LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

VOCABULARY QUIZ FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
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definitions & notes only words
  1. landscape
    an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view
    When landscape architects
    design landscapes, they consider
    how their changes will affect the
    insects, fish, birds, and mammals
    that live in a particular habitat.
  2. architect
    someone who creates plans to be used in making something
    Most drawing
    eventually takes place on a computer, which helps the
    landscape architect precisely draw the kinds of plants that
    will be included, where pathways will go, and what kinds
    of construction materials will be used.
  3. erosion
    the process of wearing or grinding something down
    When erosion occurs, trees may collapse and die, causing
    even more erosion.
  4. designing
    the act of working out the form of something
    It could be designing a town square or a playground—even
    a whole city.
  5. ecologist
    a biologist who studies organisms and their environment
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  6. cistern
    a sac or cavity containing fluid
    Designs also
    may use tanks called cisterns to catch and store rainfall
    under streets, so it can be pumped back out to water plants.
  7. sewer
    a conduit that carries away waste water or surface water
    The goal is to make these places
    in ways that help improve the environment
    When it rains in cities and suburbs, rainwater may carry
    pollution from roads to sewers, and it often flows right
    into our creeks and rivers.
  8. compost
    a mixture of decaying vegetation and manure
    Natural fertilizers, like compost, help
    the crops grow.
  9. mulch
    small pieces of organic material spread on soil
    They include
    natural materials such as soil, plants,
    and water, as well as stone, wood,
    and mulch.
  10. architecture
    the discipline dealing with the design of fine buildings
    Landscape architecture is the work of making specific kinds of places
    outdoors.
  11. invasive
    gradually intrusive without right or permission
    At the same time,
    people over the years have moved many plants and animals
    around the world, and sometimes these newcomers take
    over, or become invasive.
  12. pollution
    contamination of the natural environment
    The goal is to make these places
    in ways that help improve the environment
    When it rains in cities and suburbs, rainwater may carry
    pollution from roads to sewers, and it often flows right
    into our creeks and rivers.
  13. insulation
    reduction of the transmission of sound, heat, or electricity
    The roof also acts
    as insulation in winter.
  14. ecological
    characterized by the interdependence of living organisms
    It also has an orchard of nine fruit trees
    (including lemon, plum, pear, two kinds of apple,
    and fig) and a planter for tasty herbs
    Wetlands are ecological areas that are mostly covered
    by water all or part of the time.
  15. design
    the act of working out the form of something
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  16. pesticide
    a chemical used to kill destructive insects or animals
    Community residents,
    local businesspeople, and even a Marin County
    supervisor volunteered to help build it
    The garden is totally organic, which means it
    doesn’t involve the use of pesticides or harmful
    chemicals.
  17. site
    the piece of land on which something is located
    This work may
    involve scientific study of water or air quality or choosing
    the right plants for a site.
  18. nonfiction
    prose writing that is not formed by the imagination
    But don’t forget to enjoy literature:
    novels, nonfiction, essays, and poems.
  19. gab
    talk profusely
    Gabby worked to raise
    money to start the garden.
  20. ecosystem
    organisms interacting with their physical environment
    The new design, when
    completed, will invite people in and help promote the health
    of this miniature ecosystem The plant and animal populations of
    a wetland can change every few feet,
    depending on how low or high the
    ground is.
  21. habitat
    the type of environment in which an organism normally lives
    The places where
    animals (and plants) live are called
    habitats.
  22. watershed
    a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems
    Improvements to water
    quality can also be measured by testing the captured water
    to find out what substances it keeps from running into the
    sewers and the watershed, which flows to the Anacostia and
    Potomac Rivers and eventually to the Chesapeake Bay.
  23. archaeologist
    an anthropologist who studies prehistoric culture
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  24. tasty
    pleasing to the palate
    It also has an orchard of nine fruit trees
    (including lemon, plum, pear, two kinds of apple,
    and fig) and a planter for tasty herbs
    Wetlands are ecological areas that are mostly covered
    by water all or part of the time.
  25. nutrient
    any substance that can be metabolized to give energy
    Worms and bugs
    crawl around in the soil, eating and
    moving nutrients around.
  26. asphalt
    a dark bituminous substance found in natural beds
    It used to be about a half acre of asphalt, and it didn’t get
    a lot of visitors.
  27. plaza
    a public square with room for pedestrians
    Parks, gardens, plazas, whole cities, and wilderness are
    among the places landscape architects design with people in
    mind, to bring them together or give them places to spend
    time alone.
  28. gallon
    United States liquid unit equal to 4 quarts or 3.785 liters
    Designers of streets usually include healthy trees for shade
    and beauty, lighting, and even hidden systems that can
    handle thousands of gallons of rainwater without sending
    it to the sewers.
  29. creek
    a natural stream of water smaller than a river
    Water covers 70 percent of the
    Earth’s surface, so it is an important
    part of most landscapes, whether in
    the form of oceans, lakes, rivers, or
    creeks.
  30. aquatic
    operating or living or growing in water
    They host aquatic plant species and
    attract animals that thrive in or near water.
  31. thrive
    make steady progress
    Sycamores are tough and
    can thrive in almost any city setting.
  32. community
    a group of people living in a particular local area
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  33. pump
    a device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction
    They turn sunlight and carbon
    dioxide in the air into energy, and
    pump oxygen into the atmosphere
    for us to breathe.
  34. biologist
    a scientist who studies living organisms
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  35. soil
    material in the top layer of the surface of the earth
    They include
    natural materials such as soil, plants,
    and water, as well as stone, wood,
    and mulch.
  36. pollute
    make impure
    You discover
    how water moves across and underneath the site, and
    whether it is clean or polluted.
  37. drought
    a shortage of rainfall
    Many types of development may contribute
    to climate change and worsen the impact of the extreme
    storms or droughts it causes.
