus; "By God that sitt'th above, *N'ere it* that thou art sick, and wood for love, *were it not* And eke that thou no weap'n hast in this place, Thou should'st never out of this grove pace, That thou ne shouldest dien of mine hand.
  396. avocation
    an auxiliary activity
    Sir Walter Scott, however, says that palmers were in the habit of passing from shrine to shrine, living on charity -- pilgrims on the other hand, made the journey to any shrine only once, immediately returning to their ordinary avocations.
  397. gape
    look with amazement; look stupidly
    The doors were all of adamant etern, Y-clenched *overthwart and ende-long* *crossways and lengthways* With iron tough, and, for to make it strong, Every pillar the temple to sustain Was tunne-great*, of iron bright and sheen. *thick as a tun (barrel) There saw I first the dark imagining Of felony, and all the compassing; The cruel ire, as red as any glede*, *live coal The picke-purse , and eke the pale dread; The smiler with the knife under the cloak, The shepen* burning with the blacke s...
  398. gaunt
    very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold
    A good WIFE was there OF beside BATH, But she was somedeal deaf, and that was scath*. *damage; pity Of cloth-making she hadde such an haunt*, *skill She passed them of Ypres, and of Gaunt. In all the parish wife was there none, That to the off'ring* before her should gon, *the offering at mass And if there did, certain so wroth was she, That she was out of alle charity Her coverchiefs* were full fine of ground *head-dresses I durste swear, they weighede ten pound That on the...
  399. Adonis
    (Greek mythology) a handsome youth loved by both Aphrodite and Persephone
    Adon: Adonis, a beautiful youth beloved of Venus, whose death by the tusk of a boar she deeply mourned. 64.
  400. arrange
    put into a proper or systematic order
    She gathereth flowers, party* white and red, *mingled To make a sotel* garland for her head, *subtle, well-arranged And as an angel heavenly she sung.
  401. conserve
    keep constant through physical or chemical reactions or evolutionary change
    Since thou art maid, and keeper of us all, My maidenhead thou keep and well conserve, And, while I live, a maid I will thee serve.
  402. virtue
    the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); ...
  403. compass
    navigational instrument for finding directions
    *Round was the shape, in manner of compass, Full of degrees, the height of sixty pas* *see note * That when a man was set on one degree He letted* not his fellow for to see. *hindered Eastward there stood a gate of marble white, Westward right such another opposite.
  404. garb
    clothing of a distinctive style or for a particular occasion
    There mayst thou see devising* of harness *decoration So uncouth* and so rich, and wrought so weel *unkown, rare Of goldsmithry, of brouding*, and of steel; *embroidery The shieldes bright, the testers*, and trappures** *helmets Gold-hewen helmets, hauberks, coat-armures; **trappings Lordes in parements* on their coursers, *ornamental garb ; Knightes of retinue, and eke squiers, Nailing the spears, and helmes buckeling, Gniding* of shieldes, with lainers** lacing; *polishing
  405. planetary
    of or relating to or resembling the physical or orbital characteristics of a planet or the planets
    The third hour unequal: In the third planetary hour; Palamon had gone forth in the hour of Venus, two hours before daybreak; the hour of Mercury intervened; the third hour was that of Luna, or Diana.
  406. whistle
    the sound made by something moving rapidly or by steam coming out of a small aperture
    Full many a dainty horse had he in stable: And when he rode, men might his bridle hear Jingeling in a whistling wind as clear, And eke as loud, as doth the chapel bell, There as this lord was keeper of the cell.
  407. gnarled
    used of old persons or old trees; covered with knobs or knots
    In which there dwelled neither man nor beast, With knotty gnarry* barren trees old *gnarled Of stubbes sharp and hideous to behold; In which there ran a rumble and a sough*, *groaning noise As though a storm should bursten every bough: And downward from an hill under a bent* *slope There stood the temple of Mars Armipotent, Wrought all of burnish'd steel, of which th' entry Was long and strait, and ghastly for to see.
  408. countenance
    the appearance conveyed by a person's face
    Vernicle: an image of Christ; so called from St Veronica, who gave the Saviour a napkin to wipe the sweat from His face as He bore the Cross, and received it back with an impression of His countenance upon it. 58.
  409. boon
    a desirable state
    For though the signe shewed a delay, Yet wist he well that granted was his boon; And with glad heart he went him home full soon.
  410. survive
    continue in existence after (an adversity, etc.)
    "Hallows" survives, in the meaning here given, in All Hallows -- All-Saints -- day.
  411. assemble
    create by putting components or members together
    Now have I told you shortly in a clause Th' estate, th' array, the number, and eke the cause Why that assembled was this company In Southwark at this gentle hostelry, That highte the Tabard, fast by the Bell.
  412. similitude
    similarity in appearance or character or nature between persons or things
    Jealous he was, and held her narr'w in cage, For she was wild and young, and he was old, And deemed himself belike* a cuckold. *perhaps He knew not Cato, for his wit was rude, That bade a man wed his similitude.
  413. paraphrase
    express the same message in different words
    The "Tale" is more or less a paraphrase of Boccaccio's "Theseida;" but in some points the copy has a distinct dramatic superiority over the original.
  414. strait
    a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water
    The rule of Saint Maur and of Saint Benet, Because that it was old and somedeal strait This ilke* monk let olde thinges pace, *same And held after the newe world the trace.
  415. flute
    a high-pitched woodwind instrument; a slender tube closed at one end with finger holes on one end and an opening near the closed end across which the breath is blown
    Singing he was, or fluting all the day; He was as fresh as is the month of May. Short was his gown, with sleeves long and wide.
  416. alder
    north temperate shrubs or trees having toothed leaves and conelike fruit; bark is used in tanning and dyeing and the wood is rot-resistant
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryad...
  417. compose
    form the substance of
    The "Knight's Tale" is supposed to have been at first composed as a separate work; it is undetermined whether Chaucer took it direct from the Italian of Boccaccio, or from a French translation. 2.
  418. weasel
    small carnivorous mammal with short legs and elongated body and neck
    Fair was this younge wife, and therewithal As any weasel her body gent* and small. *slim, neat A seint* she weared, barred all of silk, *girdle A barm-cloth* eke as white as morning milk *apron Upon her lendes*, full of many a gore**. *loins **plait White was her smock*, and broider'd all before, *robe or gown And eke behind, on her collar about Of coal-black silk, within and eke without.
  419. obeisance
    bending the head or body or knee as a sign of reverence or submission or shame or greeting
    Then seemed me there was a parlement At Athens, upon certain points and cas*: *cases Amonge the which points y-spoken was To have with certain countries alliance, And have of Thebans full obeisance.
  420. deem
    keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view
    Now deem all as you liste, ye that can, For I will tell you forth as I began.
  421. lisp
    a speech defect that involves pronouncing `s' like voiceless `th' and `z' like voiced `th'
    Somewhat he lisped for his wantonness, To make his English sweet upon his tongue; And in his harping, when that he had sung, His eyen* twinkled in his head aright, *eyes As do the starres in a frosty night.
  422. coy
    modestly or warily rejecting approaches or overtures
    An horn he bare, the baldric was of green: A forester was he soothly* as I guess. *certainly There was also a Nun, a PRIORESS, That of her smiling was full simple and coy; Her greatest oathe was but by Saint Loy; And she was cleped* Madame Eglentine. *called Full well she sang the service divine, Entuned in her nose full seemly; And French she spake full fair and fetisly* *properly After the school of Stratford atte Bow, For French of Paris was to her unknow.
  423. penance
    voluntary self-punishment in order to atone for some wrongdoing
    He was an easy man to give penance, *There as he wist to have a good pittance:* *where he know he would For unto a poor order for to give get good payment* Is signe that a man is well y-shrive.
  424. Flanders
    a medieval country in northern Europe that included regions now parts of northern France and Belgium and southwestern Netherlands
    Of his stature he was of even length, And *wonderly deliver*, and great of strength. *wonderfully nimble* And he had been some time in chevachie*, *cavalry raids In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardie, And borne him well, *as of so little space*, *in such a short time* In hope to standen in his lady's grace.
  425. louse
    wingless usually flattened bloodsucking insect parasitic on warm-blooded animals
    Lyke-wake: watching by the remains of the dead; from Anglo-Saxon, "lice," a corpse; German, "Leichnam." 91.
  426. fantasy
    imagination unrestricted by reality
    Before his head in his cell fantastic: in front of his head in his cell of fantasy.
  427. injure
    cause injuries or bodily harm to
    And ye shall both anon unto me swear, That never more ye shall my country dere* *injure Nor make war upon me night nor day, But be my friends in alle that ye may.
  428. grovel
    show submission or fear
    And with that word, withoute more respite They fallen groff,* and cryden piteously; *grovelling "Have on us wretched women some mercy, And let our sorrow sinken in thine heart."
  429. gap
    an open or empty space in or between things
    Gat-toothed: Buck-toothed; goat-toothed, to signify her wantonness; or gap-toothed -- with gaps between her teeth. 42.
  430. asp
    cobra used by the Pharaohs as a symbol of their power over life and death
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryad...
  431. divide
    a serious disagreement between two groups of people (typically producing tension or hostility)
    For soothly all the mount of Citheron, Where Venus hath her principal dwelling, Was showed on the wall in pourtraying, With all the garden, and the lustiness*. *pleasantness Nor was forgot the porter Idleness, Nor Narcissus the fair of *yore agone*, *olden times* Nor yet the folly of King Solomon, Nor yet the greate strength of Hercules, Th' enchantments of Medea and Circes, Nor of Turnus the hardy fierce courage, The rich Croesus *caitif in servage.* *abased into slavery* Thus may ...
  432. passe
    out of fashion
    But when thou hast for her, and thee, and me, Y-gotten us these kneading tubbes three, Then shalt thou hang them in the roof full high, So that no man our purveyance* espy: *foresight, providence And when thou hast done thus as I have said, And hast our vitaille fair in them y-laid, And eke an axe to smite the cord in two When that the water comes, that we may go, And break an hole on high upon the gable Into the garden-ward, over the stable, That we may freely passe forth our way, Wh...
  433. trumpeter
    a musician who plays the trumpet or cornet
    The trumpeters with the loud minstrelsy, The heralds, that full loude yell and cry, Be in their joy for weal of Dan* Arcite.
  434. thrall
    the state of being under the control of another person
    Of his lineage am I, and his offspring By very line, as of the stock royal; And now I am *so caitiff and so thrall*, *wretched and enslaved* That he that is my mortal enemy, I serve him as his squier poorely.
  435. qualm
    uneasiness about the fitness of an action
    Amiddes of the temple sat Mischance, With discomfort and sorry countenance; Eke saw I Woodness* laughing in his rage, *Madness Armed Complaint, Outhees*, and fierce Outrage; *Outcry The carrain* in the bush, with throat y-corve**, *corpse **slashed A thousand slain, and not *of qualm y-storve*; *dead of sickness* The tyrant, with the prey by force y-reft; The town destroy'd, that there was nothing left.
  436. assize
    the regulation of weights and measures of articles offered for sale
    Discreet he was, and of great reverence: He seemed such, his wordes were so wise, Justice he was full often in assize, By patent, and by plein* commission; *full For his science, and for his high renown, Of fees and robes had he many one.
  437. salve
    semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation
    And of another thing they were as fain*. *glad That of them alle was there no one slain, All* were they sorely hurt, and namely** one, *although **especially That with a spear was thirled* his breast-bone. *pierced To other woundes, and to broken arms, Some hadden salves, and some hadden charms: And pharmacies of herbs, and eke save* *sage, Salvia officinalis They dranken, for they would their lives have.
  438. garlic
    bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
    There n'as quicksilver, litharge, nor brimstone, Boras, ceruse, nor oil of tartar none, Nor ointement that woulde cleanse or bite, That him might helpen of his whelkes* white, *pustules Nor of the knobbes* sitting on his cheeks. *buttons Well lov'd he garlic, onions, and leeks, And for to drink strong wine as red as blood.
  439. holiness
    the quality of being holy
    What wilt thou say? *thou wist it not right now* *even now thou Whether she be a woman or goddess. knowest not* Thine is affection of holiness, And mine is love, as to a creature: For which I tolde thee mine aventure As to my cousin, and my brother sworn I pose*, that thou loved'st her beforn: *suppose Wost* thou not well the olde clerke's saw , *know'st That who shall give a lover any law?
  440. finch
    any of numerous small songbirds with short stout bills adapted for crushing seeds
    Full privily a *finch eke could he pull*. *"fleece" a man* And if he found owhere* a good fellaw, *anywhere He woulde teache him to have none awe In such a case of the archdeacon's curse; *But if* a manne's soul were in his purse; *unless* For in his purse he should y-punished be.
  441. accord
    concurrence of opinion
    This thing was granted, and our oath we swore With full glad heart, and prayed him also, That he would vouchesafe for to do so, And that he woulde be our governour, And of our tales judge and reportour, And set a supper at a certain price; And we will ruled be at his device, In high and low: and thus by one assent, We be accorded to his judgement.
  442. nourish
    provide with nourishment
    He was a very perfect practisour The cause y-know,* and of his harm the root, *known Anon he gave to the sick man his boot* *remedy Full ready had he his apothecaries, To send his drugges and his lectuaries For each of them made other for to win Their friendship was not newe to begin Well knew he the old Esculapius, And Dioscorides, and eke Rufus; Old Hippocras, Hali, and Gallien; Serapion, Rasis, and Avicen; Averrois, Damascene, and Constantin; Bernard, and Gatisden, and Gilbertin. Of ...
  443. coronet
    a small crown; usually indicates a high rank but below that of sovereign
    A coronet of green oak cerriall Upon her head was set full fair and meet.
  444. fillet
    a longitudinal slice or boned side of a fish
    The tapes of her white volupere* *head-kerchief Were of the same suit of her collere; Her fillet broad of silk, and set full high: And sickerly* she had a likerous** eye. *certainly **lascivious Full small y-pulled were her browes two, And they were bent*, and black as any sloe. *arched She was well more *blissful on to see* *pleasant to look upon* Than is the newe perjenete* tree; *young pear-tree And softer than the wool is of a wether.
