deed

A deed is an action that you perform with intent, like turning in a lost wallet you find in a store. Definitely a good deed.

The word deed is often used to describe acts of charity but an action doesn’t have to be good to be called a deed — people go to jail for their criminal deeds. Either way, a deed is something done on purpose. It could be difficult, as anyone who after breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend later told friends, "I did the deed," will know. An unrelated meaning of deed is a legal document that shows who owns a building or land.

DEFINITIONS OF: deed

1

n a legal document signed and sealed and delivered to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it

“he signed the deed
Synonyms:
deed of conveyance, title
Types:
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bill of sale
a deed transferring personal property
deed poll
a deed made and executed by only one party
enfeoffment
under the feudal system, the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service
mortgage deed
deed embodying a mortgage
title deed
a legal document proving a person's right to property
muniments
deeds and other documentary evidence of title to land
Type of:
instrument, legal document, legal instrument, official document
(law) a document that states some contractual relationship or grants some right

n something that people do or cause to happen

Synonyms:
act, human action, human activity
Examples:
show 215 examples...
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Hegira
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era; the Muslim calendar begins in that year
Underground Railroad
secret aid to escaping slaves that was provided by abolitionists in the years before the American Civil War
Babylonian Captivity
the deportation of the Jews to Babylonia by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC
Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Peasant's Revolt
a widespread rebellion in 1381 against poll taxes and other inequities that oppressed the poorer people of England; suppressed by Richard II
Seward's Folly
the transaction in 1867 in which the United States Secretary of State William Henry Seward purchased Alaska from Russia
Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
Chino-Japanese War
a war between China and Japan (1894 and 1895) over the control of the Korean Peninsula; China was overwhelmingly defeated at Port Arthur
Dardanelles campaign
the unsuccessful campaign in World War I (1915) by the English and French to open a passage for aid to Russia; defeated by the Turks
Drogheda
in 1649 the place was captured by Oliver Cromwell, who massacred the Catholic inhabitants
Dunkerque
an amphibious evacuation in World War II (1940) when 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches in northern France in a desperate retreat under enemy fire
Indian Mutiny
discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858; the revolt was put down after several battles and sieges (notably the siege at Lucknow)
Macedonian War
one the four wars between Macedonia and Rome in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, which ended in the defeat of Macedonia and its annexation as a Roman province
Meuse-Argonne operation
an American operation in World War I (1918); American troops under Pershing drove back the German armies which were saved only by the armistice on November 11
Okinawa campaign
a campaign in the closing days of World War II in the Pacific (April to June 1945); in savage close-quarter fighting United States marines and regular army troops took the island from the Japanese; considered the greatest victory of the Pacific campaign for the Americans
Operation Desert Storm
the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)
Petersburg Campaign
the final campaign of the American Civil War (1864-65); Union forces under Grant besieged and finally defeated Confederate forces under Lee
Wilderness Campaign
American Civil War; a series of indecisive battles in Grant's campaign (1864) against Lee in which both armies suffered terrible losses
American War of Independence
the revolution of the American Colonies against Great Britain; 1775-1783
Arab-Israeli War
tension between Arabs and Israeli erupted into a brief war in June 1967; Israel emerged as a major power in the Middle East
Arab-Israeli War
Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973 (on Yom Kippur); Israel counterattacked and drove the Syrians back and crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt
Balkan Wars
two wars (1912-1913) that were fought over the last of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire and that left the area around Constantinople (now Istanbul) as the only Ottoman territory in Europe
Boer War
either of two wars: the first when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (1880-1881); the second when the Orange Free State and Transvaal declared war on Britain (1899-1902)
Chinese Revolution
the republican revolution against the Manchu dynasty in China; 1911-1912
Crimean War
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia; 1853-1856
Cuban Revolution
the revolution led by Fidel Castro and a small band of guerrilla fighters against a corrupt dictatorship in Cuba; 1956-1959
Bloodless Revolution
the revolution against James II; there was little armed resistance to William and Mary in England although battles were fought in Scotland and Ireland (1688-1689)
Franco-Prussian War
a war between France and Prussia that ended the Second Empire in France and led to the founding of modern Germany; 1870-1871
French and Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by American Indian tribes); 1755-1760
French Revolution
the revolution in France against the Bourbons; 1789-1799
Hundred Years' War
the series of wars fought intermittently between France and England; 1337-1453
Iran-Iraq War
a dispute over control of the waterway between Iraq and Iran broke out into open fighting in 1980 and continued until 1988, when they accepted a UN cease-fire resolution
Korean War
a war between North and South Korea; South Korea was aided by the United States and other members of the United Nations; 1950-1953
Mexican Revolution
a revolution for agrarian reforms led in northern Mexico by Pancho Villa and in southern Mexico by Emiliano Zapata (1910-1911)
Mexican War
after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000
Napoleonic Wars
a series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times; 1799-1815
Norman Conquest
the invasion and settlement of England by the Normans following the battle of Hastings (1066)
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta; 431-404 BC
Persian Gulf War
a war fought between Iraq and a coalition led by the United States that freed Kuwait from Iraqi invaders; 1990-1991
Punic War
one of the three wars between Carthage and Rome that resulted in the destruction of Carthage and its annexation by Rome; 264-241 BC, 218-201 BC, 149-146 BC