  38. stream
    a natural body of water flowing on or under the earth
    Nowadays, landscape architects are helping
    some of these cities bring their streams back to the surface.
  39. intensive
    characterized by a heightened level or degree
    It also has “ intensive” plantings that thrive in deeper
    soils—including sumac trees.
  40. fencing
    a barrier that serves to enclose an area
    ...bank serving as a separation between two elements in a landscape HA-HA A long ditch used as a fence to preserve a view that would be marred by regular fencing GRADE The degree of slope in a landscape RIPRAP Loose stones used to form a foundation or prevent erosion in areas such as riverbanks NURSERY A place where young...
  41. cactus
    a succulent and often spiny plant native to arid regions
    Two large mounds or “waves”
    were constructed to hold meadow plants and cacti that bloom
    and attract pollinating birds and bees.
  42. teeming
    abundantly filled with especially living things
    More than three-fourths of the park
    will be teeming with plants.
  43. area
    the extent of a two-dimensional surface within a boundary
    The plants in Canal Park are mostly native to the
    Washington, DC, area, and help feed insects, birds,
    and other animals in the city.
  44. marsh
    low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation
    They include swamps,
    marshes, and bogs.
  45. filter
    device that removes something from what passes through it
    Landscape architects work on ways
    to prevent these problems by providing rain gardens and
    bioswales where water can soak back underground and
    filter out pollution by using soil and plants.
  46. flood
    the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto land
    Computer models
    can help landscape architects figure out how the sun will
    shine on a site, what happens if the site were to flood, or
    where trees should be planted to provide shade.
  47. miniature
    being on a very small scale
    Sometimes these models are
    physical—they provide a miniature view of how a design
    will look when the design is completed.
  48. supervisor
    one who has charge and direction of
    Community residents,
    local businesspeople, and even a Marin County
    supervisor volunteered to help build it
    The garden is totally organic, which means it
    doesn’t involve the use of pesticides or harmful
    chemicals.
  49. construction
    the act of building something
    Most drawing
    eventually takes place on a computer, which helps the
    landscape architect precisely draw the kinds of plants that
    will be included, where pathways will go, and what kinds
    of construction materials will be used.
  50. shallow
    lacking physical depth
    The Sankofa wetland will
    have pond areas as deep as four feet,
    deep and shallow marsh areas,
    mature wet forest areas, and “upland”
    areas that sit up on slopes and are
    drier.
  51. climate
    the weather in some location averaged over a period of time
    The ways we use landscapes have a big effect on global
    climate change.
  52. geologist
    a specialist in the history of the Earth recorded in rocks
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  53. symbolize
    express indirectly by an image, form, or model
    The
    stones were donated by the provinces
    of North Korea and South Korea, to
    symbolize unity.
  54. computer
    a machine for performing calculations automatically
    Most drawing
    eventually takes place on a computer, which helps the
    landscape architect precisely draw the kinds of plants that
    will be included, where pathways will go, and what kinds
    of construction materials will be used.
  55. harmful
    causing or capable of causing damage
    Community residents,
    local businesspeople, and even a Marin County
    supervisor volunteered to help build it
    The garden is totally organic, which means it
    doesn’t involve the use of pesticides or harmful
    chemicals.
  56. fertilizer
    any substance used to improve the quality of soil
    Natural fertilizers, like compost, help
    the crops grow.
  57. replenish
    fill something that had previously been emptied
    Pavement often prevents water
    from soaking into the ground where it can replenish natural
    groundwater supplies.
  58. marred
    blemished by injury or rough wear
    ...design A mounded bank serving as a separation between two elements in a landscape HA-HA A long ditch used as a fence to preserve a view that would be marred by regular fencing GRADE The degree of slope in a landscape RIPRAP Loose stones used to form a foundation or prevent erosion in areas such as riverbanks NURSERY A...
  59. suburb
    a residential district located on the outskirts of a city
    The goal is to make these places
    in ways that help improve the environment
    When it rains in cities and suburbs, rainwater may carry
    pollution from roads to sewers, and it often flows right
    into our creeks and rivers.
  60. microscope
    magnifier of the image of small objects
    As a landscape architect, you learn about all the
    different plants and animals on your site—even rare ones,
    or those you can see only with a microscope.
  61. mound
    a collection of objects laid on top of each other
    Two large mounds or “waves”
    were constructed to hold meadow plants and cacti that bloom
    and attract pollinating birds and bees.
  62. stabilize
    support and make steadfast
    Carefully
    designed landscapes can help counter climate change by
    adding trees that provide shade, cool the air, and stabilize
    crumbling riverbanks.
  63. perennial
    lasting an indefinitely long time
    There will be shrubs such as
    holly, palmetto, and butterfly bush,
    loads of perennial plants like blackeyed
    Susan, cardinal flower, and
    joe-pye weed, and water plants, too:
    lizard’s tail, fanwort, and coontail.
  64. insect
    small air-breathing arthropod
    When landscape architects
    design landscapes, they consider
    how their changes will affect the
    insects, fish, birds, and mammals
    that live in a particular habitat.
  65. tank
    a large vessel for holding gases or liquids
    Designs also
    may use tanks called cisterns to catch and store rainfall
    under streets, so it can be pumped back out to water plants.
  66. contribute
    provide
    Many types of development may contribute
    to climate change and worsen the impact of the extreme
    storms or droughts it causes.
  67. sprout
    produce buds or branches; germinate
    It has a
    greenhouse for sprouting seeds, a shed, an outdoor
    kitchen, compost bins, and a storage cistern that
    can hold 3,000 gallons of rainwater.
  68. mammal
    a warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin covered with hair
    When landscape architects
    design landscapes, they consider
    how their changes will affect the
    insects, fish, birds, and mammals
    that live in a particular habitat.