  445. hap
    come to pass
    Of masters had he more than thries ten, That were of law expert and curious: Of which there was a dozen in that house, Worthy to be stewards of rent and land Of any lord that is in Engleland, To make him live by his proper good, In honour debtless, *but if he were wood*, *unless he were mad* Or live as scarcely as him list desire; And able for to helpen all a shire In any case that mighte fall or hap; And yet this Manciple *set their aller cap* *outwitted them all* The REEVE was ...
  446. disposition
    your usual mood
    In courtesy was set full much her lest*. *pleasure Her over-lippe wiped she so clean, That in her cup there was no farthing* seen *speck Of grease, when she drunken had her draught; Full seemely after her meat she raught*: *reached out her hand And *sickerly she was of great disport*, *surely she was of a lively And full pleasant, and amiable of port, disposition* And *pained her to counterfeite cheer *took pains to assume Of court,* and be estately of mannere, a courtly disposition* ...
  447. allege
    report or maintain
    There needeth no authority to allege For it is proved by experience; But that me list declare my sentence*. *opinion Then may men by this order well discern, That thilke* mover stable is and etern. *the same Well may men know, but that it be a fool, That every part deriveth from its whole.
  448. avow
    to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true
    Consider all this, and *rue upon* my sore, *take pity on* As wisly* as I shall for evermore *truly Enforce my might, thy true servant to be, And holde war alway with chastity: That make I mine avow*, so ye me help. *vow, promise I keepe not of armes for to yelp,* *boast Nor ask I not to-morrow to have victory, Nor renown in this case, nor vaine glory Of *prize of armes*, blowing up and down, *praise for valour* But I would have fully possessioun Of Emily, and die in her service; Find ...
  449. carp
    any of various freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae
    In fellowship well could she laugh and carp* *jest, talk Of remedies of love she knew perchance For of that art she coud* the olde dance. *knew A good man there was of religion, That was a poore PARSON of a town: But rich he was of holy thought and werk*. *work He was also a learned man, a clerk, That Christe's gospel truly woulde preach.
  450. enforce
    compel to behave in a certain way
    Consider all this, and *rue upon* my sore, *take pity on* As wisly* as I shall for evermore *truly Enforce my might, thy true servant to be, And holde war alway with chastity: That make I mine avow*, so ye me help. *vow, promise I keepe not of armes for to yelp,* *boast Nor ask I not to-morrow to have victory, Nor renown in this case, nor vaine glory Of *prize of armes*, blowing up and down, *praise for valour* But I would have fully possessioun Of Emily, and die in her service; Find ...
  451. votary
    a priest or priestess (or consecrated worshipper) in a non-Christian religion or cult
    St Julian: The patron saint of hospitality, celebrated for supplying his votaries with good lodging and good cheer. 28.
  452. anvil
    a heavy block of iron or steel on which hot metals are shaped by hammering
    There were also of Mars' division, The armourer, the bowyer*, and the smith, *maker of bows That forgeth sharp swordes on his stith*. *anvil And all above depainted in a tower Saw I Conquest, sitting in great honour, With thilke* sharpe sword over his head *that Hanging by a subtle y-twined thread.
  453. sight
    the ability to see; the visual faculty
    And with that word Arcita *gan espy* *began to look forth* Where as this lady roamed to and fro And with that sight her beauty hurt him so, That if that Palamon was wounded sore, Arcite is hurt as much as he, or more.
  454. guile
    shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception
    And *in two ranges faire they them dress*. *they arranged themselves When that their names read were every one, in two rows* That in their number guile* were there none, *fraud Then were the gates shut, and cried was loud; "Do now your devoir, younge knights proud The heralds left their pricking* up and down *spurring their horses Now ring the trumpet loud and clarioun.
  455. Phoebus
    (Greek mythology) Greek god of light; god of prophecy and poetry and music and healing; son of Zeus and Leto; twin brother of Artemis
    The busy lark, the messenger of day, Saluteth in her song the morning gray; And fiery Phoebus riseth up so bright, That all the orient laugheth at the sight, And with his streames* drieth in the greves** *rays **groves The silver droppes, hanging on the leaves; And Arcite, that is in the court royal With Theseus, his squier principal, Is ris'n, and looketh on the merry day.
  456. Red
    a tributary of the Mississippi River that flows eastward from Texas along the southern boundary of Oklahoma and through Louisiana
    Upon the cop* right of his nose he had *head A wart, and thereon stood a tuft of hairs Red as the bristles of a sowe's ears.
  457. ascendancy
    the state that exists when one person or group has power over another
    The astrologers ascribed great power to Saturn, and predicted "much debate" under his ascendancy; hence it was "against his kind" to compose the heavenly strife. 72.
  458. absolution
    the act of absolving or remitting; formal redemption as pronounced by a priest in the sacrament of penance
    Full sweetely heard he confession, And pleasant was his absolution.
  459. ape
    any of various primates with short tails or no tail at all
    But with these relics, whenne that he fond A poore parson dwelling upon lond, Upon a day he got him more money Than that the parson got in moneths tway; And thus with feigned flattering and japes*, *jests He made the parson and the people his apes.
  460. fret
    be agitated or irritated
    Yet saw I brent* the shippes hoppesteres, *burnt The hunter strangled with the wilde bears: The sow freting* the child right in the cradle; *devouring The cook scalded, for all his longe ladle.
  461. decease
    the event of dying or departure from life
    The "guise" was, among the ancients, for the nearest relative of the deceased to do this, with averted face. 89.
  462. medley
    a musical composition consisting of a series of songs or other musical pieces from various sources
    Thereto he could indite, and make a thing There coulde no wight *pinch at* his writing. *find fault with* And every statute coud* he plain by rote *knew He rode but homely in a medley* coat, *multicoloured Girt with a seint* of silk, with barres small; *sash Of his array tell I no longer tale.
  463. jay
    crested largely blue bird
    And eke ye knowen well, how that a jay Can clepen* "Wat," as well as can the Pope. *call But whoso would in other thing him grope*, *search Then had he spent all his philosophy, Aye, Questio quid juris, would he cry.
  464. quaver
    give off unsteady sounds, alternating in amplitude or frequency
    He singeth brokking* as a nightingale. *quavering He sent her piment , mead, and spiced ale, And wafers* piping hot out of the glede**: *cakes **coals And, for she was of town, he proffer'd meed.
  465. licentious
    lacking moral discipline; especially sexually unrestrained
    In twenty manners could he trip and dance, After the school of Oxenforde tho*, *then And with his legges caste to and fro; And playen songes on a small ribible*; *fiddle Thereto he sung sometimes a loud quinible* *treble And as well could he play on a gitern.* *guitar In all the town was brewhouse nor tavern, That he not visited with his solas*, *mirth, sport There as that any *garnard tapstere* was. *licentious barmaid* But sooth to say he was somedeal squaimous* *squeamish Of fa...
  466. freckle
    a small brownish spot (of the pigment melanin) on the skin
    His nose was high, his eyen bright citrine*, *pale yellow His lips were round, his colour was sanguine, A fewe fracknes* in his face y-sprent**, *freckles **sprinkled Betwixte yellow and black somedeal y-ment* *mixed And as a lion he *his looking cast* *cast about his eyes* Of five and twenty year his age I cast* *reckon His beard was well begunnen for to spring; His voice was as a trumpet thundering.
  467. quiver
    shake with fast, tremulous movements
    In gaudy green her statue clothed was, With bow in hand, and arrows in a case*. *quiver Her eyen caste she full low adown, Where Pluto hath his darke regioun.
  468. mischief
    reckless or malicious behavior that causes discomfort or annoyance in others
    *He could in little thing have suffisance*. *he was satisfied with Wide was his parish, and houses far asunder, very little* But he ne left not, for no rain nor thunder, In sickness and in mischief to visit The farthest in his parish, *much and lit*, *great and small* Upon his feet, and in his hand a staff.
  469. Austin
    state capital of Texas on the Colorado River; site of the University of Texas
    Why should he study, and make himselfe wood* *mad Upon a book in cloister always pore, Or swinken* with his handes, and labour, *toil As Austin bid? how shall the world be served?
  470. progression
    the act of moving forward (as toward a goal)
    And therefore of His wise purveyance* *providence He hath so well beset* his ordinance, That species of things and progressions Shallen endure by successions, And not etern, withouten any lie: This mayst thou understand and see at eye.
  471. invocation
    the act of appealing for help
    Boccaccio opens the "Theseida" by an invocation to "rubicondo Marte." 38.
  472. Julius Caesar
    conqueror of Gaul and master of Italy (100-44 BC)
    Julius Caesar 51.
  473. country
    the territory occupied by a nation
    Unto his order he was a noble post; Full well belov'd, and familiar was he With franklins *over all* in his country, *everywhere* And eke with worthy women of the town: For he had power of confession, As said himselfe, more than a curate, For of his order he was licentiate.
  474. duration
    the period of time during which something continues
    "The firste mover of the cause above When he first made the faire chain of love, Great was th' effect, and high was his intent; Well wist he why, and what thereof he meant: For with that faire chain of love he bond* *bound The fire, the air, the water, and the lond In certain bondes, that they may not flee: That same prince and mover eke," quoth he, "Hath stablish'd, in this wretched world adown, Certain of dayes and duration To all that are engender'd in this place, Over the whic...
  475. abate
    become less in amount or intensity
    Anon go get us fast into this inn* *house A kneading trough, or else a kemelin*, *brewing-tub For each of us; but look that they be large, In whiche we may swim* as in a barge: *float And have therein vitaille suffisant But for one day; fie on the remenant; The water shall aslake* and go away *slacken, abate Aboute prime* upon the nexte day. *early morning But Robin may not know of this, thy knave*, *servant Nor eke thy maiden Gill I may not save: Ask me not why: for though thou aske ...
  476. Olympus
    a mountain peak in northeast Greece near the Aegean coast; believed by ancient Greeks to be the dwelling place of the gods (9,570 feet high)
    Las: net; the invisible toils in which Hephaestus caught Ares and the faithless Aphrodite, and exposed them to the "inextinguishable laughter" of Olympus. 70.
  477. wreak
    cause to happen or to occur as a consequence
    And in his armes he them all up hent*, *raised, took And them comforted in full good intent, And swore his oath, as he was true knight, He woulde do *so farforthly his might* *as far as his power went* Upon the tyrant Creon them to wreak*, *avenge That all the people of Greece shoulde speak, How Creon was of Theseus y-served, As he that had his death full well deserved.
  478. amphitheatre
    an oval large stadium with tiers of seats; an arena in which contests and spectacles are held
    "Round was the shape, in manner of compass, Full of degrees, the height of sixty pas" The building was a circle of steps or benches, as in the ancient amphitheatre.
  479. surety
    something clearly established
    For I defy the surety and the band, Which that thou sayest I have made to thee.
  480. abbot
    the superior of an abbey of monks
    A MONK there was, a fair *for the mast'ry*, *above all others* An out-rider, that loved venery*; *hunting A manly man, to be an abbot able.
  481. menial
    used of unskilled work (especially domestic work)
    Meinie: servants, or menials, &c., dwelling together in a house; from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning a crowd.
  482. felony
    a serious crime (such as murder or arson)
    The doors were all of adamant etern, Y-clenched *overthwart and ende-long* *crossways and lengthways* With iron tough, and, for to make it strong, Every pillar the temple to sustain Was tunne-great*, of iron bright and sheen. *thick as a tun (barrel) There saw I first the dark imagining Of felony, and all the compassing; The cruel ire, as red as any glede*, *live coal The picke-purse , and eke the pale dread; The smiler with the knife under the cloak, The shepen* burning with the b...
  483. overcast
    filled or abounding with clouds
    When that Arcite had roamed all his fill, And *sungen all the roundel* lustily, *sang the roundelay* Into a study he fell suddenly, As do those lovers in their *quainte gears*, *odd fashions* Now in the crop*, and now down in the breres**, *tree-top Now up, now down, as bucket in a well. **briars Right as the Friday, soothly for to tell, Now shineth it, and now it raineth fast, Right so can geary* Venus overcast *changeful The heartes of her folk, right as her day Is gearful*...
  484. straw
    plant fiber used e.g. for making baskets and hats or as fodder
    Of all the remnant of mine other care Ne set I not the *mountance of a tare*, *value of a straw* So that I could do aught to your pleasance."
  485. piping
    a long tube made of metal or plastic that is used to carry water or oil or gas etc.
    He singeth brokking* as a nightingale. *quavering He sent her piment , mead, and spiced ale, And wafers* piping hot out of the glede**: *cakes **coals And, for she was of town, he proffer'd meed.
  486. burnish
    polish and make shiny
    Of brent* gold was the case** and the harness: *burnished **quiver And ride forth *a pace* with sorrowful cheer** *at a foot pace* Toward the grove, as ye shall after hear. **expression The noblest of the Greekes that there were Upon their shoulders carried the bier, With slacke pace, and eyen red and wet, Throughout the city, by the master* street, *main That spread was all with black, and wondrous high Right of the same is all the street y-wrie.* *covered Upon the right ha...
  487. text
    the words of something written
    He *gave not of the text a pulled hen,* *he cared nothing That saith, that hunters be not holy men: for the text* Ne that a monk, when he is cloisterless; Is like to a fish that is waterless; This is to say, a monk out of his cloister.
  488. founder
    a person who founds or establishes some institution
    St. Benedict was the first founder of a spiritual order in the Roman church.
  489. menace
    something that is a source of danger
    The doors were all of adamant etern, Y-clenched *overthwart and ende-long* *crossways and lengthways* With iron tough, and, for to make it strong, Every pillar the temple to sustain Was tunne-great*, of iron bright and sheen. *thick as a tun (barrel) There saw I first the dark imagining Of felony, and all the compassing; The cruel ire, as red as any glede*, *live coal The picke-purse , and eke the pale dread; The smiler with the knife under the cloak, The shepen* burning with the blacke s...