Restoration
the re-establishment of the British monarchy in 1660
February Revolution
the revolution against the czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
October Revolution
the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
Russo-Japanese War
Japanese victory in the war with Russia (1904-1905) gave Japan power over Korea and Manchuria
Seven Years' War
a war of England and Prussia against France and Austria (1756-1763); Britain and Prussia got the better of it
Spanish-American War
a war between the United States and Spain in 1898
Thirty Years' War
a series of conflicts (1618-1648) between Protestants and Catholics starting in Germany and spreading until France and Denmark and Sweden were opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain
Trojan War
(Greek mythology) a great war fought between Greece and Troy; the Greeks sailed to Troy to recover Helen of Troy, the beautiful wife of Menelaus who had been abducted by Paris; after ten years the Greeks (via the Trojan Horse) achieved final victory and burned Troy to the ground
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
War of Greek Independence
the Greeks rebelled against Turkish rule in 1821; with the support of England and France and Russia they won independence in 1828 at Navarino (although the country included only half its present size)
War of the Austrian Succession
Prussia and Austria fought over Silesia and most of the rest of Europe took sides; 1740-1748
War of the League of Augsburg
an aggressive war waged by Louis XIV against Spain and the Holy Roman Empire and England and Holland and other states (1689-1697)
War of the Spanish Succession
a general war in Europe (1701-1714) that broke out when Louis XIV installed his grandson on the throne of Spain; England and Holland hoped to limit Louis' power
Wars of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
War of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Ten Commandments
the biblical commandments of Moses
Hippocratic oath
an oath taken by physicians to observe medical ethics deriving from Hippocrates
Gettysburg Address
a three-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg (November 19, 1863)
Sermon on the Mount
the first major discourse delivered by Jesus (Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6:20-49)
Creation
(theology) God's act of bringing the universe into existence
Secession
the withdrawal of eleven southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor; organized as a protest against taxes on tea
Bakke decision
a ruling by the Supreme Court on affirmative action; the Court ruled in 1978 that medical schools are entitled to consider race as a factor in their admission policy
Actium
the naval battle in which Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian's fleet under Agrippa in 31 BC
Aegadean Isles
islands west of Sicily (now known as the Egadi Islands) where the Romans won a naval victory over the Carthaginians that ended the first Punic War in 241 BC
Aegospotamos
a river in ancient Thrace (now Turkey); in the mouth of this river the Spartan fleet under Lysander destroyed the Athenian fleet in the final battle of the Peloponnesian War (404 BC)
Agincourt
a battle in northern France in which English longbowmen under Henry V decisively defeated a much larger French army in 1415
Alamo
a siege and massacre at a mission in San Antonio in 1836; Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
battle of Atlanta
a siege in which Federal troops under Sherman cut off the railroads supplying the city and then burned it; 1864
battle of Austerlitz
a decisive battle during the Napoleonic campaigns (1805); the French under Napoleon defeated the Russian armies of Czar Alexander I and the Austrian armies of Emperor Francis II
Bannockburn
a battle in which the Scots under Robert the Bruce defeated the English and assured the independence of Scotland
Corregidor
the peninsula and island in the Philippines where Japanese forces besieged American forces in World War II; United States forces surrendered in 1942 and recaptured the area in 1945
Battle of Kerbala
a battle in 680 in which the grandson of Mohammed and his followers were killed
Battle of the Ardennes Bulge
a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise
Battle of the Marne
a World War I battle in northwestern France where the Allies defeated the Germans in 1918
battle of the Bismarck Sea
a naval battle in World War II; Allied land-based bombers destroyed a Japanese convoy in the Bismarck Sea in March 1943
Blenheim
the First Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy defeated the French in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession
Borodino
Napoleon defeated the Russians in 1812 in a pitched battle at a village in western Russia west of Moscow, but irreparably weakened his army
Bosworth Field
the battle that ended the Wars of the Roses (1485); Richard III was killed and Henry Tudor was crowned as Henry VII
Bouvines
in 1214 the French under Philip Augustus defeated a coalition formed against him in one of the greatest battles of the middle ages
battle of Boyne
a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance in Ireland in 1690; William III defeated the deposed James II and so ended the Catholicism that had been reintroduced in England by the Stuarts
battle of Brunanburh
a battle in 937 when Athelstan defeated the Scots
Buena Vista
a pitched battle in the Mexican War in 1847; United States forces under Zachary Taylor defeated the Mexican forces under Santa Anna at a locality in northern Mexico
Battle of Bull Run
either of two battles during the American Civil War (1861 and 1862); Confederate forces defeated the Federal army in both battles
battle of Bunker Hill
the first important battle of the American War of Independence (1775) which was fought at Breed's Hill; the British defeated the colonial forces
Cannae
ancient city is southeastern Italy where Hannibal defeated the Romans in 216 BC
battle of Caporetto
battle of World War I (1917); Italians were defeated by the Austrian and German forces
Caudine Forks
a battle in the Apennines in 321 BC in which the Samnites defeated the Romans
Chaeronea
a battle in which Philip II of Macedon defeated the Athenians and Thebans (338 BC) and also Sulla defeated Mithridates (86 BC)
Chalons-sur-Marne
the battle in which Attila the Hun was defeated by the Romans and Visigoths in 451
Chancellorsville
a major battle in the American Civil War (1863); the Confederates under Robert E. Lee defeated the Union forces under Joseph Hooker
Chapultepec
a pitched battle in the Mexican War that resulted in a major victory for American forces over Mexican forces at a locality south of Mexico City (1847)
battle of Chattanooga
in the American Civil War (1863) the Union armies of Hooker, Thomas, and Sherman under the command of Ulysses S. Grant won a decisive victory over the Confederate Army under Braxton Bragg