  69. lizard
    relatively long-bodied reptile with legs and a tapering tail
    There will be shrubs such as
    holly, palmetto, and butterfly bush,
    loads of perennial plants like blackeyed
    Susan, cardinal flower, and
    joe-pye weed, and water plants, too:
    lizard’s tail, fanwort, and coontail.
  70. model
    a representation of something, often on a smaller scale
    Landscape architects often build models of the landscape
    designs they work on.
  71. canal
    long and narrow strip of water for boats or for irrigation
    Canal Park collects rainwater from the pavement
    and the roofs of its buildings and stores it in
    underground tanks.
  72. scientist
    a person with advanced knowledge of empirical fields
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  73. involve
    contain as a part
    This work may
    involve scientific study of water or air quality or choosing
    the right plants for a site.
  74. temperature
    the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment
    The park includes 28 geothermal wells that control
    the temperature within the park’s indoor spaces.
  75. store
    a mercantile establishment for the sale of goods or services
    There is also a lot of water,
    known as groundwater, stored deep
    in the Earth where we can’t see it.
  76. hike
    walk a long way, as for pleasure or physical exercise
    Landscape architects make public spaces for
    people to enjoy the outdoors, to play, to walk or bicycle, or to
    hike and experience nature.
  77. urban
    relating to a city or densely populated area
    They may generate pollution
    (especially carbon dioxide) and urban heat.
  78. bog
    wet spongy ground of decomposing vegetation
    They include swamps,
    marshes, and bogs.
  79. swamp
    low land that is seasonally flooded
    They include swamps,
    marshes, and bogs.
  80. bacteria
    single-celled organisms that can cause disease
    Soil also holds billions of tiny
    organisms, like bacteria and fungi,
    that build a complex web of life
    under the surface.
  81. interact
    do something together or with others
    These discoveries will build your
    knowledge about how land, nature, and people all interact
    to shape landscapes over time.
  82. shape
    a perceptual structure
    Some materials are used to build
    landscapes and give them shape and
    support.
  83. storage
    the act of keeping something for future use
    It has a
    greenhouse for sprouting seeds, a shed, an outdoor
    kitchen, compost bins, and a storage cistern that
    can hold 3,000 gallons of rainwater.
  84. species
    taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
    Many species have gone extinct, and
    more are in danger of disappearing.
  85. material
    the substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object
    MATERIALS
    Landscapes are made of many
    different materials.
  86. healthy
    free from infirmity or disease
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  87. diversity
    noticeable variety
    These variations create a great
    diversity of plants and the animals
    they attract.
  88. include
    have as a part; be made up out of
    They include
    natural materials such as soil, plants,
    and water, as well as stone, wood,
    and mulch.
  89. measurement
    assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule
    Then the landscape architect begins to
    draw the site in detail, relying on measurements and other
    information about what is already on the site, which may
    be trees, streets, buildings, or utility lines.
  90. shady
    sheltered from the sun's rays
    They determine
    how a landscape works—by making
    it shady or helping it soak up water,
    for example—as well as how it looks
    and feels to us.
  91. newcomer
    a recent arrival
    At the same time,
    people over the years have moved many plants and animals
    around the world, and sometimes these newcomers take
    over, or become invasive.
  92. jet
    a hard black form of lignite that takes a brilliant polish
    Now
    it’s a place where you can
    ice skate in the winter and
    splash in water jets in the
    summer.
  93. enroll
    register formally as a participant or member
    VOLUNTEER
    To become a landscape architect, you will first enroll in a
    landscape architecture program at a college or university.
  94. extinct
    no longer in existence
    Many species have gone extinct, and
    more are in danger of disappearing.
  95. in detail
    thoroughly (including all important particulars)
    Then the landscape architect begins to
    draw the site in detail, relying on measurements and other
    information about what is already on the site, which may
    be trees, streets, buildings, or utility lines.
  96. relax
    make less taut
    Cities need plenty of places outdoors for people to gather
    and relax in the fresh air.
  97. welfare
    something that aids or promotes well-being
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  98. research
    a seeking for knowledge
    Research is important to landscape architects.
  99. skill
    an ability that has been acquired by training
    These tough wood structures are
    great to climb on, jump around, and
    test your physical skill.
  100. monitor
    someone who observes to ensure fairness or prevent mistakes
    SURPRISE MEADOW
    A major benefit of the green roof is that it allows ASLA to
    monitor the amounts of rainfall it captures and holds.
  101. rely
    have confidence or faith in
    Then the landscape architect begins to
    draw the site in detail, relying on measurements and other
    information about what is already on the site, which may
    be trees, streets, buildings, or utility lines.
  102. organic
    having properties characteristic of living beings
    It contains minerals, water,
    and gases, and organic matter that
    feeds plants through their roots.
  103. meadow
    a field where grass or alfalfa are grown to be made into hay
    Other kinds may look completely wild, like a meadow
    or a mountainside.
  104. conserve
    keep in safety and protect from harm, loss, or destruction
    They also help conserve natural
    resources by encouraging people to walk or bicycle rather
    than drive cars.
  105. crumble
    break or fall apart into fragments
    Carefully
    designed landscapes can help counter climate change by
    adding trees that provide shade, cool the air, and stabilize
    crumbling riverbanks.
  106. resident
    someone who lives at a particular place for a long period
    It may mean researching a
    community’s population data and interviewing its residents.
  107. fossil
    the remains of a plant or animal from a past geological age
    You may study the site’s rock
    formations or fossils.
  108. concert
    a performance of music by players or singers
    And at night when the weather is
    warm, people flock to watch movies or attend
    concerts.
  109. economics
    science dealing with the circulation of goods and services
    Read widely: Social studies, politics, and
    economics will help.
  110. acre
    a unit of area used in English-speaking countries
    It used to be about a half acre of asphalt, and it didn’t get
    a lot of visitors.