  490. kindred
    group of people related by blood or marriage
    Thou walkest now in Thebes at thy large, And of my woe thou *givest little charge*. *takest little heed* Thou mayst, since thou hast wisdom and manhead*, *manhood, courage Assemble all the folk of our kindred, And make a war so sharp on this country That by some aventure, or some treaty, Thou mayst have her to lady and to wife, For whom that I must needes lose my life.
  491. stout
    having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
    The MILLER was a stout carle for the nones, Full big he was of brawn, and eke of bones; That proved well, for *ov'r all where* he came, *wheresoever* At wrestling he would bear away the ram.
  492. linden
    any of various deciduous trees of the genus Tilia with heart-shaped leaves and drooping cymose clusters of yellowish often fragrant flowers; several yield valuable timber
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryad...
  493. sovereign
    a nation's ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right
    This ilke* worthy knight had been also *same Some time with the lord of Palatie, Against another heathen in Turkie: And evermore *he had a sovereign price*.
  494. trappings
    (usually plural) accessory wearing apparel
    There mayst thou see devising* of harness *decoration So uncouth* and so rich, and wrought so weel *unkown, rare Of goldsmithry, of brouding*, and of steel; *embroidery The shieldes bright, the testers*, and trappures** *helmets Gold-hewen helmets, hauberks, coat-armures; **trappings Lordes in parements* on their coursers, *ornamental garb ; Knightes of retinue, and eke squiers, Nailing the spears, and helmes buckeling, Gniding* of shieldes, with lainers** lacing; *polishing
  495. siege
    the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack
    In Grenade at the siege eke had he be Of Algesir, and ridden in Belmarie. At Leyes was he, and at Satalie, When they were won; and in the Greate Sea At many a noble army had he be.
  496. delinquent
    a young offender
    Sompnour: summoner; an apparitor, who cited delinquents to appear in ecclesiastical courts. 51.
  497. usage
    the act of using
    A nut-head had he, with a brown visiage: Of wood-craft coud* he well all the usage: *knew Upon his arm he bare a gay bracer*, *small shield And by his side a sword and a buckler, And on that other side a gay daggere, Harnessed well, and sharp as point of spear: A Christopher on his breast of silver sheen.
  498. gruff
    brusque and surly and forbidding
    Pilate, an unpopular personage in the mystery-plays of the middle ages, was probably represented as having a gruff, harsh voice. 2.
  499. coffer
    a chest especially for storing valuables
    But all be that he was a philosopher, Yet hadde he but little gold in coffer, But all that he might of his friendes hent*, *obtain On bookes and on learning he it spent, And busily gan for the soules pray Of them that gave him wherewith to scholay* *study Of study took he moste care and heed.
  500. amend
    make amendments to
    Or who hath you misboden*, or offended? *wronged Do telle me, if it may be amended; And why that ye be clad thus all in black?"
  501. purgatory
    (theology) in Roman Catholic theology the place where those who have died in a state of grace undergo limited torment to expiate their sins
    Now is my prison worse than beforn: *Now is me shape* eternally to dwell *it is fixed for me* Not in purgatory, but right in hell.
  502. geometry
    the pure mathematics of points and lines and curves and surfaces
    And, shortly to conclude, such a place Was never on earth made in so little space, For in the land there was no craftes-man, That geometry or arsmetrike* can**, *arithmetic **knew Nor pourtrayor*, nor carver of images, *portrait painter That Theseus ne gave him meat and wages The theatre to make and to devise.
  503. memory
    the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered
    His tippet was aye farsed* full of knives *stuffed And pinnes, for to give to faire wives; And certainly he had a merry note: Well could he sing and playen *on a rote*; *from memory* Of yeddings* he bare utterly the prize. *songs His neck was white as is the fleur-de-lis.
  504. pearl
    a smooth lustrous round structure inside the shell of a clam or oyster; much valued as a jewel
    His coat-armour was of *a cloth of Tars*, *a kind of silk* Couched* with pearls white and round and great *trimmed His saddle was of burnish'd gold new beat; A mantelet on his shoulders hanging, Bretful* of rubies red, as fire sparkling. *brimful His crispe hair like ringes was y-run, And that was yellow, glittering as the sun.
  505. story
    a record or narrative description of past events
    Well could he read a lesson or a story, But alderbest* he sang an offertory: *best of all For well he wiste, when that song was sung, He muste preach, and well afile* his tongue, *polish To winne silver, as he right well could: Therefore he sang full merrily and loud.
  506. bewail
    regret strongly
    Waimenting: bewailing; German, "wehklagen" 7.
  507. bristle
    a stiff hair
    Upon the cop* right of his nose he had *head A wart, and thereon stood a tuft of hairs Red as the bristles of a sowe's ears.
  508. aspen
    any of several trees of the genus Populus having leaves on flattened stalks so that they flutter in the lightest wind
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryad...
  509. describe
    give a description of
    The chamber, and the stables were wide, And *well we weren eased at the best.* *we were well provided And shortly, when the sunne was to rest, with the best* So had I spoken with them every one, That I was of their fellowship anon, And made forword* early for to rise, *promise To take our way there as I you devise*. *describe, relate But natheless, while I have time and space, Ere that I farther in this tale pace, Me thinketh it accordant to reason, To tell you alle the condition Of e...
  510. distress
    a state of adversity (danger or affliction or need)
    Have mercy on our woe and our distress; Some drop of pity, through thy gentleness, Upon us wretched women let now fall.
  511. city
    a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts
    That lord is now of Thebes the city, Fulfilled of ire and of iniquity, He for despite, and for his tyranny, To do the deade bodies villainy*, *insult Of all our lorde's, which that been y-slaw, *slain Hath all the bodies on an heap y-draw, And will not suffer them by none assent Neither to be y-buried, nor y-brent*, *burnt But maketh houndes eat them in despite."
  512. archdeacon
    (Anglican Church) an ecclesiastical dignitary usually ranking just below a bishop
    Full privily a *finch eke could he pull*. *"fleece" a man* And if he found owhere* a good fellaw, *anywhere He woulde teache him to have none awe In such a case of the archdeacon's curse; *But if* a manne's soul were in his purse; *unless* For in his purse he should y-punished be.
  513. tusk
    a long pointed tooth specialized for fighting or digging; especially in an elephant or walrus or hog
    Adon: Adonis, a beautiful youth beloved of Venus, whose death by the tusk of a boar she deeply mourned. 64.
  514. conjecture
    to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds
    There mayst thou see devising* of harness *decoration So uncouth* and so rich, and wrought so weel *unkown, rare Of goldsmithry, of brouding*, and of steel; *embroidery The shieldes bright, the testers*, and trappures** *helmets Gold-hewen helmets, hauberks, coat-armures; **trappings Lordes in parements* on their coursers, *ornamental garb ; Knightes of retinue, and eke squiers, Nailing the spears, and helmes buckeling, Gniding* of shieldes, with lainers** lacing; *polishing The...
  515. chamberlain
    an officer who manages the household of a king or nobleman
    And all alone, save only a squier, That knew his privity* and all his cas**, *secrets **fortune Which was disguised poorly as he was, To Athens is he gone the nexte* way. *nearest And to the court he went upon a day, And at the gate he proffer'd his service, To drudge and draw, what so men would devise*. *order And, shortly of this matter for to sayn, He fell in office with a chamberlain, The which that dwelling was with Emily.
  516. apothecary
    a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
    He was a very perfect practisour The cause y-know,* and of his harm the root, *known Anon he gave to the sick man his boot* *remedy Full ready had he his apothecaries, To send his drugges and his lectuaries For each of them made other for to win Their friendship was not newe to begin Well knew he the old Esculapius, And Dioscorides, and eke Rufus; Old Hippocras, Hali, and Gallien; Serapion, Rasis, and Avicen; Averrois, Damascene, and Constantin; Bernard, and Gatisden, and Gilbertin.
  517. yelp
    a sharp high-pitched cry (especially by a dog)
    Consider all this, and *rue upon* my sore, *take pity on* As wisly* as I shall for evermore *truly Enforce my might, thy true servant to be, And holde war alway with chastity: That make I mine avow*, so ye me help. *vow, promise I keepe not of armes for to yelp,* *boast Nor ask I not to-morrow to have victory, Nor renown in this case, nor vaine glory Of *prize of armes*, blowing up and down, *praise for valour* But I would have fully possessioun Of Emily, and die in her service; Find ...
  518. dormant
    inactive but capable of becoming active
    His table dormant* in his hall alway *fixed Stood ready cover'd all the longe day.
  519. yew
    any of numerous evergreen trees or shrubs having red cup-shaped berries and flattened needlelike leaves
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryad...
  520. quaint
    attractively old-fashioned (but not necessarily authentic)
    The fires burn upon the altar clear, While Emily was thus in her prayere: But suddenly she saw a sighte quaint*. *strange For right anon one of the fire's *queint And quick'd* again, and after that anon *went out and revived* That other fire was queint, and all agone: And as it queint, it made a whisteling, As doth a brande wet in its burning.
  521. seaport
    a sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo
    Middleburg, at the mouth of the Scheldt, in Holland; Orwell, a seaport in Essex. 24.
  522. milestone
    stone post at side of a road to show distances
    The watering of Saint Thomas: At the second milestone on the old Canterbury road.
  523. confuse
    mistake one thing for another
    I have no language to tell Th'effecte, nor the torment of mine hell; Mine hearte may mine harmes not betray; I am so confused, that I cannot say.
  524. fickle
    liable to sudden unpredictable change
    This world is now full fickle sickerly*. *certainly I saw to-day a corpse y-borne to chirch, That now on Monday last I saw him wirch*. *work "Go up," quod he unto his knave*, "anon; *servant.
  525. sinew
    a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment
    The virtue expulsive or animal, From thilke virtue called natural, Nor may the venom voide, nor expel The pipes of his lungs began to swell And every lacert* in his breast adown *sinew, muscle Is shent* with venom and corruption. *destroyed Him gaineth* neither, for to get his life, *availeth Vomit upward, nor downward laxative; All is to-bursten thilke region; Nature hath now no domination.
  526. deceive
    cause someone to believe an untruth
    And with that word he fell down in a trance A longe time; and afterward upstart This Palamon, that thought thorough his heart He felt a cold sword suddenly to glide: For ire he quoke*, no longer would he hide. *quaked And when that he had heard Arcite's tale, As he were wood*, with face dead and pale, *mad He start him up out of the bushes thick, And said: "False Arcita, false traitor wick'*, *wicked Now art thou hent*, that lov'st my lady so, *caught For whom that I have all this pain and w...
  527. flax
    plant of the genus Linum that is cultivated for its seeds and for the fibers of its stem
    This Pardoner had hair as yellow as wax, But smooth it hung, as doth a strike* of flax: *strip By ounces hung his lockes that he had, And therewith he his shoulders oversprad.
  528. sallow
    unhealthy looking
    His sleep, his meat, his drink is *him byraft*, *taken away from him* That lean he wex*, and dry as any shaft. *became His eyen hollow, grisly to behold, His hue sallow, and pale as ashes cold, And solitary he was, ever alone, And wailing all the night, making his moan.
  529. decorated
    provided with something intended to increase its beauty or distinction
    With Arcita, in stories as men find, The great Emetrius the king of Ind, Upon a *steede bay* trapped in steel, *bay horse* Cover'd with cloth of gold diapred* well, *decorated Came riding like the god of armes, Mars.
  530. division
    the act of dividing or partitioning; separation by the creation of a boundary that divides or keeps apart
    That lord hath little of discretion, That in such case *can no division*: *can make no distinction* But weigheth pride and humbless *after one*." *alike* And shortly, when his ire is thus agone, He gan to look on them with eyen light*, *gentle, lenient* And spake these same wordes *all on height.* *aloud* "The god of love, ah! benedicite*, *bless ye him How mighty and how great a lord is he!
  531. ancient
    belonging to times long past especially of the historical period before the fall of the Western Roman Empire
    Thirteen years before, the same Prince had taken Satalie, the ancient Attalia, in Anatolia, and in 1367 he won Layas, in Armenia, both places named just below. 7.
  532. Armenia
    a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian soviet; modern Armenia is but a fragment of ancient Armenia which was one of the world's oldest civilizations; throughout 2500 years the Armenian people have been invaded and oppressed by their neighbors
    Thirteen years before, the same Prince had taken Satalie, the ancient Attalia, in Anatolia, and in 1367 he won Layas, in Armenia, both places named just below. 7.
  533. ulcer
    a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue
    But great harm was it, as it thoughte me, That, on his shin a mormal* hadde he. *ulcer For blanc manger, that made he with the best A SHIPMAN was there, *wonned far by West*: *who dwelt far For ought I wot, be was of Dartemouth. to the West* He rode upon a rouncy*, as he couth, *hack All in a gown of falding* to the knee. *coarse cloth A dagger hanging by a lace had he About his neck under his arm adown; The hot summer had made his hue all brown; And certainly he was a good fellaw.
  534. haste
    overly eager speed (and possible carelessness)
    The statue of Mars upon a carte* stood *chariot Armed, and looked grim as he were wood*, *mad And over his head there shone two figures Of starres, that be cleped in scriptures, That one Puella, that other Rubeus. This god of armes was arrayed thus: A wolf there stood before him at his feet With eyen red, and of a man he eat: With subtle pencil painted was this story, In redouting* of Mars and of his glory. *reverance, fear Now to the temple of Dian the chaste As shortly as I can I will...
  535. parishioner
    a member of a parish
    His parishens* devoutly would he teach. *parishioners Benign he was, and wonder diligent, And in adversity full patient: And such he was y-proved *often sithes*. *oftentimes* Full loth were him to curse for his tithes, But rather would he given out of doubt, Unto his poore parishens about, Of his off'ring, and eke of his substance.
  536. Bacchus
    (classical mythology) god of wine; equivalent of Dionysus
    Citheron: The Isle of Venus, Cythera, in the Aegean Sea; now called Cerigo: not, as Chaucer's form of the word might imply, Mount Cithaeron, in the south-west of Boetia, which was appropriated to other deities than Venus -- to Jupiter, to Bacchus, and the Muses. 42.