battle of Chickamauga
a Confederate victory in the American Civil War (1863); Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg defeated Union forces
battle of the Coral Sea
a Japanese defeat in World War II (May 1942); the first naval battle fought entirely by planes based on aircraft carriers
battle of Cowpens
battle in the American Revolution; Americans under Daniel Morgan defeated the British
battle of Crecy
the first decisive battle of the Hundred Years' War; in 1346 the English under Edward III defeated the French under Philip of Valois
battle of Cunaxa
battle in 401 BC when the Artaxerxes II defeated his younger brother who tried to usurp the throne
battle of Cynoscephalae
the battle that ended the second Macedonian War (197 BC); the Romans defeated Philip V who lost his control of Greece
Dien Bien Phu
the French military base fell after a siege by Vietnam troops that lasted 56 days; ended the involvement of France in Indochina in 1954
Battle of El Alamein
a pitched battle in World War II (1942) resulting in a decisive Allied victory by British troops under Montgomery over German troops under Rommel
Eniwetok
World War II (February 1944); American infantry landed and captured a Japanese stronghold
Battle of Flodden Field
a battle in 1513; the English defeated the invading Scots and James IV was killed
Battle of Fontenoy
a battle in 1745 in which the French army under Marshal Saxe defeated the English army and their allies under the duke of Cumberland
Fort Ticonderoga
a pitched battle in which American revolutionary troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in 1775
Battle of Fredericksburg
an important battle in the American Civil War (1862); the Union Army under A. E. Burnside was defeated by the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee
Battle of Gettysburg
a battle of the American Civil War (1863); the defeat of Robert E. Lee's invading Confederate Army was a major victory for the Union
Battle of Granicus River
the battle in which Alexander won his first major victory against the Persians (334 BC)
Battle of Guadalcanal
a battle in World War II in the Pacific (1942-1943); the island was occupied by the Japanese and later recaptured by American forces
Hampton Roads
a naval battle of the American Civil War (1862); the indecisive battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac
battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
battle of Hohenlinden
a battle during the Napoleonic Wars (1800); the French defeated the Austrians
Inchon
a battle in the Korean War (1950); United States forces landed at Inchon
battle of Ipsus
a battle between the successors of Alexander the Great (301 BC); Lysimachus and Seleucus defeated Antigonus and Demetrius
battle of Issus
a battle (333 BC) in which Alexander the Great defeated the Persians under Darius III
Ivry la Bataille
a battle (1590) in which the Huguenots under Henry IV defeated the Catholics under the duke of Mayenne
invasion of Iwo
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
Battle of Jena
the battle in 1806 in which Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians
battle of Jutland
an indecisive naval battle in World War I (1916); fought between the British and German fleets off the northwestern coast of Denmark
Kennesaw Mountain
battle of the American Civil War (1864); Union forces under William Tecumseh Sherman were repulsed by Confederate troops under Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Kwajalein
an amphibious assault in the Pacific in World War II (January 1944); American forces landed and captured a Japanese air base
Battle of Lake Trasimenus
a battle in 217 BC in which Hannibal ambushed a Roman army led by Flaminius
battle of Langside
(1568) Catholic forces supporting Mary Queen of Scots were routed by Protestants
Battle of Lepanto
Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope
battle of Leuctra
Thebes defeated Sparta in 371 BC; the battle ended Sparta's military supremacy in Greece
Lexington and Concord
the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775)
Leyte invasion
a battle in World War II; the return of United States troops to the Philippines began with landings on Leyte Island in October 1944; the battle marked first use of kamikaze aircraft by the Japanese
Lucknow
the British residents of Lucknow were besieged by Indian insurgents during the Indian Mutiny (1857)
battle of Lule Burgas
the principal battle of the Balkan Wars (1912); Bulgarian forces defeated the Turks
battle of Lutzen
a battle in the Thirty Years' War (1632); Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus defeated the Holy Roman Empire under Wallenstein; Gustavus Adolphus was killed
Battle of Magenta
a battle in 1859 in which the French and Sardinian forces under Napoleon III defeated the Austrians under Francis Joseph I
Battle of Maldon
a battle in which the Danes defeated the Saxons in 991; celebrated in an old English poem
Manila Bay
a naval battle in the Spanish-American War (1898); the American fleet under Admiral Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet
Mantineia
the site of three famous battles among Greek city-states: in 418 BC and 362 BC and 207 BC
battle of Marathon
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
Marengo
a battle in 1800 in which the French under Napoleon Bonaparte won a great victory over the Austrians
battle of Marston Moor
a battle in 1644 in which the Parliamentarians under the earl of Manchester defeated the Royalists under Prince Rupert
Metaurus River
a battle during the second Punic War (207 BC); Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal was defeated by the Romans which ended Hannibal's hopes for success in Italy
Battle of Midway
naval battle of World War II (June 1942); American planes based on land and on carriers decisively defeated a Japanese fleet on its way to invade the Midway Islands
battle of Minden
a battle in the Seven Years' War (1759) in which the English forces and their allies defeated the French
Battle of Monmouth Court House
a pitched battle in New Jersey during the American Revolution (1778) that ended with the withdrawal of British forces
Battle of Naseby
a battle in 1645 that settled the outcome of the first English Civil War as the Parliamentarians won a major victory over the Royalists
battle of Navarino
a decisive naval battle in the War of Greek Independence (1827); the Turkish and Egyptian fleet was defeated by an allied fleet of British and French and Russian warships
battle of Omdurman
a battle (1898) in which an English and Egyptian army under Kitchener defeated the Sudanese
siege of Orleans
a long siege of Orleans by the English was relieved by Joan of Arc in 1429
battle of Panipat
battle in which the ruler of Afghanistan defeated the Mahrattas in 1761
Cape Passero