  111. neighborhood
    an area within a city or town that has distinctive features
    People in the neighborhood took
    part in the process of deciding what
    the old park would turn into.
  112. oxygen
    a colorless, odorless gas that is essential for respiration
    They turn sunlight and carbon
    dioxide in the air into energy, and
    pump oxygen into the atmosphere
    for us to breathe.
  113. program
    a series of steps to be carried out
    Often, the models
    are made by using a computer program.
  114. promote
    assign to a higher position
    Healthy landscapes promote the health of people.
  115. bald
    lacking hair on all or most of the scalp
    The
    park will have bald cypress, water
    tupelo, and swamp chestnut oak
    trees.
  116. license
    a legal document giving official permission to do something
    Once you graduate, you will need a license, issued by your
    state.
  117. complex
    complicated in structure
    Soil also holds billions of tiny
    organisms, like bacteria and fungi,
    that build a complex web of life
    under the surface.
  118. pattern
    a perceptual structure
    You’ll study weather patterns and
    how they shape the land.
  119. engineering
    applying scientific knowledge to practical problems
    Landscape architecture involves
    a lot of STEM knowledge, as it needs a mix of science,
    math, engineering, and technology to achieve its goals.
  120. scrub
    wash thoroughly
    Until just
    a few years ago, this park was
    a dirty, scrubby parking lot for
    parking school buses.
  121. goal
    the state of affairs that a plan is intended to achieve
    Landscape architecture involves
    a lot of STEM knowledge, as it needs a mix of science,
    math, engineering, and technology to achieve its goals.
  122. vertical
    at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line
    ...river, path, or road INVASIVE A plant or animal that is not native to the place where it lives that takes over and crowds out native species TRELLIS A vertical structure on which plants can be grown XERISCAPE A landscape design using plants that require little water RIPRAP Loose stones used to form a foundation or prevent erosion in...
  123. eventually
    after an unspecified period of time or a long delay
    Most drawing
    eventually takes place on a computer, which helps the
    landscape architect precisely draw the kinds of plants that
    will be included, where pathways will go, and what kinds
    of construction materials will be used.
  124. surface
    the outer boundary of an artifact or a material layer
    Water covers 70 percent of the
    Earth’s surface, so it is an important
    part of most landscapes, whether in
    the form of oceans, lakes, rivers, or
    creeks.
  125. flow
    move along, of liquids
    The goal is to make these places
    in ways that help improve the environment
    When it rains in cities and suburbs, rainwater may carry
    pollution from roads to sewers, and it often flows right
    into our creeks and rivers.
  126. organism
    a living thing that can act or function independently
    Soil also holds billions of tiny
    organisms, like bacteria and fungi,
    that build a complex web of life
    under the surface.
  127. prevent
    keep from happening or arising; make impossible
    Pavement often prevents water
    from soaking into the ground where it can replenish natural
    groundwater supplies.
  128. designer
    someone who creates plans to be used in making something
    Designers of streets usually include healthy trees for shade
    and beauty, lighting, and even hidden systems that can
    handle thousands of gallons of rainwater without sending
    it to the sewers.
  129. clay
    water-soaked soil; soft, wet earth
    It may
    be sandy like a beach or hard like
    clay.
  130. celebration
    a joyful occasion for festivities to mark some happy event
    Throughout the year, Canal Park holds various
    celebrations.
  131. gauge
    an instrument for measuring and indicating a quantity
    These
    results are taken from rain gauges and sensors that track
    the flow of water through the roof.
  132. wilderness
    a wild and uninhabited area left in its natural condition
    Parks, gardens, plazas, whole cities, and wilderness are
    among the places landscape architects design with people in
    mind, to bring them together or give them places to spend
    time alone.
  133. fabric
    artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting fibers
    They may also include
    human-made materials like concrete,
    steel, glass, and even fabrics.
  134. lemon
    yellow oval fruit with juicy acidic flesh
    It also has an orchard of nine fruit trees
    (including lemon, plum, pear, two kinds of apple,
    and fig) and a planter for tasty herbs
    Wetlands are ecological areas that are mostly covered
    by water all or part of the time.
  135. fence
    a barrier that serves to enclose an area
    Landscape is everything around
    you—the ground, plants, animals,
    buildings, hills, valleys, rivers,
    roads, parking lots, power lines,
    fences, beaches, fields.
  136. herb
    a plant lacking a permanent woody stem
    It also has an orchard of nine fruit trees
    (including lemon, plum, pear, two kinds of apple,
    and fig) and a planter for tasty herbs
    Wetlands are ecological areas that are mostly covered
    by water all or part of the time.
  137. capture
    seize as if by hunting, snaring, or trapping
    One important purpose of green roofs is to capture and
    hold rainwater.
  138. explore
    travel to or penetrate into
    They
    provide places to walk, to sit, to play, to exercise, to explore,
    and to look at the stars.
  139. environmental
    of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings
    So
    even a small roof helps environmental health.
  140. percent
    a proportion in relation to a whole
    Water covers 70 percent of the
    Earth’s surface, so it is an important
    part of most landscapes, whether in
    the form of oceans, lakes, rivers, or
    creeks.
  141. isolated
    remote and separate physically or socially
    Big, blank, or dirty streets can make a person feel isolated
    and unsafe.
  142. ditch
    a long narrow excavation in the earth
    ...to form a pathway CHARRETTE A group meeting to discuss a landscapeBERM design A mounded bank serving as a separation between two elements in a landscape HA-HA A long ditch used as a fence to preserve a view that would be marred by regular fencing GRADE The degree of slope in a landscape RIPRAP Loose stones used to form...
  143. nourish
    provide with sustenance
    Water helps nourish the land and is
    required for nearly all forms of life.
  144. dedicated
    devoted to a cause or ideal or purpose
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  145. accessible
    capable of being reached
    Landscape architects design these
    places to be safe and accessible to all people.