  537. Ghent
    port city in northwestern Belgium and industrial center; famous for cloth industry
    The west of England, especially around Bath, was the seat of the cloth-manufacture, as were Ypres and Ghent (Gaunt) in Flanders. 38.
  538. fantastic
    extravagantly fanciful in design, construction, appearance
    And in his gear* for all the world he far'd *behaviour Not only like the lovers' malady Of Eros, but rather y-like manie* *madness Engender'd of humours melancholic, Before his head in his cell fantastic.
  539. calf
    young of domestic cattle
    His hair was by his eares round y-shorn; His top was docked like a priest beforn Full longe were his legges, and full lean Y-like a staff, there was no calf y-seen Well could he keep a garner* and a bin* *storeplaces for grain There was no auditor could on him win Well wist he by the drought, and by the rain, The yielding of his seed and of his grain His lorde's sheep, his neat*, and his dairy *cattle His swine, his horse, his store, and his poultry, Were wholly in this Reeve's govern...
  540. faithless
    having the character of, or characteristic of, a traitor
    Las: net; the invisible toils in which Hephaestus caught Ares and the faithless Aphrodite, and exposed them to the "inextinguishable laughter" of Olympus. 70.
  541. tame
    brought from wildness into a domesticated state
    Upon his head he wore of laurel green A garland fresh and lusty to be seen; Upon his hand he bare, for his delight, An eagle tame, as any lily white.
  542. discretion
    the power of making free choices unconstrained by external agencies
    That lord hath little of discretion, That in such case *can no division*: *can make no distinction* But weigheth pride and humbless *after one*." *alike* And shortly, when his ire is thus agone, He gan to look on them with eyen light*, *gentle, lenient* And spake these same wordes *all on height.* *aloud* "The god of love, ah! benedicite*, *bless ye him How mighty and how great a lord is he!
  543. narcotic
    a drug that produces numbness or stupor; often taken for pleasure or to reduce pain; extensive use can lead to addiction
    It fell that in the seventh year, in May The thirde night (as olde bookes sayn, That all this story tellen more plain), Were it by a venture or destiny (As when a thing is shapen* it shall be), *settled, decreed That soon after the midnight, Palamon By helping of a friend brake his prison, And fled the city fast as he might go, For he had given drink his gaoler so Of a clary , made of a certain wine, With *narcotise and opie* of Thebes fine, *narcotics and opium* That all the nigh...
  544. shin
    the front part of the human leg between the knee and the ankle
    But great harm was it, as it thoughte me, That, on his shin a mormal* hadde he. *ulcer For blanc manger, that made he with the best A SHIPMAN was there, *wonned far by West*: *who dwelt far For ought I wot, be was of Dartemouth. to the West* He rode upon a rouncy*, as he couth, *hack All in a gown of falding* to the knee. *coarse cloth A dagger hanging by a lace had he About his neck under his arm adown; The hot summer had made his hue all brown; And certainly he was a good fellaw.
  545. appease
    make peace with
    And on their bare knees adown they fall And would have kissed his feet there as he stood, Till at the last *aslaked was his mood* *his anger was (For pity runneth soon in gentle heart); appeased* And though at first for ire he quoke and start He hath consider'd shortly in a clause The trespass of them both, and eke the cause: And although that his ire their guilt accused Yet in his reason he them both excused; As thus; he thoughte well that every man Will help himself in love if that ...
  546. prime
    used of the first or originating agent
    And in this wise these lordes *all and some* *all and sundry* Be on the Sunday to the city come Aboute prime, and in the town alight.
  547. saddle
    a seat for the rider of a horse or camel
    His coat-armour was of *a cloth of Tars*, *a kind of silk* Couched* with pearls white and round and great *trimmed His saddle was of burnish'd gold new beat; A mantelet on his shoulders hanging, Bretful* of rubies red, as fire sparkling. *brimful His crispe hair like ringes was y-run, And that was yellow, glittering as the sun.
  548. compassion
    a deep awareness of and sympathy for another's suffering
    And if so be our destiny be shape By etern word to dien in prison, Of our lineage have some compassion, That is so low y-brought by tyranny."
  549. supple
    moving and bending with ease
    His bootes supple, his horse in great estate, Now certainly he was a fair prelate; He was not pale as a forpined* ghost; *wasted A fat swan lov'd he best of any roast.
  550. invoke
    request earnestly (something from somebody); ask for aid or protection
    As the goddess of Light, or the goddess who brings to light, Diana -- as well as Juno -- was invoked by women in childbirth: so Horace, Odes iii. 22, says:-- "Montium custos nemorumque, Virgo, Quae laborantes utero puellas Ter vocata audis adimisque leto, Diva triformis."
  551. Genesis
    the first book of the Old Testament: tells of Creation; Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God's covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers
    In principio: the first words of Genesis and John, employed in some part of the mass. 21.
  552. Whitehall
    a wide street in London stretching from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament; site of many government offices
    The place behind Whitehall, where the king's hawks were caged was called the Mews. 29.
  553. reading
    written material intended to be read
    Belmarie is supposed to have been a Moorish state in Africa; but "Palmyrie" has been suggested as the correct reading.
  554. prepare
    make ready or suitable or equip in advance for a particular purpose or for some use, event, etc
    Arrayed was this god (as he took keep*) *notice As he was when that Argus took his sleep; And said him thus: "To Athens shalt thou wend*; *go There is thee shapen* of thy woe an end." *fixed, prepared And with that word Arcite woke and start.
  555. flee
    run away quickly
    He may not flee it, though he should be dead, *All be she* maid, or widow, or else wife. *whether she be* And eke it is not likely all thy life To standen in her grace, no more than I For well thou wost thyselfe verily, That thou and I be damned to prison Perpetual, us gaineth no ranson.
  556. treason
    a crime that undermines the offender's government
    The doors were all of adamant etern, Y-clenched *overthwart and ende-long* *crossways and lengthways* With iron tough, and, for to make it strong, Every pillar the temple to sustain Was tunne-great*, of iron bright and sheen. *thick as a tun (barrel) There saw I first the dark imagining Of felony, and all the compassing; The cruel ire, as red as any glede*, *live coal The picke-purse , and eke the pale dread; The smiler with the knife under the cloak, The shepen* burning with the blacke s...
  557. orient
    the hemisphere that includes Eurasia and Africa and Australia
    The busy lark, the messenger of day, Saluteth in her song the morning gray; And fiery Phoebus riseth up so bright, That all the orient laugheth at the sight, And with his streames* drieth in the greves** *rays **groves The silver droppes, hanging on the leaves; And Arcite, that is in the court royal With Theseus, his squier principal, Is ris'n, and looketh on the merry day.
  558. bulky
    of large size for its weight
    Chaucer here satirises the fashion of the time, which piled bulky and heavy waddings on ladies' heads. 39.
  559. craftsman
    a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft
    On the dais: On the raised platform at the end of the hall, where sat at meat or in judgement those high in authority, rank or honour; in our days the worthy craftsmen might have been described as "good platform men". 33.
  560. accountant
    someone who maintains and audits business accounts
    Countour: Probably a steward or accountant in the county court. 31.
  561. worldly
    characteristic of or devoted to the temporal world as opposed to the spiritual world
    He would the sea were kept for any thing Betwixte Middleburg and Orewell Well could he in exchange shieldes* sell *crown coins This worthy man full well his wit beset*; *employed There wiste* no wight** that he was in debt, *knew **man So *estately was he of governance* *so well he managed* With his bargains, and with his chevisance*. *business contract For sooth he was a worthy man withal, But sooth to say, I n'ot* how men him call. *know not A CLERK there was of Oxenford* als...
  562. scald
    burn with a hot liquid or steam
    Yet saw I brent* the shippes hoppesteres, *burnt The hunter strangled with the wilde bears: The sow freting* the child right in the cradle; *devouring The cook scalded, for all his longe ladle.
  563. elevate
    raise from a lower to a higher position
    They saide that it were a charity That Theseus would *enhance his degree*, *elevate him in rank* And put him in some worshipful service, There as he might his virtue exercise.
  564. barren
    completely wanting or lacking
    But I that am exiled, and barren Of alle grace, and in so great despair, That there n'is earthe, water, fire, nor air, Nor creature, that of them maked is, That may me helpe nor comfort in this, Well ought I *sterve in wanhope* and distress. *die in despair* Farewell my life, my lust*, and my gladness. *pleasure Alas, *why plainen men so in commune *why do men so often complain Of purveyance of God*, or of Fortune, of God's providence?*
  565. plait
    a hairdo formed by braiding or twisting the hair
    Fair was this younge wife, and therewithal As any weasel her body gent* and small. *slim, neat A seint* she weared, barred all of silk, *girdle A barm-cloth* eke as white as morning milk *apron Upon her lendes*, full of many a gore**. *loins **plait White was her smock*, and broider'd all before, *robe or gown And eke behind, on her collar about Of coal-black silk, within and eke without.
  566. effect
    a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
    All was fee simple to him, in effect His purchasing might not be in suspect* *suspicion Nowhere so busy a man as he there was And yet he seemed busier than he was In termes had he case' and doomes* all *judgements That from the time of King Will. were fall.
  567. sheaf
    a package of several things tied together for carrying or storing
    A sheaf of peacock arrows bright and keen Under his belt he bare full thriftily.
  568. bough
    any of the larger branches of a tree
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); ...
  569. tempest
    a violent commotion or disturbance
    If that he fought, and had the higher hand, *By water he sent them home to every land.* *he drowned his But of his craft to reckon well his tides, prisoners* His streames and his strandes him besides, His herberow*, his moon, and lodemanage**, *harbourage There was none such, from Hull unto Carthage **pilotage Hardy he was, and wise, I undertake: With many a tempest had his beard been shake.
  570. mite
    any of numerous very small to minute arachnids often infesting animals or plants or stored foods
    And yet doth Juno me well more shame, For I dare not beknow* mine owen name, *acknowledge But there as I was wont to hight Arcite, Now hight I Philostrate, not worth a mite.
  571. cease
    put an end to a state or an activity
    But stint* I will of Theseus a lite**, *cease speaking **little And speak of Palamon and of Arcite.
  572. Teutonic
    of or pertaining to the ancient Teutons or their languages
    The knight had been placed at the head of the table, above knights of all nations, in Prussia, whither warriors from all countries were wont to repair, to aid the Teutonic Order in their continual conflicts with their heathen neighbours in "Lettowe" or Lithuania (German.
  573. Scotland
    one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; located on the northern part of the island of Great Britain; famous for bagpipes and plaids and kilts
    He knew well all the havens, as they were, From Scotland to the Cape of Finisterre, And every creek in Bretagne and in Spain: His barge y-cleped was the Magdelain.
  574. precedence
    status established in order of importance or urgency
    To take precedence over all in going to the evening service of the Church, or to festival meetings, to which it was the fashion to carry rich cloaks or mantles against the home- coming. 34.
  575. fleece
    outer coat of especially sheep and yaks
    Full privily a *finch eke could he pull*. *"fleece" a man* And if he found owhere* a good fellaw, *anywhere He woulde teache him to have none awe In such a case of the archdeacon's curse; *But if* a manne's soul were in his purse; *unless* For in his purse he should y-punished be.
  576. land
    the solid part of the earth's surface
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  577. enhance
    increase
    They saide that it were a charity That Theseus would *enhance his degree*, *elevate him in rank* And put him in some worshipful service, There as he might his virtue exercise.
  578. discern
    detect with the senses
    The northern light in at the doore shone, For window on the walle was there none Through which men mighten any light discern.
  579. sentence
    a string of words satisfying the grammatical rules of a language
    Not one word spake he more than was need; And that was said in form and reverence, And short and quick, and full of high sentence.
  580. tyranny
    a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
    That lord is now of Thebes the city, Fulfilled of ire and of iniquity, He for despite, and for his tyranny, To do the deade bodies villainy*, *insult Of all our lorde's, which that been y-slaw, *slain Hath all the bodies on an heap y-draw, And will not suffer them by none assent Neither to be y-buried, nor y-brent*, *burnt But maketh houndes eat them in despite."
  581. gable
    the vertical triangular wall between the sloping ends of gable roof
    But when thou hast for her, and thee, and me, Y-gotten us these kneading tubbes three, Then shalt thou hang them in the roof full high, So that no man our purveyance* espy: *foresight, providence And when thou hast done thus as I have said, And hast our vitaille fair in them y-laid, And eke an axe to smite the cord in two When that the water comes, that we may go, And break an hole on high upon the gable Into the garden-ward, over the stable, That we may freely passe forth our way, Wh...
  582. ecclesiastical
    of or associated with a church (especially a Christian Church)
    Sompnour: summoner; an apparitor, who cited delinquents to appear in ecclesiastical courts. 51.
  583. length
    the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place
    Of his stature he was of even length, And *wonderly deliver*, and great of strength. *wonderfully nimble* And he had been some time in chevachie*, *cavalry raids In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardie, And borne him well, *as of so little space*, *in such a short time* In hope to standen in his lady's grace.
  584. sprinkle
    scatter with liquid; wet lightly
    His nose was high, his eyen bright citrine*, *pale yellow His lips were round, his colour was sanguine, A fewe fracknes* in his face y-sprent**, *freckles **sprinkled Betwixte yellow and black somedeal y-ment* *mixed And as a lion he *his looking cast* *cast about his eyes* Of five and twenty year his age I cast* *reckon His beard was well begunnen for to spring; His voice was as a trumpet thundering.
  585. divine
    a clergyman or other person in religious orders
    An horn he bare, the baldric was of green: A forester was he soothly* as I guess. *certainly There was also a Nun, a PRIORESS, That of her smiling was full simple and coy; Her greatest oathe was but by Saint Loy; And she was cleped* Madame Eglentine. *called Full well she sang the service divine, Entuned in her nose full seemly; And French she spake full fair and fetisly* *properly After the school of Stratford atte Bow, For French of Paris was to her unknow.