a naval battle in the Mediterranean Sea off Cape Passero in which the Spanish navy was destroyed by France and England while attempting to recover Sicily and Sardinia from Italy (1719)
battle of Pharsalus
Caesar defeated Pompey in 48 BC
battle of Philippi
Octavian and Mark Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC
battle of the Philippine Sea
a naval battle in World War II (1944); a decisive naval victory for the United States fleet over the Japanese who were trying to block supplies from reaching American troops on Leyte
battle of Plassey
the victory in 1757 by the British under Clive over Siraj-ud-daula that established British supremacy over Bengal
battle of Plataea
a defeat of the Persian army by the Greeks at Plataea in 479 BC
Pleven
the town was taken from the Turks by the Russians in 1877 after a siege of 143 days
battle of Poitiers
the battle in 1356 in which the English under the Black Prince defeated the French
Port Arthur
a battle in the Chino-Japanese War (1894); Japanese captured the port and fortifications from the Chinese
Battle of Puebla
a battle in which Mexican forces defeated the French in 1862
Battle of Pydna
a major victory by the Romans over the Macedonians in 168 BC; resulted in the downfall of the ancient Macedonian kingdom
Battle of Ravenna
a battle between the French and an alliance of Spaniards and Swiss and Venetians in 1512
Battle of Rocroi
a battle in the Thirty Years' War (1643); the French defeated the Spanish invaders
battle of Rossbach
a battle in the Seven Years' War (1757); Prussian forces under Frederick the Great defeated the armies of France and Austria
battle of St Mihiel
a battle in the Meuse-Argonne operation in World War I (1918); the battle in which American troops launched their first offensive in France
Saipan
US forces captured the island from the Japanese in July 1944; it was an important air base until the end of World War II
Salerno
a battle in World War II; the port was captured by United States troops in September 1943
Santiago de Cuba
a naval battle in the Spanish-American War (1898); the United States fleet bottled up the Spanish ships in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba and destroyed them when they tried to escape
battle of Saratoga
a battle during the American Revolution (1777); the British under Burgoyne were defeated
battle of Sempatch
the Swiss Confederation escaped Hapsburg domination by their victory in 1386
battle of Pittsburgh Landing
the second great battle of the American Civil War (1862); the battle ended with the withdrawal of Confederate troops but it was not a Union victory
battle of the Chemin-des-Dames
a battle in World War I (May 1918); the Germans tried to attack before the American numbers were too great to defeat; the tactical success of the Germans proved to be a strategic failure
battle of Solferino
an indecisive battle in 1859 between the French and Sardinians under Napoleon III and the Austrians under Francis Joseph I
Battle of the Somme
battle in World War I (1916)
Battle of the Somme
battle of World War II (1944)
Battle of the Spanish Armada
in the English Channel a small fleet of British ships successfully defeated the large armada sent from Spain by Philip II to invade England
battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse
a battle between the armies of Grant and Lee during the Wilderness Campaign
siege of Syracuse
the Athenian siege of Syracuse (415-413 BC) was eventually won by Syracuse
siege of Syracuse
the Roman siege of Syracuse (214-212 BC) was eventually won by the Romans who sacked the city (killing Archimedes)
battle of Tannenberg
a battle in World War I (1914); decisive German victory over the Russians
Tarawa-Makin
battles in World War II in the Pacific (November 1943); United States Marines took the islands from the Japanese after bitter fighting
battle of Tertry
a battle in France in 687 among the descendants of Clovis
battle of Teutoburger Wald
a battle in 9 AD in which the Germans under Arminius annihilated three Roman Legions
battle of Tewkesbury
the final battle of the War of the Roses in 1471 in which Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians
battle of Thermopylae
a famous battle in 480 BC; a Greek army under Leonidas was annihilated by the Persians who were trying to conquer Greece
battle of Trafalgar
a naval battle in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain; the French and Spanish fleets were defeated by the English under Nelson (who was mortally wounded)
battle of Trasimeno
a battle in central Italy where Hannibal defeated the Romans under Flaminius in 217 BC
Tsushima
a naval battle in the Russo-Japanese War (1905); the Japanese fleet defeated the Russian fleet in the Korean Strait
battle of Valmy
the French defeated the Austrian and Prussian troops in 1792 (with a famous cannonade from the French artillery)
battle of Verdun
a battle in World War I (1916); in some of the bloodiest fighting in World War I the German offensive was stopped
siege of Vicksburg
a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863); after being besieged for nearly seven weeks the Confederates surrendered
battle of Wagram
a battle in the Napoleonic campaigns (1809); Napoleon defeated the Austrians
Battle of Wake Island
in December 1941 the island was captured by the Japanese after a gallant last-ditch stand by a few hundred United States marines
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Prussian and British forces under Blucher and the Duke of Wellington routed the French forces under Napoleon
Yalu River
a battle in the Korean War (November 1950); when UN troops advanced north to the Yalu River 200,000 Chinese troops crossed the river and drove them back
siege of Yorktown
in 1781 the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops; the surrender ended the American Revolution
first battle of Ypres
battle in World War I (1914); heavy but indecisive fighting as the Allies and the Germans both tried to break through the lines of the others
second battle of Ypres
battle in World War I (1915); Germans wanted to try chlorine (a toxic yellow gas) as a weapon and succeeded in taking considerable territory from the Allied salient
third battle of Ypres
battle in World War I (1917); an Allied offensive which eventually failed because tanks bogged down in the waterlogged soil of Flanders; Germans introduced mustard gas which interfered with the Allied artillery
battle of Zama
the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War
United States Civil War
civil war in the United States between the North and the South; 1861-1865
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I; 1644-1648
Spanish Civil War
civil war in Spain in which Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government; during the war Spain became a battleground for fascists and socialists from all countries; 1936-1939
First World War
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Second World War
