civilians trained as soldiers, not part of the regular army
Asma, a name we are using for her to help ensure her safety, said the Sudanese government's Antonov planes bombed her village and government soldiers, supported by ethnic
militia, chased and killed civilians.
causing extreme distress
Her subsequent weeklong journey with 50 other women to the refugee camp was
the governing authority of a political unit
Those left behind in the war zones within Sudan--places like Blue Nile, South Kordofan, Abyei and Darfur--are subject to a
regime whose war tactics break every international law on the books.
a severe shortage of food resulting in starvation and death
But two war crimes in particular--aerial bombing against civilians and blocking humanitarian aid--are leading to the biggest killer of all:
a plan for attaining a particular goal
The strategy of using starvation as a weapon or means of social control is one of the oldest and most effective
tactics of war.
the act of surrendering power to another
Around 400 B.C., the Spartans ended the Peloponnesian wars by starving the Greeks into
submission in their siege of Athens.
all the weapons and equipment that a country has
You'd think by the second decade of the 21st century--with the development of international accountability and prevention mechanisms--that the use of starvation would have disappeared from the
arsenal of war weapons because it bears too high a cost for the perpetrator.
a legislative act referred for approval to a popular vote
These war tactics are a backdrop to the renewed threat of war between Sudan in the north and South Sudan, which became independent of the Khartoum regime in July after an internationally supported
referendum on self-determination.
a sudden and decisive change of government by force
After the extraordinary success of South Sudan's peaceful birth four months ago, the Sudan that was left behind has burned as the Khartoum regime has lit every dry bush it can find to see what catches fire, an extension of the divide-and-destroy policy it has successfully pursued to maintain power since a
coup in 1989.
a government order imposing a trade barrier
Counterintuitively, sending aid into Sudan by any means necessary--backed by heavy international pressure for humanitarian corridors--might be the best way to compel the regime to lift its aid
marked by devotion to popular welfare
Doing the same today from willing bordering countries is necessary to prevent full-scale famine until Khartoum allows full
for the purpose of attack rather than defense
At the height of the Darfur killings, the UN Security Council imposed a ban on
offensive military flights by the Sudanese government that was never enforced.
Third, peace efforts must be
broad in scope
Two parallel high-profile diplomatic initiatives--building on existing processes--should focus on a
comprehensive peace deal with all the rebelling regions inside Sudan on the one hand, and lasting political and security arrangements between Sudan and South Sudan on the other.
relatively long in duration
Without robust international action, the default option is
protracted war both within Sudan and between Sudan and South Sudan.