  586. torch
    a light usually carried in the hand; consists of some flammable substance
    But how the pyre was maked up on height, And eke the names how the trees hight*, *were called As oak, fir, birch, asp*, alder, holm, poplere, *aspen Willow, elm, plane, ash, box, chestnut, lind*, laurere, *linden, lime Maple, thorn, beech, hazel, yew, whipul tree, How they were fell'd, shall not be told for me; Nor how the goddes* rannen up and down *the forest deities Disinherited of their habitatioun, In which they wonned* had in rest and peace, *dwelt Nymphes, Faunes, and Hamadryades; Nor...
  587. veronica
    any plant of the genus Veronica
    Vernicle: an image of Christ; so called from St Veronica, who gave the Saviour a napkin to wipe the sweat from His face as He bore the Cross, and received it back with an impression of His countenance upon it. 58.
  588. tartar
    an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
    There n'as quicksilver, litharge, nor brimstone, Boras, ceruse, nor oil of tartar none, Nor ointement that woulde cleanse or bite, That him might helpen of his whelkes* white, *pustules Nor of the knobbes* sitting on his cheeks. *buttons Well lov'd he garlic, onions, and leeks, And for to drink strong wine as red as blood.
  589. whit
    a tiny or scarcely detectable amount
    When Nicholas had done thus every deal*, *whit And thwacked her about the lendes* well, *loins He kiss'd her sweet, and taketh his psalt'ry And playeth fast, and maketh melody.
  590. venture
    any venturesome undertaking especially one with an uncertain outcome
    Anon to drawen every wight began, And shortly for to tellen as it was, Were it by a venture, or sort*, or cas**, *lot **chance The sooth is this, the cut fell to the Knight, Of which full blithe and glad was every wight; And tell he must his tale as was reason, By forword, and by composition, As ye have heard; what needeth wordes mo'?
  591. amended
    modified for the better
    Or who hath you misboden*, or offended? *wronged Do telle me, if it may be amended; And why that ye be clad thus all in black?"
  592. surpass
    be or do something to a greater degree
    Now is not that of God a full fair grace That such a lewed* mannes wit shall pace** *unlearned **surpass The wisdom of an heap of learned men?
  593. prefix
    an affix that is added in front of the word
    In y-fall," "y" is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon "ge" prefixed to participles of verbs.
  594. master
    a person who has general authority over others
    And rage he could and play as any whelp, In lovedays ; there could he muchel* help. *greatly For there was he not like a cloisterer, With threadbare cope as is a poor scholer; But he was like a master or a pope.
  595. indignity
    an affront to one's dignity or self-esteem
    And in thy temple I will my banner hong*, *hang And all the armes of my company, And evermore, until that day I die, Eternal fire I will before thee find And eke to this my vow I will me bind: My beard, my hair that hangeth long adown, That never yet hath felt offension* *indignity Of razor nor of shears, I will thee give, And be thy true servant while I live.
  596. debate
    a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
    Great pity was it as it thought them all, That ever such a chance should befall, For gentle men they were, of great estate, And nothing but for love was this debate They saw their bloody woundes wide and sore, And cried all at once, both less and more, "Have mercy, Lord, upon us women all."
  597. grenade
    a small explosive bomb thrown by hand or fired from a missile
    In Grenade at the siege eke had he be Of Algesir, and ridden in Belmarie. At Leyes was he, and at Satalie, When they were won; and in the Greate Sea At many a noble army had he be.
  598. jovial
    full of or showing high-spirited merriment
    Goliardais: a babbler and a buffoon; Golias was the founder of a jovial sect called by his name. 47.
  599. theatre
    a building where theatrical performances or motion-picture shows can be presented
    I trow men woulde deem it negligence, If I forgot to telle the dispence* *expenditure Of Theseus, that went so busily To maken up the listes royally, That such a noble theatre as it was, I dare well say, in all this world there n'as*. *was not The circuit a mile was about, Walled of stone, and ditched all without.
  600. garner
    store grain
    His hair was by his eares round y-shorn; His top was docked like a priest beforn Full longe were his legges, and full lean Y-like a staff, there was no calf y-seen Well could he keep a garner* and a bin* *storeplaces for grain There was no auditor could on him win Well wist he by the drought, and by the rain, The yielding of his seed and of his grain His lorde's sheep, his neat*, and his dairy *cattle His swine, his horse, his store, and his poultry, Were wholly in this Reeve's govern...
  601. contrary
    exact opposition
    The Destiny, minister general, That executeth in the world o'er all The purveyance*, that God hath seen beforn; *foreordination So strong it is, that though the world had sworn The contrary of a thing by yea or nay, Yet some time it shall fallen on a day That falleth not eft* in a thousand year. *again For certainly our appetites here, Be it of war, or peace, or hate, or love, All is this ruled by the sight* above. *eye, intelligence, power This mean I now by mighty Theseus, That for ...
  602. contest
    a struggle between rivals
    Arcite is ridd anon unto the town, And on the morrow, ere it were daylight, Full privily two harness hath he dight*, *prepared Both suffisant and meete to darraine* *contest The battle in the field betwixt them twain.
  603. portico
    a porch or entrance to a building consisting of a covered and often columned area
    Parvis: The portico of St. Paul's, which lawyers frequented to meet their clients. 27.
  604. pond
    a small lake
    Full many a fat partridge had he in mew*, *cage And many a bream, and many a luce* in stew** *pike **fish-pond Woe was his cook, *but if* his sauce were *unless* Poignant and sharp, and ready all his gear.
  605. clause
    a separate section of a legal document (as a statute or contract or will)
    Now have I told you shortly in a clause Th' estate, th' array, the number, and eke the cause Why that assembled was this company In Southwark at this gentle hostelry, That highte the Tabard, fast by the Bell.
  606. martyr
    one who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty for refusing to renounce their religion
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); *hearts...
  607. rebel
    someone who exhibits great independence in thought and action
    As ever may I drinke wine or ale, Whoso is rebel to my judgement, Shall pay for all that by the way is spent.
  608. image
    a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface
    Well could he fortune* the ascendent *make fortunate Of his images for his patient,.
  609. pine
    a coniferous tree
    "The answer of this leave I to divines, But well I wot, that in this world great pine* is; *pain, trouble Alas!
  610. nimble
    moving quickly and lightly
    Of his stature he was of even length, And *wonderly deliver*, and great of strength. *wonderfully nimble* And he had been some time in chevachie*, *cavalry raids In Flanders, in Artois, and Picardie, And borne him well, *as of so little space*, *in such a short time* In hope to standen in his lady's grace.
  611. keen
    intense or sharp
    A sheaf of peacock arrows bright and keen Under his belt he bare full thriftily.
  612. respite
    a pause from doing something (as work)
    And with that word, withoute more respite They fallen groff,* and cryden piteously; *grovelling "Have on us wretched women some mercy, And let our sorrow sinken in thine heart."
  613. chide
    censure severely or angrily
    *Me rueth sore of* Hendy Nicholas: *I am very sorry for* He shall be *rated of* his studying, *chidden for* If that I may, by Jesus, heaven's king!
  614. intervene
    be placed or located between other things or extend between spaces and events
    The third hour unequal: In the third planetary hour; Palamon had gone forth in the hour of Venus, two hours before daybreak; the hour of Mercury intervened; the third hour was that of Luna, or Diana.
  615. tyrant
    a cruel and oppressive dictator
    And in his armes he them all up hent*, *raised, took And them comforted in full good intent, And swore his oath, as he was true knight, He woulde do *so farforthly his might* *as far as his power went* Upon the tyrant Creon them to wreak*, *avenge That all the people of Greece shoulde speak, How Creon was of Theseus y-served, As he that had his death full well deserved.
  616. strut
    to walk with a lofty proud gait, often in an attempt to impress others
    Curl'd was his hair, and as the gold it shone, And strutted* as a fanne large and broad; *stretched Full straight and even lay his jolly shode*. *head of hair His rode* was red, his eyen grey as goose, *complexion With Paule's windows carven on his shoes In hosen red he went full fetisly*. *daintily, neatly Y-clad he was full small and properly, All in a kirtle* of a light waget*; *girdle **sky blue Full fair and thicke be the pointes set, And thereupon he had a gay surplice, As ...
  617. mishap
    an unpredictable outcome that is unfortunate
    Then change gan the colour of their face; Right as the hunter in the regne* of Thrace *kingdom That standeth at a gappe with a spear When hunted is the lion or the bear, And heareth him come rushing in the greves*, *groves And breaking both the boughes and the leaves, Thinketh, "Here comes my mortal enemy, Withoute fail, he must be dead or I; For either I must slay him at the gap; Or he must slay me, if that me mishap:" So fared they, in changing of their hue *As far as either of them...
  618. mire
    a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot
    He sette not his benefice to hire, And left his sheep eucumber'd in the mire, And ran unto London, unto Saint Paul's, To seeke him a chantery for souls, Or with a brotherhood to be withold:* *detained But dwelt at home, and kepte well his fold, So that the wolf ne made it not miscarry.
  619. poignant
    keenly distressing to the mind or feelings
    Full many a fat partridge had he in mew*, *cage And many a bream, and many a luce* in stew** *pike **fish-pond Woe was his cook, *but if* his sauce were *unless* Poignant and sharp, and ready all his gear.
  620. detain
    cause to be slowed down or delayed
    He sette not his benefice to hire, And left his sheep eucumber'd in the mire, And ran unto London, unto Saint Paul's, To seeke him a chantery for souls, Or with a brotherhood to be withold:* *detained But dwelt at home, and kepte well his fold, So that the wolf ne made it not miscarry.
  621. ascribe
    attribute or credit to
    The astrologers ascribed great power to Saturn, and predicted "much debate" under his ascendancy; hence it was "against his kind" to compose the heavenly strife. 72.
  622. surgical
    of or relating to or involving or used in surgery
    The clotted blood, for any leache-craft* *surgical skill Corrupteth and is *in his bouk y-laft* *left in his body* That neither *veine blood nor ventousing*, *blood-letting or cupping* Nor drink of herbes may be his helping.
  623. lament
    a cry of sorrow and grief
    There *as I left*, I will again begin. *where I left off* This Duke, of whom I make mentioun, When he was come almost unto the town, In all his weal, and in his moste pride, He was ware, as he cast his eye aside, Where that there kneeled in the highe way A company of ladies, tway and tway, Each after other, clad in clothes black: But such a cry and such a woe they make, That in this world n'is creature living, That hearde such another waimenting* *lamenting And of this crying woul...
  624. cant
    a slope in the turn of a road or track; the outside is higher than the inside in order to reduce the effects of centrifugal force
    Questio quid juris: "I ask which law (applies)"; a cant law- Latin phrase. 52 Harlot: a low, ribald fellow; the word was used of both sexes; it comes from the Anglo-Saxon verb to hire. 53.
  625. Cologne
    a commercial center and river port in western Germany on the Rhine River; flourished during the 15th century as a member of the Hanseatic League
    She was a worthy woman all her live, Husbands at the church door had she had five, Withouten other company in youth; But thereof needeth not to speak as nouth*. *now And thrice had she been at Jerusalem; She hadde passed many a strange stream At Rome she had been, and at Bologne, In Galice at Saint James, and at Cologne; She coude* much of wand'rng by the Way. *knew Gat-toothed* was she, soothly for to say.
  626. bore
    make a hole, especially with a pointed power or hand tool
    It is full fair to be y-clep'd madame, And for to go to vigils all before, And have a mantle royally y-bore.
  627. negligence
    failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances
    I trow men woulde deem it negligence, If I forgot to telle the dispence* *expenditure Of Theseus, that went so busily To maken up the listes royally, That such a noble theatre as it was, I dare well say, in all this world there n'as*. *was not The circuit a mile was about, Walled of stone, and ditched all without.
  628. conquer
    take possession of by force, as after an invasion
    It was almost a spanne broad I trow; For *hardily she was not undergrow*. *certainly she was not small* Full fetis* was her cloak, as I was ware. *neat Of small coral about her arm she bare A pair of beades, gauded all with green; And thereon hung a brooch of gold full sheen, On which was first y-written a crown'd A, And after, *Amor vincit omnia.* *love conquers all* Another Nun also with her had she, [That was her chapelleine, and PRIESTES three.]
  629. treble
    three times as great or many
    In twenty manners could he trip and dance, After the school of Oxenforde tho*, *then And with his legges caste to and fro; And playen songes on a small ribible*; *fiddle Thereto he sung sometimes a loud quinible* *treble And as well could he play on a gitern.* *guitar In all the town was brewhouse nor tavern, That he not visited with his solas*, *mirth, sport There as that any *garnard tapstere* was. *licentious barmaid* But sooth to say he was somedeal squaimous* *squeamish Of fa...
  630. anguish
    extreme distress of body or mind
    And in a tower, in anguish and in woe, Dwellen this Palamon, and eke Arcite, For evermore, there may no gold them quite* *set free Thus passed year by year, and day by day, Till it fell ones in a morn of May That Emily, that fairer was to seen Than is the lily upon his stalke green, And fresher than the May with flowers new (For with the rose colour strove her hue; I n'ot* which was the finer of them two), *know not Ere it was day, as she was wont to do, She was arisen, and all ready ...
  631. abode
    any address at which you dwell more than temporarily
    His hair was by his eares round y-shorn; His top was docked like a priest beforn Full longe were his legges, and full lean Y-like a staff, there was no calf y-seen Well could he keep a garner* and a bin* *storeplaces for grain There was no auditor could on him win Well wist he by the drought, and by the rain, The yielding of his seed and of his grain His lorde's sheep, his neat*, and his dairy *cattle His swine, his horse, his store, and his poultry, Were wholly in this Reeve's governing, An...
  632. bailiff
    an officer of the court who is employed to execute writs and processes and make arrests etc.
    His hair was by his eares round y-shorn; His top was docked like a priest beforn Full longe were his legges, and full lean Y-like a staff, there was no calf y-seen Well could he keep a garner* and a bin* *storeplaces for grain There was no auditor could on him win Well wist he by the drought, and by the rain, The yielding of his seed and of his grain His lorde's sheep, his neat*, and his dairy *cattle His swine, his horse, his store, and his poultry, Were wholly in this Reeve's governing, An...