a war between the Allies (Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, USSR, Yugoslavia) and the Axis (Albania, Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Rumania, Slovakia, Thailand) from 1939 to 1945
Emergency Alert System
a federal warning system that is activated by FEMA; enables the President to take over the United States airwaves to warn the whole country of major catastrophic events
Berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Human Genome Project
an international study of the entire human genetic material
First Crusade
a Crusade from 1096 to 1099; captured Jerusalem and created a theocracy there
Second Crusade
a Crusade from 1145 to 1147 that failed because of internal disagreements among the crusaders and led to the loss of Jerusalem in 1187
Third Crusade
a Crusade from 1189 to 1192 led by Richard I and the king of France that failed because an army torn by dissensions and fighting on foreign soil could not succeed against forces united by religious zeal
Fourth Crusade
a Crusade from 1202 to 1204 that was diverted into a battle for Constantinople and failed to recapture Jerusalem
Fifth Crusade
a Crusade under papal control from 1218 to 1221 that achieved military victories but failed when dissension arose over accepting the terms they had been offered
Sixth Crusade
a Crusade from 1228 to 1229 led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II who fell ill and was excommunicated by the Pope; by negotiation Frederick II was able to crown himself king of Jerusalem
Seventh Crusade
a Crusade initiated in 1248 after the loss of Jerusalem in 1244 and defeated in 1249
September 11
the day in 2001 when Arab suicide bombers hijacked United States airliners and used them as bombs
final solution
the mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime from 1941 until 1945
Red Hand Defenders
a paramilitary group of Protestants in Northern Ireland that tries to prevent any political settlement with the Irish Republic; attacks interests of Catholic civilians in Northern Ireland; responsible for arson and bombing and murder
Battle of the Little Bighorn
a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876); Custer was pursuing Sioux led by Sitting Bull; Custer underestimated the size of the Sioux forces (which were supported by Cheyenne warriors) and was killed along with all his command
Types:
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action
something done (usually as opposed to something said)
acquiring, getting
the act of acquiring something
causation, causing
the act of causing something to happen
delivery, obstetrical delivery
the act of delivering a child
departure, going, going away, leaving
the act of departing
discovery, find, uncovering
the act of discovering something
disposal, disposition
the act or means of getting rid of something
effectuation, implementation
the act of implementing (providing a practical means for accomplishing something); carrying into effect
egress, egression, emergence
the act of coming (or going) out; becoming apparent
equalisation, equalization, leveling
the act of making equal or uniform
digging up, disinterment, exhumation
the act of digging something out of the ground (especially a corpse) where it has been buried
mitsvah, mitzvah
(Judaism) a good deed performed out of religious duty
actuation, propulsion
the act of propelling
recovery, retrieval
the act of regaining or saving something lost (or in danger of becoming lost)
running away
the act of leaving (without permission) the place you are expected to be
touch, touching
the act of putting two things together with no space between them
nonaccomplishment, nonachievement
an act that does not achieve its intended goal
leaning
the act of deviating from a vertical position
motivating, motivation
the act of motivating; providing incentive
assumption
the act of assuming or taking for granted
rejection
the act of rejecting something
forfeit, forfeiture, sacrifice
the act of losing or surrendering something as a penalty for a mistake or fault or failure to perform etc.
derivation
the act of deriving something or obtaining something from a source or origin
activity
any specific behavior
hire
the act of hiring something or someone
wear, wearing
the act of having on your person as a covering or adornment
assessment, judgement, judgment
the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event
production
the act or process of producing something
stay
continuing or remaining in a place or state
abidance, residence, residency
the act of dwelling in a place
inactivity
being inactive; being less active
hinderance, hindrance, interference
the act of hindering or obstructing or impeding
stop, stoppage
the act of stopping something
group action
action taken by a group of people
distribution
the act of distributing or spreading or apportioning
legitimation
the act of rendering a person legitimate
permissive waste, waste
(law) reduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect
proclamation, promulgation
the formal act of proclaiming; giving public notice
communicating, communication
the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information
speech act
the use of language to perform some act
thing
an action
benignity, kindness
a kind act
accomplishment, achievement
the action of accomplishing something
alienation
the action of alienating; the action of causing to become unfriendly
application
the action of putting something into operation
res gestae
things done
course, course of action
a mode of action
interaction
a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting
fetch
the action of fetching
playing
the action of taking part in a game or sport or other recreation
play, swordplay
the act using a sword (or other weapon) vigorously and skillfully
arrival
the act of arriving at a certain place
breaking away
departing hastily
farewell, leave, leave-taking, parting
the act of departing politely
French leave
an abrupt and unannounced departure (without saying farewell)
disappearance, disappearing
the act of leaving secretly or without explanation
withdrawal
the act of withdrawing
stand-down, standdown
(military) a temporary stop of offensive military action
sailing
the departure of a vessel from a port
boarding, embarkation, embarkment
the act of passengers and crew getting aboard a ship or aircraft
exit
the act of going out
elopement
the act of running away with a lover (usually to get married)
escape, flight
the act of escaping physically
surfacing
emerging to the surface and becoming apparent
despatch, dispatch, shipment
the act of sending off something
failure
an act that fails
foiling, frustration, thwarting
an act of hindering someone's plans or efforts
error, fault, mistake
a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention
acquisition
the act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something
obtainment, obtention