  146. mineral
    a solid inorganic substance occurring in nature
    It contains minerals, water,
    and gases, and organic matter that
    feeds plants through their roots.
  147. diverse
    distinctly dissimilar or unlike
    DIVERSE PLANT COMMUNITIES
    The Sankofa wetland will help
    handle large amounts of water
    that fall during heavy rains, which
    are frequent in New Orleans.
  148. slope
    be at an angle
    The Sankofa wetland will
    have pond areas as deep as four feet,
    deep and shallow marsh areas,
    mature wet forest areas, and “upland”
    areas that sit up on slopes and are
    drier.
  149. utility
    the quality of being of practical use
    Then the landscape architect begins to
    draw the site in detail, relying on measurements and other
    information about what is already on the site, which may
    be trees, streets, buildings, or utility lines.
  150. waste
    use inefficiently or inappropriately
    Roads and parking lots,
    and communities that spread across a lot of land, are all
    related to our warming climate and contribute to flooding,
    erosion, and wasting water.
  151. donate
    give to a charity or good cause
    The
    stones were donated by the provinces
    of North Korea and South Korea, to
    symbolize unity.
  152. technology
    the practical application of science to commerce or industry
    Design is much
    like art, but it also involves science and technology to
    make sure that all the parts—soils, plants, construction
    materials, and even the sun, rain, and wind—work well
    together to last for years.
  153. environment
    the totality of surrounding conditions
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  154. orchard
    a small cultivated area where fruit trees are planted
    It also has an orchard of nine fruit trees
    (including lemon, plum, pear, two kinds of apple,
    and fig) and a planter for tasty herbs
    Wetlands are ecological areas that are mostly covered
    by water all or part of the time.
  155. crop
    a cultivated plant that is grown commercially
    Natural fertilizers, like compost, help
    the crops grow.
  156. health
    the general condition of body and mind
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  157. make it
    succeed in a big way; get to the top
    It could be designing a pond to make it better for frogs,
    turtles, fish, and birds.
  158. host
    a person who invites guests to a social event
    Millions of people have visited
    the canal, and the park is able to host
    events such as festivals, concerts, and
    political rallies.
  159. concrete
    capable of being perceived by the senses
    They may also include
    human-made materials like concrete,
    steel, glass, and even fabrics.
  160. weather
    atmospheric conditions such as temperature and precipitation
    You’ll study weather patterns and
    how they shape the land.
  161. native
    belonging to one by birth
    Examples include
    pollinator gardens to support native insects, birds, and other
    animals, and land bridges over highways to let creatures that
    need lots of room, such as bears, elk, or moose, cross safely.
  162. elevate
    raise from a lower to a higher position
    By the 1960s, the Cheonggyecheon Stream
    in Seoul was polluted, and a four-lane
    elevated highway was built to fly over it.
  163. supply
    circulate or distribute or equip with
    Pavement often prevents water
    from soaking into the ground where it can replenish natural
    groundwater supplies.
  164. structure
    a complex entity made of many parts
    These tough wood structures are
    great to climb on, jump around, and
    test your physical skill.
  165. benefit
    something that aids or promotes well-being
    It will also serve as a place
    to educate people about the benefits
    of wetlands.
  166. damage
    the occurrence of a change for the worse
    New Orleans
    hopes to manage flooding across the
    city by relying on landscape designs
    like this that hold water and let it
    soak into the ground rather than run
    off and damage streets and homes E
    K
    TASince the first skatepark was built
    in the 1960s in the United States,
    there have been hundreds more built,
    especially in the past decade.
  167. heat
    a form of energy transferred by a difference in temperature
    They may generate pollution
    (especially carbon dioxide) and urban heat.
  168. abundance
    the property of a more than adequate quantity or supply
    This abundance of plants will help
    soak up water, prevent erosion, and
    manage flooding in the park.
  169. foundation
    the basis on which something is grounded
    ...as a fence to preserve a view that would be marred by regular fencing GRADE The degree of slope in a landscape RIPRAP Loose stones used to form a foundation or prevent erosion in areas such as riverbanks NURSERY A place where young plants and trees are grown and sold MEANDER A winding curve in a river, path, or...
  170. volunteer
    a person who performs work done by choice
    Community residents,
    local businesspeople, and even a Marin County
    supervisor volunteered to help build it
    The garden is totally organic, which means it
    doesn’t involve the use of pesticides or harmful
    chemicals.
  171. attract
    exert a force on
    They host aquatic plant species and
    attract animals that thrive in or near water.
  172. need
    require or want
    Landscape architecture involves
    a lot of STEM knowledge, as it needs a mix of science,
    math, engineering, and technology to achieve its goals.
  173. quality
    an essential and distinguishing attribute of something
    This work may
    involve scientific study of water or air quality or choosing
    the right plants for a site.
  174. impact
    the striking of one body against another
    Many types of development may contribute
    to climate change and worsen the impact of the extreme
    storms or droughts it causes.
  175. especial
    surpassing what is common or usual or expected
    They may generate pollution
    (especially carbon dioxide) and urban heat.
  176. becoming
    displaying or setting off to best advantage
    Living roofs, or green roofs, are becoming
    increasingly common on top of buildings,
    especially in cities.
  177. provide
    give something useful or necessary to
    Sometimes these models are
    physical—they provide a miniature view of how a design
    will look when the design is completed.
  178. collapse
    break down, literally or metaphorically
    When erosion occurs, trees may collapse and die, causing
    even more erosion.
  179. discovery
    the act of finding something
    These discoveries will build your
    knowledge about how land, nature, and people all interact
    to shape landscapes over time.
  180. variation
    the process of being or becoming different
    These variations create a great
    diversity of plants and the animals
    they attract.
  181. haul
    draw slowly or heavily
    A lot of the food we eat comes from far away,
    hauled many miles by truck, train, or airplane,
    which means it contributes to pollution that
    contributes to climate change.