  633. foresight
    seeing ahead; knowing in advance; foreseeing
    But when thou hast for her, and thee, and me, Y-gotten us these kneading tubbes three, Then shalt thou hang them in the roof full high, So that no man our purveyance* espy: *foresight, providence And when thou hast done thus as I have said, And hast our vitaille fair in them y-laid, And eke an axe to smite the cord in two When that the water comes, that we may go, And break an hole on high upon the gable Into the garden-ward, over the stable, That we may freely passe forth our way, Wh...
  634. pillar
    (architecture) a tall vertical cylindrical structure standing upright and used to support a structure
    The doors were all of adamant etern, Y-clenched *overthwart and ende-long* *crossways and lengthways* With iron tough, and, for to make it strong, Every pillar the temple to sustain Was tunne-great*, of iron bright and sheen. *thick as a tun (barrel) There saw I first the dark imagining Of felony, and all the compassing; The cruel ire, as red as any glede*, *live coal The picke-purse , and eke the pale dread; The smiler with the knife under the cloak, The shepen* burning with the b...
  635. Turkish
    of or relating to or characteristic of Turkey or its people or language
    Palatie, or Palathia, in Anatolia, was a fief held by the Christian knights after the Turkish conquests -- the holders paying tribute to the infidel.
  636. marrow
    the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones
    A COOK they hadde with them for the nones*, *occasion To boil the chickens and the marrow bones, And powder merchant tart and galingale.
  637. arithmetic
    the branch of pure mathematics dealing with the theory of numerical calculations
    And, shortly to conclude, such a place Was never on earth made in so little space, For in the land there was no craftes-man, That geometry or arsmetrike* can**, *arithmetic **knew Nor pourtrayor*, nor carver of images, *portrait painter That Theseus ne gave him meat and wages The theatre to make and to devise.
  638. declare
    state emphatically and authoritatively
    "Nought may the woful spirit in mine heart Declare one point of all my sorrows' smart To you, my lady, that I love the most: But I bequeath the service of my ghost To you aboven every creature, Since that my life ne may no longer dure.
  639. desist
    choose not to consume
    There *as I left*, I will again begin. *where I left off* This Duke, of whom I make mentioun, When he was come almost unto the town, In all his weal, and in his moste pride, He was ware, as he cast his eye aside, Where that there kneeled in the highe way A company of ladies, tway and tway, Each after other, clad in clothes black: But such a cry and such a woe they make, That in this world n'is creature living, That hearde such another waimenting* *lamenting And of this crying would they ...
  640. wax
    any of various substances of either mineral origin or plant or animal origin; they are solid at normal temperatures and insoluble in water
    This Pardoner had hair as yellow as wax, But smooth it hung, as doth a strike* of flax: *strip By ounces hung his lockes that he had, And therewith he his shoulders oversprad.
  641. perpetual
    continuing forever or indefinitely
    He may not flee it, though he should be dead, *All be she* maid, or widow, or else wife. *whether she be* And eke it is not likely all thy life To standen in her grace, no more than I For well thou wost thyselfe verily, That thou and I be damned to prison Perpetual, us gaineth no ranson.
  642. Cyprus
    an island in the eastern Mediterranean
    Alisandre: Alexandria, in Egypt, captured by Pierre de Lusignan, king of Cyprus, in 1365 but abandoned immediately afterwards.
  643. trough
    a long narrow shallow receptacle
    Anon go get us fast into this inn* *house A kneading trough, or else a kemelin*, *brewing-tub For each of us; but look that they be large, In whiche we may swim* as in a barge: *float And have therein vitaille suffisant But for one day; fie on the remenant; The water shall aslake* and go away *slacken, abate Aboute prime* upon the nexte day. *early morning But Robin may not know of this, thy knave*, *servant Nor eke thy maiden Gill I may not save: Ask me not why: for though thou aske ...
  644. griffin
    winged monster with the head of an eagle and the body of a lion
    The circles of his eyen in his head They glowed betwixte yellow and red, And like a griffin looked he about, With kemped* haires on his browes stout; *combed His limbs were great, his brawns were hard and strong, His shoulders broad, his armes round and long.
  645. gospel
    the written body of teachings of a religious group that are generally accepted by that group
    In fellowship well could she laugh and carp* *jest, talk Of remedies of love she knew perchance For of that art she coud* the olde dance. *knew A good man there was of religion, That was a poore PARSON of a town: But rich he was of holy thought and werk*. *work He was also a learned man, a clerk, That Christe's gospel truly woulde preach.
  646. abandonment
    the act of giving something up
    "Flotery" is the general reading; but "sluttery" seems to be more in keeping with the picture of abandonment to grief. 86.
  647. stratagem
    an elaborate or deceitful scheme contrived to deceive or evade
    And so befell, that on a Saturday This carpenter was gone to Oseney, And Hendy Nicholas and Alison Accorded were to this conclusion, That Nicholas shall *shape him a wile* *devise a stratagem* The silly jealous husband to beguile; And if so were the game went aright, She shoulde sleepen in his arms all night; For this was her desire and his also.
  648. gaudy
    tastelessly showy
    In gaudy green her statue clothed was, With bow in hand, and arrows in a case*. *quiver Her eyen caste she full low adown, Where Pluto hath his darke regioun.
  649. discourage
    try to prevent; show opposition to
    Albeit that this aventure was fall*, *befallen He woulde not discomforte* them all *discourage Then said eke, that Arcite should not die, He should be healed of his malady.
  650. pledge
    a binding commitment to do or give or refrain from something
    Duke Perithous loved well Arcite, And had him known at Thebes year by year: And finally at request and prayere Of Perithous, withoute ranson Duke Theseus him let out of prison, Freely to go, where him list over all, In such a guise, as I you tellen shall This was the forword*, plainly to indite, *promise Betwixte Theseus and him Arcite: That if so were, that Arcite were y-found Ever in his life, by day or night, one stound* *moment In any country of this Theseus, And he were caught, it w...
  651. throng
    a large gathering of people
    With mighty maces the bones they to-brest*. *burst He through the thickest of the throng gan threst*. *thrust There stumble steedes strong, and down go all.
  652. comfort
    a state of being relaxed and feeling no pain
    To do you ease*, and it shall coste nought. *pleasure Ye go to Canterbury; God you speed, The blissful Martyr *quite you your meed*; *grant you what And well I wot, as ye go by the way, you deserve* Ye *shapen you* to talken and to play: *intend to* For truely comfort nor mirth is none To ride by the way as dumb as stone: And therefore would I make you disport, As I said erst, and do you some comfort.
  653. beneficent
    doing or producing good
    Mars the Red: referring to the ruddy colour of the planet, to which was doubtless due the transference to it of the name of the God of War. In his "Republic," enumerating the seven planets, Cicero speaks of the propitious and beneficent light of Jupiter: "Tum (fulgor) rutilis horribilisque terris, quem Martium dicitis" -- "Then the red glow, horrible to the nations, which you say to be that of Mars."
  654. turret
    a small tower extending above a building
    And for to do his rite and sacrifice He eastward hath upon the gate above, In worship of Venus, goddess of love, *Done make* an altar and an oratory; *caused to be made* And westward, in the mind and in memory Of Mars, he maked hath right such another, That coste largely of gold a fother*. *a great amount And northward, in a turret on the wall, Of alabaster white and red coral An oratory riche for to see, In worship of Diane of chastity, Hath Theseus done work in noble wise.
  655. diligent
    quietly and steadily persevering especially in detail or exactness
    His parishens* devoutly would he teach. *parishioners Benign he was, and wonder diligent, And in adversity full patient: And such he was y-proved *often sithes*. *oftentimes* Full loth were him to curse for his tithes, But rather would he given out of doubt, Unto his poore parishens about, Of his off'ring, and eke of his substance.
  656. domination
    power to dominate or defeat
    The virtue expulsive or animal, From thilke virtue called natural, Nor may the venom voide, nor expel The pipes of his lungs began to swell And every lacert* in his breast adown *sinew, muscle Is shent* with venom and corruption. *destroyed Him gaineth* neither, for to get his life, *availeth Vomit upward, nor downward laxative; All is to-bursten thilke region; Nature hath now no domination.
  657. vowel
    a speech sound made with the vocal tract open
    "Perithous" and "Theseus" must, for the metre, be pronounced as words of four and three syllables respectively -- the vowels at the end not being diphthongated, but enunciated separately, as if the words were printed Pe-ri-tho-us, The-se-us.
  658. Carthage
    an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis; founded by Phoenicians; destroyed and rebuilt by Romans; razed by Arabs in 697
    If that he fought, and had the higher hand, *By water he sent them home to every land.* *he drowned his But of his craft to reckon well his tides, prisoners* His streames and his strandes him besides, His herberow*, his moon, and lodemanage**, *harbourage There was none such, from Hull unto Carthage **pilotage Hardy he was, and wise, I undertake: With many a tempest had his beard been shake.
  659. prey
    animal hunted or caught for food
    Amiddes of the temple sat Mischance, With discomfort and sorry countenance; Eke saw I Woodness* laughing in his rage, *Madness Armed Complaint, Outhees*, and fierce Outrage; *Outcry The carrain* in the bush, with throat y-corve**, *corpse **slashed A thousand slain, and not *of qualm y-storve*; *dead of sickness* The tyrant, with the prey by force y-reft; The town destroy'd, that there was nothing left.
  660. leisure
    time available for ease and relaxation
    Great was the strife and long between these tway, If that I hadde leisure for to say; But to the effect: it happen'd on a day (To tell it you as shortly as I may), A worthy duke that hight Perithous That fellow was to the Duke Theseus Since thilke* day that they were children lite** *that **little Was come to Athens, his fellow to visite, And for to play, as he was wont to do; For in this world he loved no man so; And he lov'd him as tenderly again.
  661. conclude
    bring to a close
    And, shortly to conclude, such a place Was never on earth made in so little space, For in the land there was no craftes-man, That geometry or arsmetrike* can**, *arithmetic **knew Nor pourtrayor*, nor carver of images, *portrait painter That Theseus ne gave him meat and wages The theatre to make and to devise.
  662. amiss
    in an improper or mistaken or unfortunate manner
    Blame not me, if that ye choose amiss.
  663. realm
    a domain in which something is dominant
    "O chaste goddess of the woodes green, To whom both heav'n and earth and sea is seen, Queen of the realm of Pluto dark and low, Goddess of maidens, that mine heart hast know Full many a year, and wost* what I desire, *knowest To keep me from the vengeance of thine ire, That Actaeon aboughte* cruelly: *earned; suffered from Chaste goddess, well wottest thou that I Desire to be a maiden all my life, Nor never will I be no love nor wife.
  664. victory
    a successful ending of a struggle or contest
    Consider all this, and *rue upon* my sore, *take pity on* As wisly* as I shall for evermore *truly Enforce my might, thy true servant to be, And holde war alway with chastity: That make I mine avow*, so ye me help. *vow, promise I keepe not of armes for to yelp,* *boast Nor ask I not to-morrow to have victory, Nor renown in this case, nor vaine glory Of *prize of armes*, blowing up and down, *praise for valour* But I would have fully possessioun Of Emily, and die in her service; Find ...
  665. motley
    consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds
    A MERCHANT was there with a forked beard, In motley, and high on his horse he sat, Upon his head a Flandrish beaver hat.
  666. fee
    a fixed charge for a privilege or for professional services
    Discreet he was, and of great reverence: He seemed such, his wordes were so wise, Justice he was full often in assize, By patent, and by plein* commission; *full For his science, and for his high renown, Of fees and robes had he many one.
  667. medieval
    relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
    In the medieval courts of Love, to which allusion is probably made forty lines before, in the word "parlement," or "parliament," questions like that here proposed were seriously discussed. 19.
  668. tribute
    something given or done as an expression of esteem
    Palatie, or Palathia, in Anatolia, was a fief held by the Christian knights after the Turkish conquests -- the holders paying tribute to the infidel.
  669. slacken
    become slow or slower
    Anon go get us fast into this inn* *house A kneading trough, or else a kemelin*, *brewing-tub For each of us; but look that they be large, In whiche we may swim* as in a barge: *float And have therein vitaille suffisant But for one day; fie on the remenant; The water shall aslake* and go away *slacken, abate Aboute prime* upon the nexte day. *early morning But Robin may not know of this, thy knave*, *servant Nor eke thy maiden Gill I may not save: Ask me not why: for though thou aske ...
  670. voyage
    a journey to some distant place
    For he was late y-come from his voyage, And wente for to do his pilgrimage.
  671. spruce
    any coniferous tree of the genus Picea
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles cert...
  672. natural history
    the scientific study of plants or animals (more observational than experimental) usually published in popular magazines rather than in academic journals
    Cerrial: of the species of oak which Pliny, in his "Natural History," calls "cerrus." 67.
  673. dubious
    fraught with uncertainty or doubt
    The shippes hoppesteres: The meaning is dubious.
  674. despair
    a state in which all hope is lost or absent
    But I that am exiled, and barren Of alle grace, and in so great despair, That there n'is earthe, water, fire, nor air, Nor creature, that of them maked is, That may me helpe nor comfort in this, Well ought I *sterve in wanhope* and distress. *die in despair* Farewell my life, my lust*, and my gladness. *pleasure Alas, *why plainen men so in commune *why do men so often complain Of purveyance of God*, or of Fortune, of God's providence?*
  675. auditor
    a qualified accountant who inspects the accounting records and practices of a business or other organization
    His hair was by his eares round y-shorn; His top was docked like a priest beforn Full longe were his legges, and full lean Y-like a staff, there was no calf y-seen Well could he keep a garner* and a bin* *storeplaces for grain There was no auditor could on him win Well wist he by the drought, and by the rain, The yielding of his seed and of his grain His lorde's sheep, his neat*, and his dairy *cattle His swine, his horse, his store, and his poultry, Were wholly in this Reeve's govern...
  676. bequeath
    leave or give by will after one's death
    "Nought may the woful spirit in mine heart Declare one point of all my sorrows' smart To you, my lady, that I love the most: But I bequeath the service of my ghost To you aboven every creature, Since that my life ne may no longer dure.