the act of obtaining
catching, contracting
becoming infected
position
the act of positing; an assumption taken as a postulate or axiom
appropriation
a deliberate act of acquisition of something, often without the permission of the owner
moving in, occupancy, occupation
the act of occupying or taking possession of a building
capture, gaining control, seizure
the act of forcibly dispossessing an owner of property
repossession
the action of regaining possession (especially the seizure of collateral securing a loan that is in default)
receipt, reception
the act of receiving
appointment
(law) the act of disposing of property by virtue of the power of appointment
comb-out
the act of carefully weeding out unwanted things or people
giving
disposing of property by voluntary transfer without receiving value in return
abandonment
the voluntary surrender of property (or a right to property) without attempting to reclaim it or give it away
mine disposal
the disposal of explosive mines
sewage disposal
the disposal of sewage
reclamation
the recovery of useful substances from waste products
deliverance, delivery, rescue, saving
recovery or preservation from loss or danger
ransom
the act of freeing from captivity or punishment
recapture, retaking
the act of taking something back
invocation
the act of appealing for help
instrumentation
the act of providing or using the instruments needed for some implementation
carrying into action, carrying out, execution, performance
the act of performing; of doing something successfully; using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing it
motorisation, motorization
the act of motorizing (equiping with motors or with motor vehicles)
launch, launching
the act of propelling with force
launching
the act of moving a newly built vessel into the water for the first time
drive, driving force, thrust
the act of applying force to propel something
bowl, roll
the act of rolling something (as the ball in bowling)
throw
the act of throwing (propelling something with a rapid movement of the arm and wrist)
push, pushing
the act of applying force in order to move something away
pull, pulling
the act of pulling; applying force to move something toward or with you
heave, lift, raise
the act of raising something
ejection, expulsion, forcing out, projection
the act of expelling or projecting or ejecting
jump, jumping
the act of jumping; propelling yourself off the ground
lob
the act of propelling something (as a ball or shell etc.) in a high arc
sending
the act of causing something to go (especially messages)
rolling, wheeling
propelling something on wheels
shooting, shot
the act of firing a projectile
contact, physical contact
the act of touching physically
dab, pat, tap
a light touch or stroke
hit, hitting, striking
the act of contacting one thing with another
dig, jab
the act of touching someone suddenly with your finger or elbow
kiss
a light glancing touch
buss, kiss, osculation
the act of caressing with the lips (or an instance thereof)
catch, grab, snap, snatch
the act of catching an object with the hands
handling, manipulation
the action of touching with the hands (or the skillful use of the hands) or by the use of mechanical means
fingering
touching something with the fingers
grope
the act of groping; and instance of groping
palpation, tactual exploration
a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional)
tickle, tickling, titillation
the act of tickling
stroke, stroking
a light touch with the hands
tag
(sports) the act of touching a player in a game (which changes their status in the game)
lap, lick
touching with the tongue
grazing, shaving, skimming
the act of brushing against while passing
tracing
the discovery and description of the course of development of something
catching, detection, espial, spotting, spying
the act of detecting something; catching sight of something
self-discovery
discovering your own individuality
breakthrough
making an important discovery
determination, finding
the act of determining the properties of something, usually by research or calculation
rediscovery
the act of discovering again
induction, initiation, trigger
an act that sets in motion some course of events
coercion, compulsion
using force to cause something to occur
influence
causing something without any direct or apparent effort
inducement, inducing
act of bringing about a desired result
choice, option, pick, selection
the act of choosing or selecting
assigning, assignment
the act of distributing something to designated places or persons
agency, means, way
how a result is obtained or an end is achieved
vote
the opinion of a group as determined by voting
balancing, reconciliation
getting two things to correspond
equating, equation
the act of regarding as equal
breech birth, breech delivery, breech presentation
delivery of an infant whose feet or buttocks appear first
C-section, abdominal delivery, caesarean, caesarean delivery, caesarean section, caesarian, caesarian delivery, caesarian section, cesarean, cesarean delivery, cesarean section, cesarian, cesarian section
the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
forceps delivery
delivery in which forceps are inserted through the vagina and used to grasp the head of the fetus and pull it through the birth canal; since the forceps can injure the fetus this procedure has generally given way to cesarean deliveries
midwifery
assisting women at childbirth
change
the action of changing something
economy, saving
an act of economizing; reduction in cost
variance, variation
an activity that varies from a norm or standard
forbiddance, inhibition, prohibition
the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)
opposition, resistance
the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with
brush-off
a curt or disdainful rejection
avoidance, dodging, shunning, turning away
deliberately avoiding; keeping away from or preventing from happening
abandonment, desertion, forsaking
the act of giving something up
forgoing, forswearing, renunciation
the act of renouncing; sacrificing or giving up or surrendering (a possession or right or title or privilege etc.)
nonacceptance, turndown
the act of refusing an offer
banishment, proscription
rejection by means of an act of banishing or proscribing someone
displacement
act of removing from office or employment
bruxism
involuntarily or unconsciously clenching or grinding the teeth, typically during sleep
space walk
any kind of physical activity outside a spacecraft by one of the crew
procession
the group action of a collection of people or animals or vehicles moving ahead in more or less regular formation
takeoff
a departure; especially of airplanes
pickup
the act of taking aboard passengers or freight
transfusion
the action of pouring a liquid from one vessel to another
domesticity
domestic activities or life
operation
the activity of operating something (a machine or business etc.)
