"Disquieting" means "causing mental discomfort"--with an important position in the Department of Justice, Jonas's mother would know all the rules and be the one who scolds others for breaking them, which is why a dream like this would be disquieting to her.
Jonas said the standard phrase automatically, and tried to pay better attention while his mother told of a dream fragment, a disquieting scene where she had been chastised for a rule infraction she didn’t understand.
Each family member, including Lily, had been required to sign a pledge that they would not become attached to this little temporary guest, and that they would relinquish him without protest or appeal when he was assigned to his own family unit at next year’s Ceremony.
The entire community had performed the Ceremony of Loss together, murmuring the name Caleb throughout an entire day, less and less frequently, softer in volume, as the long and somber day went on, so that the little Four seemed to fade away gradually from everyone’s consciousness.
"Infringe" (verb) and "infraction" (noun) both come from the Latin word "frangere" which means "to break." Within the verb "infringe" is the noun "fringe" which means "a marginal, peripheral or secondary part." Only The Receiver can live on the fringe of the community, is allowed to infringe on its rules, and is still highly respected.
But each such error reflected negatively on his parents’ guidance and infringed on the community’s sense of order and success.
But invariably the grinning Nines, who in technical violation of the rule had been practicing secretly for weeks, would mount and ride off in perfect balance, training wheels never touching the ground.
be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense
Jonas never found the Ceremony of Ten particularly interesting—only time-consuming, as each child’s hair was snipped neatly into its distinguishing cut: females lost their braids at Ten, and males, too, relinquished their long childish hair and took on the more manly short style which exposed their ears.
"Scrupulous" when it's not synonymous with "meticulous" means "having ethical or moral principles"--this fits the description of the Committee of Elders, since they take extreme care to match assignments to each individual so that everyone would lead happy and productive lives that would contribute to the greater good of the community.
Like the Matching of Spouses and the Naming and Placement of newchildren, the Assignments were scrupulously thought through by the Committee of Elders.
far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something
The speech was much the same each year: recollection of the time of childhood and the period of preparation, the coming responsibilities of adult life, the profound importance of Assignment, the seriousness of training to come.
"Impose" also means "inflict something unpleasant"--this definition might've been intended by the author Lowry, but the example sentence is from the perspective of Jonas, who agrees with the Committee's choice. Although Inger would start off as "Birthmother" before switching, "Laborer" is a pun that could fit both parts of her assignment (to labor is to "undergo the effects of childbirth" or "work hard").
She would enjoy the three years of being pampered that would follow her brief training; she would give birth easily and well; and the task of Laborer that would follow would use her strength, keep her healthy, and impose self-discipline.
the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance
"Precise" means "sharply exact or accurate" or "characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth"--the given reason for language precision is "to ensure that unintentional lies were never uttered," but a hidden reason could be to limit and control the citizens' thoughts and actions. Precision is also a very difficult goal for small children who are just learning the language and wanting to experiment with the sounds and effects.
And precision of language was one of the most important tasks of small children.
The chosen definition describes the way most citizens give their corrections and apologies (because they've been trained that way since childhood), but another definition of "prompt" ("ready and willing") applies more specifically to Asher, because he has a good-humored, cheerful disposition that is well-known and appreciated.