  677. seize
    take hold of; grab
    There *as I left*, I will again begin. *where I left off* This Duke, of whom I make mentioun, When he was come almost unto the town, In all his weal, and in his moste pride, He was ware, as he cast his eye aside, Where that there kneeled in the highe way A company of ladies, tway and tway, Each after other, clad in clothes black: But such a cry and such a woe they make, That in this world n'is creature living, That hearde such another waimenting* *lamenting And of this crying would they ...
  678. pry
    be nosey
    He walked in the fieldes for to *pry Upon* the starres, what there should befall, *keep watch on* Till he was in a marle pit y-fall.
  679. despite
    contemptuous disregard
    That lord is now of Thebes the city, Fulfilled of ire and of iniquity, He for despite, and for his tyranny, To do the deade bodies villainy*, *insult Of all our lorde's, which that been y-slaw, *slain Hath all the bodies on an heap y-draw, And will not suffer them by none assent Neither to be y-buried, nor y-brent*, *burnt But maketh houndes eat them in despite."
  680. acknowledge
    declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of
    And yet doth Juno me well more shame, For I dare not beknow* mine owen name, *acknowledge But there as I was wont to hight Arcite, Now hight I Philostrate, not worth a mite.
  681. sparkle
    emit or produce sparks
    His coat-armour was of *a cloth of Tars*, *a kind of silk* Couched* with pearls white and round and great *trimmed His saddle was of burnish'd gold new beat; A mantelet on his shoulders hanging, Bretful* of rubies red, as fire sparkling. *brimful His crispe hair like ringes was y-run, And that was yellow, glittering as the sun.
  682. Rome
    capital and largest city of Italy; on the Tiber; seat of the Roman Catholic Church; formerly the capital of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire
    She was a worthy woman all her live, Husbands at the church door had she had five, Withouten other company in youth; But thereof needeth not to speak as nouth*. *now And thrice had she been at Jerusalem; She hadde passed many a strange stream At Rome she had been, and at Bologne, In Galice at Saint James, and at Cologne; She coude* much of wand'rng by the Way. *knew Gat-toothed* was she, soothly for to say.
  683. Africa
    the second largest continent; located to the south of Europe and bordered to the west by the South Atlantic and to the east by the Indian Ocean
    Belmarie is supposed to have been a Moorish state in Africa; but "Palmyrie" has been suggested as the correct reading.
  684. fraternity
    a social club for male undergraduates
    An HABERDASHER, and a CARPENTER, A WEBBE*, a DYER, and a TAPISER**, *weaver **tapestry-maker Were with us eke, cloth'd in one livery, Of a solemn and great fraternity.
  685. hoard
    a secret store of valuables or money
    Her mouth was sweet as braket, or as methe* *mead Or hoard of apples, laid in hay or heath.
  686. Salisbury
    the capital and largest city of Zimbabwe
    Algesiras was taken from the Moorish king of Grenada, in 1344: the Earls of Derby and Salisbury took part in the siege.
  687. complain
    express complaints, discontent, displeasure, or unhappiness
    Quoth Theseus; "Have ye so great envy Of mine honour, that thus complain and cry?
  688. mercenary
    a person hired to fight for another country than their own
    He was a shepherd, and no mercenary.
  689. guitar
    a stringed instrument usually having six strings; played by strumming or plucking
    In twenty manners could he trip and dance, After the school of Oxenforde tho*, *then And with his legges caste to and fro; And playen songes on a small ribible*; *fiddle Thereto he sung sometimes a loud quinible* *treble And as well could he play on a gitern.* *guitar In all the town was brewhouse nor tavern, That he not visited with his solas*, *mirth, sport There as that any *garnard tapstere* was. *licentious barmaid* But sooth to say he was somedeal squaimous* *squeamish Of fa...
  690. coin
    a flat metal piece (usually a disc) used as money
    He would the sea were kept for any thing Betwixte Middleburg and Orewell Well could he in exchange shieldes* sell *crown coins This worthy man full well his wit beset*; *employed There wiste* no wight** that he was in debt, *knew **man So *estately was he of governance* *so well he managed* With his bargains, and with his chevisance*. *business contract For sooth he was a worthy man withal, But sooth to say, I n'ot* how men him call. *know not A CLERK there was of Oxenfo...
  691. signified
    the meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or expression or situation can be interpreted
    And at the brandes end outran anon As it were bloody droppes many one: For which so sore aghast was Emily, That she was well-nigh mad, and gan to cry, For she ne wiste what it signified; But onely for feare thus she cried, And wept, that it was pity for to hear.
  692. consider
    think about carefully; weigh
    Consider all this, and *rue upon* my sore, *take pity on* As wisly* as I shall for evermore *truly Enforce my might, thy true servant to be, And holde war alway with chastity: That make I mine avow*, so ye me help. *vow, promise I keepe not of armes for to yelp,* *boast Nor ask I not to-morrow to have victory, Nor renown in this case, nor vaine glory Of *prize of armes*, blowing up and down, *praise for valour* But I would have fully possessioun Of Emily, and die in her service; Find ...
  693. accomplice
    a person who joins with another in carrying out some plan (especially an unethical or illegal plan)
    And at the last he took conclusion, That there as first Arcite and Palamon Hadde for love the battle them between, That in that selve* grove, sweet and green, *self-same There as he had his amorous desires, His complaint, and for love his hote fires, He woulde make a fire*, in which th' office *funeral pyre Of funeral he might all accomplice; And *let anon command* to hack and hew *immediately gave orders* The oakes old, and lay them *on a rew* *in a row* In culpons*, well arrayed for...
  694. wanton
    lewd or lascivious woman
    A FRIAR there was, a wanton and a merry, A limitour , a full solemne man.
  695. prisoner
    a person who is confined; especially a prisoner of war
    If that he fought, and had the higher hand, *By water he sent them home to every land.* *he drowned his But of his craft to reckon well his tides, prisoners* His streames and his strandes him besides, His herberow*, his moon, and lodemanage**, *harbourage There was none such, from Hull unto Carthage **pilotage Hardy he was, and wise, I undertake: With many a tempest had his beard been shake.
  696. endowment
    natural abilities or qualities
    An endowment to sing masses for the soul of the donor. 43.
  697. depart
    go away or leave
    And thus they be departed till the morrow, When each of them hath *laid his faith to borrow*. *pledged his faith* O Cupid, out of alle charity!
  698. grim
    harshly uninviting or formidable in manner or appearance
    The statue of Mars upon a carte* stood *chariot Armed, and looked grim as he were wood*, *mad And over his head there shone two figures Of starres, that be cleped in scriptures, That one Puella, that other Rubeus. This god of armes was arrayed thus: A wolf there stood before him at his feet With eyen red, and of a man he eat: With subtle pencil painted was this story, In redouting* of Mars and of his glory. *reverance, fear Now to the temple of Dian the chaste As shortly as I can...
  699. muzzle
    forward projecting part of the head of certain animals; includes the jaws and nose
    About his car there wente white alauns*, *greyhounds Twenty and more, as great as any steer, To hunt the lion or the wilde bear, And follow'd him, with muzzle fast y-bound, Collars of gold, and torettes* filed round. *rings An hundred lordes had he in his rout* *retinue Armed full well, with heartes stern and stout.
  700. quench
    satisfy (thirst)
    And Palamon, that hath such love to me, And eke Arcite, that loveth me so sore, This grace I pray thee withoute more, As sende love and peace betwixt them two: And from me turn away their heartes so, That all their hote love, and their desire, And all their busy torment, and their fire, Be queint*, or turn'd into another place. *quenched And if so be thou wilt do me no grace, Or if my destiny be shapen so That I shall needes have one of them two, So send me him that most desireth me.
  701. avenge
    take revenge for a perceived wrong
    And in his armes he them all up hent*, *raised, took And them comforted in full good intent, And swore his oath, as he was true knight, He woulde do *so farforthly his might* *as far as his power went* Upon the tyrant Creon them to wreak*, *avenge That all the people of Greece shoulde speak, How Creon was of Theseus y-served, As he that had his death full well deserved.
  702. clear
    readily apparent to the mind
    Full many a dainty horse had he in stable: And when he rode, men might his bridle hear Jingeling in a whistling wind as clear, And eke as loud, as doth the chapel bell, There as this lord was keeper of the cell.
  703. wary
    marked by keen caution and watchful prudence
    A SERGEANT OF THE LAW, wary and wise, That often had y-been at the Parvis, There was also, full rich of excellence.
  704. carving
    a sculpture created by removing material (as wood or ivory or stone) in order to create a desired shape
    But yet had I forgotten to devise* *describe The noble carving, and the portraitures, The shape, the countenance of the figures That weren in there oratories three.
  705. martyrdom
    death that is imposed because of the person's adherence of a religious faith or cause
    Who coulde rhyme in English properly His martyrdom? forsooth*, it is not I; *truly Therefore I pass as lightly as I may.
  706. infidel
    a person who does not acknowledge your god
    Palatie, or Palathia, in Anatolia, was a fief held by the Christian knights after the Turkish conquests -- the holders paying tribute to the infidel.
  707. diva
    a distinguished female operatic singer; a female operatic star
    As the goddess of Light, or the goddess who brings to light, Diana -- as well as Juno -- was invoked by women in childbirth: so Horace, Odes iii. 22, says:-- "Montium custos nemorumque, Virgo, Quae laborantes utero puellas Ter vocata audis adimisque leto, Diva triformis."
  708. Bath
    a town in southwestern England on the River Avon; famous for its hot springs and Roman remains
    The west of England, especially around Bath, was the seat of the cloth-manufacture, as were Ypres and Ghent (Gaunt) in Flanders. 38.
  709. peril
    a state of danger involving risk
    I n'ot* which hath the wofuller mistere**. *know not **condition For, shortly for to say, this Palamon Perpetually is damned to prison, In chaines and in fetters to be dead; And Arcite is exiled *on his head* *on peril of his head* For evermore as out of that country, Nor never more he shall his lady see.
  710. tender
    easy to cut or chew
    WHEN that Aprilis, with his showers swoot*, *sweet The drought of March hath pierced to the root, And bathed every vein in such licour, Of which virtue engender'd is the flower; When Zephyrus eke with his swoote breath Inspired hath in every holt* and heath *grove, forest The tender croppes* and the younge sun *twigs, boughs Hath in the Ram his halfe course y-run, And smalle fowles make melody, That sleepen all the night with open eye, (So pricketh them nature in their corages*); ...
  711. spade
    a sturdy hand shovel that can be pushed into the earth with the foot
    His beard as any sow or fox was red, And thereto broad, as though it were a spade.
  712. delight
    a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction
    To liven in delight was ever his won*, *wont For he was Epicurus' owen son, That held opinion, that plein* delight *full Was verily felicity perfite.
  713. glaring
    shining intensely
    Such glaring eyen had he, as an hare.
  714. steer
    be a guiding or motivating force or drive
    About his car there wente white alauns*, *greyhounds Twenty and more, as great as any steer, To hunt the lion or the wilde bear, And follow'd him, with muzzle fast y-bound, Collars of gold, and torettes* filed round. *rings An hundred lordes had he in his rout* *retinue Armed full well, with heartes stern and stout.
  715. Hull
    a large fishing port in northeastern England
    If that he fought, and had the higher hand, *By water he sent them home to every land.* *he drowned his But of his craft to reckon well his tides, prisoners* His streames and his strandes him besides, His herberow*, his moon, and lodemanage**, *harbourage There was none such, from Hull unto Carthage **pilotage Hardy he was, and wise, I undertake: With many a tempest had his beard been shake.
  716. exhort
    spur on or encourage especially by cheers and shouts
    And over all this said he yet much more To this effect, full wisely to exhort The people, that they should them recomfort.
  717. lively
    full of life and energy
    In courtesy was set full much her lest*. *pleasure Her over-lippe wiped she so clean, That in her cup there was no farthing* seen *speck Of grease, when she drunken had her draught; Full seemely after her meat she raught*: *reached out her hand And *sickerly she was of great disport*, *surely she was of a lively And full pleasant, and amiable of port, disposition* And *pained her to counterfeite cheer *took pains to assume Of court,* and be estately of mannere, a courtly disposition* ...
  718. capture
    capture as if by hunting, snaring, or trapping
    Alisandre: Alexandria, in Egypt, captured by Pierre de Lusignan, king of Cyprus, in 1365 but abandoned immediately afterwards.
  719. imply
    express or state indirectly
    Citheron: The Isle of Venus, Cythera, in the Aegean Sea; now called Cerigo: not, as Chaucer's form of the word might imply, Mount Cithaeron, in the south-west of Boetia, which was appropriated to other deities than Venus -- to Jupiter, to Bacchus, and the Muses. 42.
  720. combatant
    someone who fights (or is fighting)
    "He" in this passage refers impersonally to any of the combatants. 82.
  721. ode
    a lyric poem with complex stanza forms
    As the goddess of Light, or the goddess who brings to light, Diana -- as well as Juno -- was invoked by women in childbirth: so Horace, Odes iii. 22, says:-- "Montium custos nemorumque, Virgo, Quae laborantes utero puellas Ter vocata audis adimisque leto, Diva triformis."
  722. pore
    any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas)
    Why should he study, and make himselfe wood* *mad Upon a book in cloister always pore, Or swinken* with his handes, and labour, *toil As Austin bid? how shall the world be served?
  723. wages
    a recompense for worthy acts or retribution for wrongdoing
    Thus hath their lord, the god of love, them paid Their wages and their fees for their service; And yet they weene for to be full wise, That serve love, for aught that may befall.
  724. rude
    belonging to an early stage of technical development; characterized by simplicity and (often) crudeness
    What should I more say, but that this Millere He would his wordes for no man forbear, But told his churlish* tale in his mannere; *boorish, rude Me thinketh, that I shall rehearse it here.
  725. rusty
    covered with or consisting of rust
    He coulde better than his lord purchase Full rich he was y-stored privily His lord well could he please subtilly, To give and lend him of his owen good, And have a thank, and yet* a coat and hood. *also In youth he learned had a good mistere* *trade He was a well good wright, a carpentere This Reeve sate upon a right good stot*, *steed That was all pomely* gray, and highte** Scot. *dappled **called A long surcoat of perse* upon he had, *sky-blue And by his side he bare a rusty blade.