  182. public
    not private
    Landscape architects make public spaces for
    people to enjoy the outdoors, to play, to walk or bicycle, or to
    hike and experience nature.
  183. handle
    touch, lift, or hold
    Designers of streets usually include healthy trees for shade
    and beauty, lighting, and even hidden systems that can
    handle thousands of gallons of rainwater without sending
    it to the sewers.
  184. marine
    of or relating to the sea
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  185. local
    of or belonging to or characteristic of a particular area
    Community residents,
    local businesspeople, and even a Marin County
    supervisor volunteered to help build it
    The garden is totally organic, which means it
    doesn’t involve the use of pesticides or harmful
    chemicals.
  186. accommodate
    have room for; hold without crowding
    Landscape architects design streets to
    accommodate all kinds of people—those on foot, on bikes,
    in wheelchairs, waiting for the bus, and even in cars.
  187. information
    knowledge acquired through study or experience
    In designing
    a landscape, they use the information they know about a piece of
    land to try to find out what they don’t know.
  188. variety
    a category of things distinguished by a common quality
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  189. excess
    the state of being more than full
    Birds, for instance,
    depend on wetlands as places to stop
    and find foodBesides welcoming people to enjoy
    nature up close, a major goal of the
    Sankofa wetland is to help manage
    excess water in times of heavy rain
    and potential flooding.
  190. drain
    emptying something by allowing liquid to run out of it
    Otherwise, rainwater usually drains off
    roofs, runs into streets and sewers, and, during big storms,
    can overwhelm streams and cause pollution and erosion.
  191. rally
    gather or bring together
    Millions of people have visited
    the canal, and the park is able to host
    events such as festivals, concerts, and
    political rallies.
  192. sponsor
    an advocate who presents a person
    And who
    better to design a skatepark than a
    landscape architect—especially one
    like Mike McIntyre, who is a former
    sponsored skateboarder and BMX
    racer?
  193. cycle
    a periodically repeated sequence of events
    Green roofs can stop this cycle of
    damage.
  194. formation
    the act of establishing or creating something
    You may study the site’s rock
    formations or fossils.
  195. degree
    a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series
    After the stream reopened, air temperatures
    in the crowded downtown area of Seoul
    fell by three to four degrees compared to
    temperatures on streets nearby.
  196. restore
    bring back into original existence, function, or position
    But in the early 2000s, the city’s mayor,
    Lee Myung-bak, made it his mission to
    tear down the highway and restore the
    stream’s presence through town.
  197. energy
    forceful exertion
    They turn sunlight and carbon
    dioxide in the air into energy, and
    pump oxygen into the atmosphere
    for us to breathe.
  198. headquarters
    the main office or administrative center of a business
    This is
    the ASLA Green Roof, which sits on top of
    the headquarters of the American Society
    of Landscape Architects, the publisher of
    this magazine, in Washington, DC.
  199. plenty
    a full supply
    Landscape architects can help make sure that parks,
    playgrounds, schools, and stores are a pleasant walk from
    home, that there are plenty of trees, that water is not wasted,
    and that wildlife is safe.
  200. zone
    an area or region distinguished from adjacent parts
    Breezes
    are now able to blow through the stream
    zone, which also helps clean the air.
  201. mature
    having reached full natural growth or development
    The Sankofa wetland will
    have pond areas as deep as four feet,
    deep and shallow marsh areas,
    mature wet forest areas, and “upland”
    areas that sit up on slopes and are
    drier.
  202. publisher
    a person engaged in issuing periodicals or books or music
    This is
    the ASLA Green Roof, which sits on top of
    the headquarters of the American Society
    of Landscape Architects, the publisher of
    this magazine, in Washington, DC.
  203. fulfill
    meet a want or need
    Then
    you are on your way to a fulfilling career that holds different
    discoveries every day.
  204. unity
    an undivided or unbroken completeness with nothing wanting
    The
    stones were donated by the provinces
    of North Korea and South Korea, to
    symbolize unity.
  205. career
    the particular occupation for which you are trained
    You can also contact your
    nearest local chapter of the American Society of Landscape
    Architects to ask for more information about careers and
    design projects in your community.
  206. physical
    involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit
    Sometimes these models are
    physical—they provide a miniature view of how a design
    will look when the design is completed.
  207. example
    an item of information that is typical of a class or group
    They determine
    how a landscape works—by making
    it shady or helping it soak up water,
    for example—as well as how it looks
    and feels to us.
  208. chemical
    produced by reactions involving atomic or molecular changes
    Community residents,
    local businesspeople, and even a Marin County
    supervisor volunteered to help build it
    The garden is totally organic, which means it
    doesn’t involve the use of pesticides or harmful
    chemicals.
  209. job
    a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty
    For landscape architects, design is the job of creating a
    landscape to look and work a certain way.
  210. discover
    determine the existence, presence, or fact of
    Designing landscapes always involve discovering new
    things.
  211. height
    distance from the base of something to its top
    The
    landscape architect has studied
    how water moves across the site,
    according to the height of the land
    and drainage patterns.
  212. enjoy
    derive or receive pleasure from
    Landscape architects make public spaces for
    people to enjoy the outdoors, to play, to walk or bicycle, or to
    hike and experience nature.
  213. bloom
    produce or yield flowers
    Two large mounds or “waves”
    were constructed to hold meadow plants and cacti that bloom
    and attract pollinating birds and bees.
  214. precisely
    in a sharply exact manner
    Most drawing
    eventually takes place on a computer, which helps the
    landscape architect precisely draw the kinds of plants that
    will be included, where pathways will go, and what kinds
    of construction materials will be used.
  215. equipment
    an instrumentality needed for an undertaking
    The landscape architect brought in colorful
    pavement, equipment to play on, and water to play in.