operation
a planned activity involving many people performing various actions
pattern, practice
a customary way of operation or behavior
practice, praxis
translating an idea into action
diversion, recreation
an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates
bag, cup of tea, dish
an activity that you like or at which you are superior
follow-up, followup
an activity that continues something that has already begun or that repeats something that has already been done
game
a contest with rules to determine a winner
play, turn
(game) the activity of doing something in an agreed succession
dribble, dribbling
the propulsion of a ball by repeated taps or kicks
music
musical activity (singing or whistling etc.)
acting, performing, playacting, playing
the performance of a part or role in a drama
animation, liveliness
general activity and motion
burst, fit
a sudden flurry of activity (often for no obvious reason)
work
activity directed toward making or doing something
deeds, works
performance of moral or religious acts
service
(law) the acts performed by an English feudal tenant for the benefit of his lord which formed the consideration for the property granted to him
business, job, line, line of work, occupation
the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money
occupation
any activity that occupies a person's attention
committal to writing, writing
the activity of putting something in written form
haemostasia, haemostasis, hemostasia, hemostasis
surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood (as with a hemostat)
justice
judgment involved in the determination of rights and the assignment of rewards and punishments
pickings, taking
the act of someone who picks up or takes something
role
normal or customary activity of a person in a particular social setting
actus reus, misconduct, wrongdoing, wrongful conduct
activity that transgresses moral or civil law
carelessness, neglect, negligence, nonperformance
failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances
dissipation, waste, wastefulness
useless or profitless activity; using or expending or consuming thoughtlessly or carelessly
transgression
the action of going beyond or overstepping some boundary or limit
attempt, effort, endeavor, endeavour, try
earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something
control
the activity of managing or exerting control over something
protection
the activity of protecting someone or something
adjudication
the final judgment in a legal proceeding; the act of pronouncing judgment based on the evidence presented
disapproval
the act of disapproving or condemning
evaluation, rating
act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of
estimate, estimation
a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody
logistic assessment
a judgment of the logistic support required for some particular military operation
value judgement, value judgment
an assessment that reveals more about the values of the person making the assessment than about the reality of what is assessed
sensory activity
activity intended to achieve a particular sensory result
didactics, education, educational activity, instruction, pedagogy, teaching
the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill
grooming, preparation, training
activity leading to skilled behavior
representation
an activity that stands as an equivalent of something or results in an equivalent
creation, creative activity
the human act of creating
disassembly, dismantlement, dismantling
the act of taking something apart (as a piece of machinery)
rainmaking
activity intended to produce rain
devising, fashioning, making
the act that results in something coming to be
foliation
the production of foil by cutting or beating metal into thin leaves
puncture
the act of puncturing or perforating
hunt, hunting, search
the activity of looking thoroughly in order to find something or someone
employment, exercise, usage, use, utilisation, utilization
the act of using
action, military action
a military engagement
military operation, operation
activity by a military or naval force (as a maneuver or campaign)
battle, conflict, struggle
an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals)
revolution
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
aggression, hostility
violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked
measure, measurement, measuring, mensuration
the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule
calibration, standardisation, standardization
the act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrument
organisation, organization
the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically
grouping
the activity of putting things together in groups
support, supporting
the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening
continuance, continuation
the act of continuing an activity without interruption
procedure, process
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
ceremony
any activity that is performed in an especially solemn elaborate or formal way
ceremony
the proper or conventional behavior on some solemn occasion
worship
the activity of worshipping
activating, activation, energizing
the activity of causing to have energy and be active
concealing, concealment, hiding
the activity of keeping something secret
emplacement, locating, location, placement, position, positioning
the act of putting something in a certain place
lodging
the act of lodging
occupancy, tenancy
an act of being a tenant or occupant
sojourn, visit
a temporary stay (e.g., as a guest)
layover, stop, stopover
a brief stay in the course of a journey
provision, supply, supplying
the activity of supplying or providing something
demand
the act of demanding
pause
temporary inactivity
wait, waiting
the act of waiting (remaining inactive in one place while expecting something)
ease, relaxation, repose, rest
freedom from activity (work or strain or responsibility)
idleness, idling, loafing
having no employment
delay, holdup
the act of delaying; inactivity resulting in something being put off until a later time
pleasure
an activity that affords enjoyment
delectation, enjoyment
act of receiving pleasure from something
lamentation, mourning
the passionate and demonstrative activity of expressing grief
laughter
the activity of laughing; the manifestation of joy or mirth or scorn
antagonism
(biochemistry) interference in or inhibition of the physiological action of a chemical substance by another having a similar structure
obstruction
the act of obstructing
complication
the act or process of complicating
deterrence
the act or process of discouraging actions or preventing occurrences by instilling fear or doubt or anxiety
bar, prevention
the act of preventing
social activity
activity considered appropriate on social occasions
communalism
the practice of communal living and common ownership
alliance, confederation
the act of forming an alliance or confederation
decolonisation, decolonization
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
disbandment
the act of disbanding
disestablishment
the act terminating an established state of affairs; especially ending a connection with the Church of England
redistribution
distributing again
dispensation
the act of dispensing (giving out in portions)
allocation, allotment, apportioning, apportionment, assignation, parceling, parcelling
the act of distributing by allotting or apportioning; distribution according to a plan
deal
the act of distributing playing cards
revenue sharing
distribution of part of the federal tax income to states and municipalities
share-out, sharing
a distribution in shares
lending, loaning
disposing of money or property with the expectation that the same thing (or an equivalent) will be returned
market, market place, marketplace
the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold
dealing, dealings, transaction
the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities)
stampede
a headlong rush of people on a common impulse
social control
control exerted (actively or passively) by group action
politics
the activities and affairs involved in managing a state or a government
canalisation, canalization
the production of a canal or a conversion to canals
preparation, readying
the activity of putting or setting in order in advance of some act or purpose
coup, coup d'etat, putsch, takeover
a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force
internationalisation, internationalization
the act of bringing something under international control
nationalisation, nationalization
the action of forming or becoming a nation
destabilisation, destabilization
the action of destabilizing; making something less stable (especially of a government or country or economy)
exchange, interchange
the act of changing one thing for another thing
exchange, rally
(sports) an unbroken sequence of several successive strokes
compliance, submission
the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another
competition, contention, rivalry
the act of competing as for profit or a prize
resistance
group action in opposition to those in power
nonresistance
group refusal to resort to violence even in defense against violence
due process, due process of law
(law) the administration of justice according to established rules and principles; based on the principle that a person cannot be deprived of life or liberty or property without appropriate legal procedures and safeguards
action
an act by a government body or supranational organization
legalisation, legalization, legitimation
the act of making lawful
separation
the social act of separating or parting company
desegregation, integrating, integration
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
cooperation
joint operation or action
brainstorming
a group problem-solving technique in which members spontaneously share ideas and solutions
aid, assist, assistance, help
the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose
support
the activity of providing for or maintaining by supplying with money or necessities
employment, engagement
the act of giving someone a job
behavior, behaviour, conduct, doings
manner of acting or controlling yourself
behavior, behaviour
(psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation
civility, politeness
the act of showing regard for others
reverence
an act showing respect (especially a bow or curtsy)
assemblage, assembly, gathering
the social act of assembling
attendance, attending
the act of being present (at a meeting or event etc.)
nonattendance
the failure to attend
getting even, paying back, return
a reciprocal group action
democratisation, democratization
the action of making something democratic
engagement, involution, involvement, participation
the act of sharing in the activities of a group
non-engagement, non-involvement, nonparticipation
withdrawing from the activities of a group
emanation, emission
the act of emitting; causing to flow forth
leadership, leading
the activity of leading
precedence, precedency, precession
the act of preceding in time or order or rank (as in a ceremony)
solo
any activity that is performed alone without assistance
buzz
a confusion of activity and gossip
fun
violent and excited activity
hell, sin
violent and excited activity
consultation, reference
the act of referring or consulting
accenting, accentuation, emphasizing
the act of giving special importance or significance to something
outlet, release, vent
activity that frees or expresses creative energy or emotion
last
a person's dying act; the final thing a person can do
beatification
the action of rendering supremely blessed and extremely happy
ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethnic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
jump-start, jumpstart
starting an automobile engine that has a weak battery by means of jumper cables to another car
mystification, obfuscation
the activity of obscuring people's understanding, leaving them baffled or bewildered
negotiation
the activity or business of negotiating an agreement; coming to terms
socialisation, socialization
the action of establishing on a socialist basis
stupefaction
the action of stupefying; making dull or lethargic
vampirism
the actions or practices of a vampire
transmission
communication by means of transmitted signals
intercommunication
mutual communication; communication with each other
medium
an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication
channel, communication channel, line
(often plural) a means of communication or access
mail, mail service, post, postal service
the system whereby messages are transmitted via the post office
congratulation, felicitation
the act of acknowledging that someone has an occasion for celebration
slander
words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another
dramatic art, dramatics, dramaturgy, theater, theatre
the art of writing and producing plays
verbalisation, verbalization
the activity of expressing something in words
discourse, discussion, treatment
an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic
exhortation
a communication intended to urge or persuade the recipients to take some action
expression, verbal expression, verbalism
the communication (in speech or writing) of your beliefs or opinions
proposal, proposition
the act of making a proposal
bid, bidding, command, dictation
an authoritative direction or instruction to do something
agreement
the verbal act of agreeing
citation
(law) the act of citing (as of spoken words or written passages or legal precedents etc.)
disagreement
the speech act of disagreeing or arguing or disputing
offer, offering
the verbal act of offering
asking, request
the verbal act of requesting
exam, examination, test
a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge
reply, response
the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange
description
the act of describing something
affirmation, assertion, statement
the act of affirming or asserting or stating something
denial
the act of refusing to comply (as with a request)
rejection
the speech act of rejecting
objection
the speech act of objecting
informing, making known
a speech act that conveys information
disclosure, revealing, revelation
the speech act of making something evident
promise
a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do (or not to do) something in the future
boast, boasting, jactitation, self-praise
speaking of yourself in superlatives
naming
the verbal act of naming
challenge
a call to engage in a contest or fight
explanation
the act of explaining; making something plain or intelligible
denouncement, denunciation
a public act of denouncing
address, speech
the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience
persuasion, suasion
the act of persuading (or attempting to persuade); communication intended to induce belief or action
dissuasion
persuading not to do or believe something; talking someone out of a belief or an intended course of action
expostulation, objection, remonstrance, remonstration
the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest
resignation
the act of giving up (a claim or office or possession etc.)
contact, touch
a communicative interaction
traffic
the amount of activity over a communication system during a given period of time
disturbance, perturbation
activity that is a malfunction, intrusion, or interruption
growing
(electronics) the production of (semiconductor) crystals by slow crystallization from the molten state
steel production
making steel from pig iron
timekeeping
the act or process of determining the time
Type of:
event
something that happens at a given place and time
WORD FAMILY
USAGE EXAMPLES