  726. purchasing
    the act of buying
    All was fee simple to him, in effect His purchasing might not be in suspect* *suspicion Nowhere so busy a man as he there was And yet he seemed busier than he was In termes had he case' and doomes* all *judgements That from the time of King Will. were fall.
  727. advice
    a proposal for an appropriate course of action
    And if you thinketh this is well y-said, Say your advice*, and hold yourselves apaid**. *opinion **satisfied This is your end, and your conclusion."
  728. guild
    a formal association of people with similar interests
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles cert...
  729. rider
    a traveler who actively rides an animal (as a horse or camel)
    A MONK there was, a fair *for the mast'ry*, *above all others* An out-rider, that loved venery*; *hunting A manly man, to be an abbot able.
  730. Norfolk
    port city located in southeastern Virginia on the Elizabeth River at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay; headquarters of the Atlantic fleet of the United States Navy
    Of Norfolk was this Reeve, of which I tell, Beside a town men clepen* Baldeswell, *call Tucked he was, as is a friar, about, And ever rode the *hinderest of the rout*. *hindmost of the group* A SOMPNOUR* was there with us in that place, *summoner That had a fire-red cherubinnes face, For sausefleme* he was, with eyen narrow. *red or pimply As hot he was and lecherous as a sparrow, With scalled browes black, and pilled* beard: *scanty Of his visage children were sore afeard.
  731. Christendom
    the collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (found predominantly in Europe and the Americas and Australia)
    Full worthy was he in his Lorde's war, And thereto had he ridden, no man farre*, *farther As well in Christendom as in Heatheness, And ever honour'd for his worthiness At Alisandre he was when it was won.
  732. principal
    most important element
    The busy lark, the messenger of day, Saluteth in her song the morning gray; And fiery Phoebus riseth up so bright, That all the orient laugheth at the sight, And with his streames* drieth in the greves** *rays **groves The silver droppes, hanging on the leaves; And Arcite, that is in the court royal With Theseus, his squier principal, Is ris'n, and looketh on the merry day.
  733. ruddy
    inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life
    Mars the Red: referring to the ruddy colour of the planet, to which was doubtless due the transference to it of the name of the God of War. In his "Republic," enumerating the seven planets, Cicero speaks of the propitious and beneficent light of Jupiter: "Tum (fulgor) rutilis horribilisque terris, quem Martium dicitis" -- "Then the red glow, horrible to the nations, which you say to be that of Mars."
  734. denote
    have as a meaning
    To-hewen and to-shred: "to" before a verb implies extraordinary violence in the action denoted. 81.
  735. steep
    having a sharp inclination
    His head was bald, and shone as any glass, And eke his face, as it had been anoint; He was a lord full fat and in good point; His eyen steep,* and rolling in his head, *deep-set That steamed as a furnace of a lead.
  736. figure
    alternative names for the body of a human being
    Out of the gospel he the wordes caught, And this figure he added yet thereto, That if gold ruste, what should iron do?
  737. legend
    a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events
    Stace of Thebes: Statius, the Roman who embodied in the twelve books of his "Thebaid" the ancient legends connected with the war of the seven against Thebes. 68.
  738. translate
    restate (words) from one language into another language
    The saying of the old scholar Boethius, in his treatise "De Consolatione Philosophiae", which Chaucer translated, and from which he has freely borrowed in his poetry.
  739. contractor
    someone (a person or firm) who contracts to build things
    A Manciple -- Latin, "manceps," a purchaser or contractor - - was an officer charged with the purchase of victuals for inns of court or colleges. 49.
  740. infinite
    having no limits or boundaries in time or space or extent or magnitude
    And some man would out of his prison fain, That in his house is of his meinie* slain. *servants Infinite harmes be in this mattere.
  741. grievous
    causing or marked by grief or anguish
    And so befell, that in the tas they found, Through girt with many a grievous bloody wound, Two younge knightes *ligging by and by* *lying side by side* Both in *one armes*, wrought full richely: *the same armour* Of whiche two, Arcita hight that one, And he that other highte Palamon.
  742. sinful
    characterized by iniquity; wicked because it is believed to be a sin
    And though he holy were, and virtuous, He was to sinful men not dispitous* *severe Nor of his speeche dangerous nor dign* *disdainful But in his teaching discreet and benign.
  743. feign
    make believe with the intent to deceive
    But with these relics, whenne that he fond A poore parson dwelling upon lond, Upon a day he got him more money Than that the parson got in moneths tway; And thus with feigned flattering and japes*, *jests He made the parson and the people his apes.
  744. emerging
    coming into existence
    When Robert Bruce had escaped from England to assume the Scottish crown, he stabbed Comyn before the altar at Dumfries; and, emerging from the church, was asked by his friend Kirkpatrick if he had slain the traitor.
  745. conquest
    the act of conquering
    Palatie, or Palathia, in Anatolia, was a fief held by the Christian knights after the Turkish conquests -- the holders paying tribute to the infidel.
  746. subsidy
    a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public
    "The old subsidy of tonnage and poundage," says Tyrwhitt, "was given to the king 'pour la saufgarde et custodie del mer.' -- for the safeguard and keeping of the sea" (12 E. IV. C.3). 23.
  747. ancients
    people who lived in times long past (especially during the historical period before the fall of the Roman Empire in western Europe)
    The "guise" was, among the ancients, for the nearest relative of the deceased to do this, with averted face. 89.
  748. Aristotle
    one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers; pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great (384-322 BC)
    For him was lever* have at his bed's head *rather Twenty bookes, clothed in black or red, Of Aristotle, and his philosophy, Than robes rich, or fiddle, or psalt'ry.
  749. diligence
    conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation
    Now weep no more, I shall do diligence That Palamon, that is thine owen knight, Shall have his lady, as thou hast him hight*. *promised Though Mars shall help his knight, yet natheless Betwixte you there must sometime be peace: All be ye not of one complexion, That each day causeth such division, I am thine ayel*, ready at thy will; *grandfather Weep now no more, I shall thy lust* fulfil." *pleasure Now will I stenten* of the gods above, *cease speaking Of Mars, and of Venus, god...
  750. assure
    inform positively and with certainty and confidence
    For certes, lord, there is none of us all That hath not been a duchess or a queen; Now be we caitives*, as it is well seen: *captives Thanked be Fortune, and her false wheel, That *none estate ensureth to be wele*. *assures no continuance of And certes, lord, t'abiden your presence prosperous estate* Here in this temple of the goddess Clemence We have been waiting all this fortenight: Now help us, lord, since it lies in thy might.
  751. champion
    someone who has won first place in a competition
    Thereto he strong was as a champion, And knew well the taverns in every town.
  752. perish
    pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life
    And privily he caught her by the queint,* *cunt And said; "Y-wis,* but if I have my will, *assuredly For *derne love of thee, leman, I spill."* *for earnest love of thee And helde her fast by the haunche bones, my mistress, I perish* And saide "Leman, love me well at once, Or I will dien, all so God me save."
  753. apparel
    clothing in general
    High labour, and full great appareling* *preparation Was at the service, and the pyre-making, That with its greene top the heaven raught*, *reached And twenty fathom broad its armes straught*: *stretched This is to say, the boughes were so broad.
  754. revive
    cause to regain consciousness
    The fires burn upon the altar clear, While Emily was thus in her prayere: But suddenly she saw a sighte quaint*. *strange For right anon one of the fire's *queint And quick'd* again, and after that anon *went out and revived* That other fire was queint, and all agone: And as it queint, it made a whisteling, As doth a brande wet in its burning.
  755. discord
    lack of agreement or harmony
    The doors were all of adamant etern, Y-clenched *overthwart and ende-long* *crossways and lengthways* With iron tough, and, for to make it strong, Every pillar the temple to sustain Was tunne-great*, of iron bright and sheen. *thick as a tun (barrel) There saw I first the dark imagining Of felony, and all the compassing; The cruel ire, as red as any glede*, *live coal The picke-purse , and eke the pale dread; The smiler with the knife under the cloak, The shepen* burning with the blacke s...
  756. haunt
    follow stealthily or recur constantly and spontaneously to
    He was the beste beggar in all his house: And gave a certain farme for the grant, None of his bretheren came in his haunt.
  757. hew
    make or shape as with an axe
    And at the last he took conclusion, That there as first Arcite and Palamon Hadde for love the battle them between, That in that selve* grove, sweet and green, *self-same There as he had his amorous desires, His complaint, and for love his hote fires, He woulde make a fire*, in which th' office *funeral pyre Of funeral he might all accomplice; And *let anon command* to hack and hew *immediately gave orders* The oakes old, and lay them *on a rew* *in a row* In culpons*, well arrayed for...
  758. assume
    take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
    In courtesy was set full much her lest*. *pleasure Her over-lippe wiped she so clean, That in her cup there was no farthing* seen *speck Of grease, when she drunken had her draught; Full seemely after her meat she raught*: *reached out her hand And *sickerly she was of great disport*, *surely she was of a lively And full pleasant, and amiable of port, disposition* And *pained her to counterfeite cheer *took pains to assume Of court,* and be estately of mannere, a courtly disposition* ...
  759. esteem
    the condition of being honored (esteemed or respected or well regarded)
    *He was held in very And though that he was worthy he was wise, high esteem.*
  760. infernal
    characteristic of or resembling Hell
    *Lord But hearken me, and stinte noise a lite, What a miracle there befell anon This fierce Arcite hath off his helm y-done, And on a courser for to shew his face He *pricketh endelong* the large place, *rides from end to end* Looking upward upon this Emily; And she again him cast a friendly eye (For women, as to speaken *in commune*, *generally* They follow all the favour of fortune), And was all his in cheer*, as his in heart. *countenance Out of the ground a fire infernal start, Fr...
  761. toil
    work hard
    Why should he study, and make himselfe wood* *mad Upon a book in cloister always pore, Or swinken* with his handes, and labour, *toil As Austin bid? how shall the world be served?
  762. prelate
    a senior clergyman and dignitary
    His bootes supple, his horse in great estate, Now certainly he was a fair prelate; He was not pale as a forpined* ghost; *wasted A fat swan lov'd he best of any roast.
  763. alderman
    a member of a municipal legislative body (as a city council)
    Full fresh and new their gear y-picked* was. *spruce Their knives were y-chaped* not with brass, *mounted But all with silver wrought full clean and well, Their girdles and their pouches *every deal*. *in every part* Well seemed each of them a fair burgess, To sitten in a guild-hall, on the dais. Evereach, for the wisdom that he can*, *knew Was shapely* for to be an alderman. *fitted For chattels hadde they enough and rent, And eke their wives would it well assent: And elles cert...
  764. wan
    abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress
    Mine is the drowning in the sea so wan; Mine is the prison in the darke cote*, *cell Mine the strangling and hanging by the throat, The murmur, and the churlish rebelling, The groyning*, and the privy poisoning. *discontent I do vengeance and plein* correction, *full I dwell in the sign of the lion.
  765. vow
    a solemn pledge (to oneself or to another or to a deity) to do something or to behave in a certain manner
    Consider all this, and *rue upon* my sore, *take pity on* As wisly* as I shall for evermore *truly Enforce my might, thy true servant to be, And holde war alway with chastity: That make I mine avow*, so ye me help. *vow, promise I keepe not of armes for to yelp,* *boast Nor ask I not to-morrow to have victory, Nor renown in this case, nor vaine glory Of *prize of armes*, blowing up and down, *praise for valour* But I would have fully possessioun Of Emily, and die in her service; Find ...
  766. feudal
    of or relating to or characteristic of feudalism
    The donjon was originally the central tower or "keep" of feudal castles; it was employed to detain prisoners of importance.
  767. correction
    the act of offering an improvement to replace a mistake; setting right
    Mine is the drowning in the sea so wan; Mine is the prison in the darke cote*, *cell Mine the strangling and hanging by the throat, The murmur, and the churlish rebelling, The groyning*, and the privy poisoning. *discontent I do vengeance and plein* correction, *full I dwell in the sign of the lion.
  768. ail
    be ill or unwell
    Thus passed forth all thilke* Saturday, *that That Nicholas still in his chamber lay, And ate, and slept, and didde what him list Till Sunday, that* the sunne went to rest. *when This silly carpenter *had great marvaill* *wondered greatly* Of Nicholas, or what thing might him ail, And said; "I am adrad*, by Saint Thomas! *afraid, in dread It standeth not aright with Nicholas: *God shielde* that he died suddenly. *heaven forbid!*
  769. earth
    the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on
    And, shortly to conclude, such a place Was never on earth made in so little space, For in the land there was no craftes-man, That geometry or arsmetrike* can**, *arithmetic **knew Nor pourtrayor*, nor carver of images, *portrait painter That Theseus ne gave him meat and wages The theatre to make and to devise.
  770. termination
    the act of ending something
    We may understand "the dancing ships," "the ships that hop" on the waves; "steres" being taken as the feminine adjectival termination: or we may, perhaps, read, with one of the manuscripts, "the ships upon the steres" -- that is, even as they are being steered, or on the open sea -- a more picturesque notion. 49.
  771. region
    the extended spatial location of something
    Why should I not as well eke tell you all The portraiture, that was upon the wall Within the temple of mighty Mars the Red? All painted was the wall in length and brede* *breadth Like to the estres* of the grisly place *interior chambers That hight the great temple of Mars in Thrace, In thilke* cold and frosty region, *that There as Mars hath his sovereign mansion.
  772. omen
    a sign of something about to happen
    It was the custom for soldiers to march thrice around the funeral pile of an emperor or general; "on the left hand" is added, in reference to the belief that the left hand was propitious -- the Roman augur turning his face southward, and so placing on his left hand the east, whence good omens came.
  773. dim
    lacking in light; not bright or harsh
    The fires burn'd upon the altar bright, That it gan all the temple for to light; A sweete smell anon the ground up gaf*, *gave And Arcita anon his hand up haf*, *lifted And more incense into the fire he cast, With other rites more and at the last The statue of Mars began his hauberk ring; And with that sound he heard a murmuring Full low and dim, that saide thus, "Victory."