  216. parallel
    being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting
    ALLÉE Two parallel rows of trees planted to form a pathway CHARRETTE A group meeting to discuss a landscapeBERM design A mounded bank serving as a separation between two elements in a...
  217. study
    applying the mind to learning and understanding a subject
    This work may
    involve scientific study of water or air quality or choosing
    the right plants for a site.
  218. festival
    an organized series of acts and performances
    Millions of people have visited
    the canal, and the park is able to host
    events such as festivals, concerts, and
    political rallies.
  219. development
    a process in which something passes to a different stage
    Many types of development may contribute
    to climate change and worsen the impact of the extreme
    storms or droughts it causes.
  220. protect
    shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage
    Landscape architecture is dedicated to the design
    of healthy environments and communities, and to protecting the health,
    safety, and welfare of people.
  221. overwhelm
    overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli
    Otherwise, rainwater usually drains off
    roofs, runs into streets and sewers, and, during big storms,
    can overwhelm streams and cause pollution and erosion.
  222. safely
    in a manner unlikely to cause damage or harm
    Examples include
    pollinator gardens to support native insects, birds, and other
    animals, and land bridges over highways to let creatures that
    need lots of room, such as bears, elk, or moose, cross safely.
  223. fuel
    a substance that can be consumed to produce energy
    Plants keep us alive as food and
    fuel.
  224. trench
    any long ditch cut in the ground
    ...XERISCAPE A landscape design using plants that require little water RIPRAP Loose stones used to form a foundation or prevent erosion in areas such as riverbanks SWALE A shallow trench meant to direct the flow of rainwater
  225. specific
    stated explicitly or in detail
    Landscape architecture is the work of making specific kinds of places
    outdoors.
  226. global
    involving the entire earth
    The ways we use landscapes have a big effect on global
    climate change.
  227. nature
    the physical world including plants and animals
    These discoveries will build your
    knowledge about how land, nature, and people all interact
    to shape landscapes over time.
  228. essay
    an analytic or interpretive literary composition
    But don’t forget to enjoy literature:
    novels, nonfiction, essays, and poems.
  229. flock
    a group of birds
    And at night when the weather is
    warm, people flock to watch movies or attend
    concerts.
  230. mission
    an operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters
    But in the early 2000s, the city’s mayor,
    Lee Myung-bak, made it his mission to
    tear down the highway and restore the
    stream’s presence through town.
  231. dramatic
    characteristic of a stage performance
    Upstream, a dramatic waterfall
    lights up at night.
  232. graduate
    receive an academic degree upon completion of one's studies
    Once you graduate, you will need a license, issued by your
    state.
  233. population
    the people who inhabit a territory or state
    It may mean researching a
    community’s population data and interviewing its residents.
  234. edge
    a line determining the limits of an area
    The
    outer edges of the park have been
    redesigned to welcome in neighbors
    from three sides.
  235. test
    standardized procedure for measuring sensitivity or aptitude
    These tough wood structures are
    great to climb on, jump around, and
    test your physical skill.
  236. reduce
    make smaller
    They also help
    communities prepare for disasters with designs that reduce
    flooding during storms.
  237. potential
    existing in possibility
    Birds, for instance,
    depend on wetlands as places to stop
    and find foodBesides welcoming people to enjoy
    nature up close, a major goal of the
    Sankofa wetland is to help manage
    excess water in times of heavy rain
    and potential flooding.
  238. affect
    have an influence upon
    When landscape architects
    design landscapes, they consider
    how their changes will affect the
    insects, fish, birds, and mammals
    that live in a particular habitat.
  239. platform
    a raised horizontal surface
    A big wooden platform stretches out
    beneath the trees, giving people a
    stage to hold a band or just a place to
    relax and listen to the trees overhead
    in the wind.
  240. cardinal
    a vivid red color
    There will be shrubs such as
    holly, palmetto, and butterfly bush,
    loads of perennial plants like blackeyed
    Susan, cardinal flower, and
    joe-pye weed, and water plants, too:
    lizard’s tail, fanwort, and coontail.
  241. studied
    produced or marked by conscious design or premeditation
    The
    landscape architect has studied
    how water moves across the site,
    according to the height of the land
    and drainage patterns.
  242. breeze
    a slight and usually refreshing wind
    Breezes
    are now able to blow through the stream
    zone, which also helps clean the air.
  243. sketch
    preliminary drawing for later elaboration
    It begins with
    simple sketches.
  244. predict
    tell in advance
    Research can tell
    landscape architects what has happened on the site in the
    past and predict what may happen in the future.
  245. creature
    a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
    Examples include
    pollinator gardens to support native insects, birds, and other
    animals, and land bridges over highways to let creatures that
    need lots of room, such as bears, elk, or moose, cross safely.
  246. improve
    to make better
    The goal is to make these places
    in ways that help improve the environment
    When it rains in cities and suburbs, rainwater may carry
    pollution from roads to sewers, and it often flows right
    into our creeks and rivers.
  247. college
    an institution of higher education
    VOLUNTEER
    To become a landscape architect, you will first enroll in a
    landscape architecture program at a college or university.
  248. decade
    a period of 10 years
    New Orleans
    hopes to manage flooding across the
    city by relying on landscape designs
    like this that hold water and let it
    soak into the ground rather than run
    off and damage streets and homes E
    K
    TASince the first skatepark was built
    in the 1960s in the United States,
    there have been hundreds more built,
    especially in the past decade.
  249. project
    a planned undertaking
    This project, ChonGae Canal Park in Seoul, South Korea,
    is a beautiful example of a city that has reopened a stream
    along a seven-mile path through town.
  250. data
    a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
    It may mean researching a
    community’s population data and interviewing its residents.
  251. depend
    be contingent upon
    Animals, from the smallest worm
    to the biggest elephant, depend on
    landscapes for life.
