a short stout club used primarily by police officers
He felt the smash of
truncheons on his elbows and iron-shod boots on his shins; he saw himself groveling on the floor, screaming for mercy through broken teeth.
thrown into a state of agitated confusion
Ampleforth marched clumsily out between the guards, his face vaguely
perturbed, but uncomprehending.
excessively or hypocritically pious
His froglike face grew calmer, and even took on a slightly
sanctimonious expression. “Thought-crime is a dreadful thing, old man,” he said sententiously.
"Sanctimonious" and "sententious" are nearly synonymous adjectives. Their Latin roots show their slight difference: "sanctus" means "holy" and "sententiosus" means "full of meaning"--Parsons puts on an expression that looks holy (because he is in the presence of a telescreen) to make a brief statement that's excessively filled with pompous morality.
send to an address
One, a woman, was
consigned to “Room 101,” and, Winston noticed, seemed to shrivel and turn a different color when she heard the words.
always the same
The humming sound and the
unvarying white light induced a sort of faintness, an empty feeling inside his head.
to move in a twisting or contorted motion
In the face of pain there are no heroes, no heroes, he thought over and over as he
writhed on the floor, clutching uselessly at his disabled left arm.
unfriendly and inclined toward anger or irritation
He remembered a
surly barber arriving to scrape his chin and crop his hair, and businesslike, unsympathetic men in white coats feeling his pulse, tapping his reflexes, turning up his eyelids, running harsh fingers over him in search of broken bones, and shooting needles into his arm to make him sleep.
arousing to action or rebellion
He confessed to the assassination of eminent Party members, the distribution of
seditious pamphlets, embezzlement of public funds, sale of military secrets, sabotage of every kind.
a relief from harm or discomfort
It was he who decided when Winston should scream with pain, when he should have a
respite, when he should be fed, when he should sleep, when the drugs should be pumped into his arm.
be deliberately ambiguous or unclear
If you tell me any lies, or attempt to
prevaricate in any way, or even fall below your usual level of intelligence, you will cry out with pain, instantly.
resistant to guidance or discipline
More than ever he had the air of a teacher taking pains with a
wayward but promising child.
completely happy and contented
Almost in the same instant a
blissful, healing warmth spread all through his body.
a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion
exaltation, the lunatic enthusiasm, was still in his face.
showing humiliation or submissiveness
We are not content with negative obedience, nor even with the most
abject submission. When finally you surrender to us, it must be of your own free will.
"Abject" also means "most unfortunate or miserable" and "showing utter resignation or hopelessness"--all three definitions fit the example sentence. The second sentence, with its focus on free will, emphasizes that the Party wants subjects that are not abject. However, it uses the most abject ("of the most contemptible kind") methods of torture to make rebellious members surrender.
Never again will you be capable of love, or friendship, or joy of living, or laughter, or curiosity, or courage, or
integrity. You will be hollow. We shall squeeze you empty, and then we shall fill you with ourselves.
The list of qualities Winston will never be capable of having again ends fittingly with "integrity" because 1) it comes from the Latin root "integer" which means "whole, complete"; 2) it sets up the points about hollowness.
throw down flat, as on the ground
Winston was not hurt, only
prostrated. Although he had already been lying on his back when the thing happened, he had a curious feeling that he had been knocked into that position.
softly bright or radiant
But there had been a moment—he did not know how long, thirty seconds, perhaps—of
luminous certainty, when each new suggestion of O’Brien’s had filled up a patch of emptiness and become absolute truth, and when two and two could have been three as easily as five, if that were what was needed.
"Luminous" also means "enlightened and intelligent" or "easily understood; lucid"--these definitions are a better fit for the example sentence, but the given definition emphasizes a contrast in mood between this moment and the one when all Winston saw was the "unvarying white light."
the philosophical theory that the self is all that exists
I told you, Winston,” he said, “that metaphysics is not your strong point. The word you are trying to think of is
solipsism. But you are mistaken. This is not
solipsism, if you like. But that is a different thing; in fact, the opposite thing.
feeling or expressing remorse for misdeeds
Always we shall have the heretic here at our mercy, screaming with pain, broken up, contemptible—and in the end utterly
penitent, saved from himself, crawling to our feet of his own accord.
capable of being shaped or bent
But we create human nature. Men are infinitely
"Malleable" also means "easily influenced"--this should be the chosen definition when describing human nature. But O'Brien's point about creating human nature connects to its Latin root ("malleus" means "hammer"), which emphasizes the physical and emotional torture that Winston is undergoing.
marked by or showing hopelessness
forlorn, jailbird’s face with a nobby forehead running back into a bald scalp, a crooked nose and battered-looking cheekbones above which the eyes were fierce and watchful.
a low or downcast state
You have been kicked and flogged and insulted, you have screamed with pain, you have rolled on the floor in your own blood and vomit. You have whimpered for mercy, you have betrayed everybody and everything. Can you think of a single
degradation that has not happened to you?
in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation
Even when he was awake he was completely
"Torpid" also means "slow and apathetic"--both definitions fit, but the chosen definition gives a stronger image of Winston's mood, which is the same whether he is awake or asleep. Compare with "lassitude" in the list for Part 1: Chapters 5-8--there, Winston panics at the lassitude that came with the possibility that his life might be over because he had been seen where he shouldn't have been; here, Winston knows his life is over and he cannot hide or fight.
surrender under agreed conditions
capitulated; that was agreed. In reality, as he saw now, he had been ready to
capitulate long before he had taken the decision.
something of little value or significance
From the moment when he was inside the Ministry of Love—and yes, even during those minutes when he and Julia had stood helpless while the iron voice from the telescreen told them what to do—he had grasped the
frivolity, the shallowness of his attempt to set himself up against the power of the Party.
to insert between other elements
interpose another human being, the body of another human being, between himself and the rats.
burn, sear, or freeze using a hot iron or electric current
Something was killed in your breast; burnt out,
Her face was
sallower, and there was a long scar, partly hidden by the hair, across her forehead and temple; but that was not the change.
warn strongly; put on guard
No one cared what he did any longer, no whistle woke him, no telescreen
Much had changed in him since the first day in the Ministry of Love, but the final,
indispensable, healing change had never happened, until this moment.