  252. examination
    the act of scrutinizing something closely (as for mistakes)
    To get a license, you will need to spend a few years
    working in a landscape architecture firm and then pass a
    tough examination to be sure you know what you need to
    protect the health, safety, and welfare of the public.
  253. improvement
    the act of making something better
    Improvements to water
    quality can also be measured by testing the captured water
    to find out what substances it keeps from running into the
    sewers and the watershed, which flows to the Anacostia and
    Potomac Rivers and eventually to the Chesapeake Bay.
  254. shed
    cause or allow to flow or run out or over
    It has a
    greenhouse for sprouting seeds, a shed, an outdoor
    kitchen, compost bins, and a storage cistern that
    can hold 3,000 gallons of rainwater.
  255. university
    an institution of higher learning that grants degrees
    VOLUNTEER
    To become a landscape architect, you will first enroll in a
    landscape architecture program at a college or university.
  256. support
    the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening
    Some materials are used to build
    landscapes and give them shape and
    support.
  257. elements
    violent or severe weather
    ALLÉE Two parallel rows of trees planted to form a pathway CHARRETTE A group meeting to discuss a landscapeBERM design A mounded bank serving as a separation between two elements in a landscape HA-HA A long ditch used as a fence to preserve a view that would be marred by regular fencing GRADE The degree of slope in a...
  258. feast
    a ceremonial dinner party for many people
    This promotes cleaner
    air, cuts waste, and,The garden has 25 planter boxes in which people
    grow a feast of different kinds of vegetables and
    fruits.
  259. forest
    a large, densely wooded area filled with trees and plants
    It can be a garden, a coastline,
    a forest, or the side of the road.
  260. manage
    be in charge of, act on, or dispose of
    This abundance of plants will help
    soak up water, prevent erosion, and
    manage flooding in the park.
  261. disaster
    an event resulting in great loss and misfortune
    They also help
    communities prepare for disasters with designs that reduce
    flooding during storms.
  262. tiny
    very small
    Soil also holds billions of tiny
    organisms, like bacteria and fungi,
    that build a complex web of life
    under the surface.
  263. sustain
    lengthen or extend in duration or space
    Soil sustains life on land.
  264. major
    greater in scope or effect
    Birds, for instance,
    depend on wetlands as places to stop
    and find foodBesides welcoming people to enjoy
    nature up close, a major goal of the
    Sankofa wetland is to help manage
    excess water in times of heavy rain
    and potential flooding.
  265. channel
    a deep and relatively narrow body of water
    Rivers and creeks in many cities were buried in years
    past, channeled through drainage pipes to make way for
    development.
  266. presence
    current existence
    But in the early 2000s, the city’s mayor,
    Lee Myung-bak, made it his mission to
    tear down the highway and restore the
    stream’s presence through town.
  267. complete
    having all necessary qualities
    Sometimes these models are
    physical—they provide a miniature view of how a design
    will look when the design is completed.
  268. enormous
    extraordinarily large in size or extent or degree
    Humans have placed enormous pressure on the world’s
    plants and animals.
  269. engineer
    a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve problems
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  270. expert
    a person with special knowledge who performs skillfully
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  271. gather
    assemble or get together
    Cities need plenty of places outdoors for people to gather
    and relax in the fresh air.
  272. atmosphere
    the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body
    They turn sunlight and carbon
    dioxide in the air into energy, and
    pump oxygen into the atmosphere
    for us to breathe.
  273. scientific
    conforming with the principles or methods used in science
    This work may
    involve scientific study of water or air quality or choosing
    the right plants for a site.
  274. resource
    aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed
    They also help conserve natural
    resources by encouraging people to walk or bicycle rather
    than drive cars.
  275. magazine
    a periodic publication containing articles and pictures
    This is
    the ASLA Green Roof, which sits on top of
    the headquarters of the American Society
    of Landscape Architects, the publisher of
    this magazine, in Washington, DC.
  276. surrounded
    confined on all sides
    It’s in East Harlem,
    surrounded by streets with a lot of schools and housing.
  277. agreement
    harmony of people's opinions, actions, or characters
    They also
    work with people who live in the communities where they
    are designing landscapes, as well as their elected representatives,
    to build agreement about what a landscape
    should become.
  278. shelter
    covering that provides protection from the weather
    Plants feed and
    shelter animals.
  279. different
    unlike in nature, quality, form, or degree
    MATERIALS
    Landscapes are made of many
    different materials.
  280. communication
    the activity of conveying information
    And be sure to
    develop your communication skills: Good writing and
    public speaking are essential to landscape architects in
    their daily work.
  281. setting
    the physical position of something
    Sycamores are tough and
    can thrive in almost any city setting.
  282. crowd
    a large number of things or people considered together
    After the stream reopened, air temperatures
    in the crowded downtown area of Seoul
    fell by three to four degrees compared to
    temperatures on streets nearby.
  283. event
    something that happens at a given place and time
    Millions of people have visited
    the canal, and the park is able to host
    events such as festivals, concerts, and
    political rallies.
  284. achieve
    gain with effort
    Landscape architecture involves
    a lot of STEM knowledge, as it needs a mix of science,
    math, engineering, and technology to achieve its goals.
  285. knowledge
    the result of perception, learning, and reasoning
    These discoveries will build your
    knowledge about how land, nature, and people all interact
    to shape landscapes over time.
  286. reality
    the state of being actual
    These computer
    drawings are used by the builders, who put the pieces
    together to make the design become reality.
  287. grate
    reduce to shreds by rubbing against a perforated surface
    These plants are
    covered by steel grates that form the walking surface for the
    roof.
  288. essential
    basic and fundamental
    And be sure to
    develop your communication skills: Good writing and
    public speaking are essential to landscape architects in
    their daily work.
  289. manager
    someone who controls resources and expenditures
    Landscape architects work with a variety of other experts:
    horticulturists, ecologists, biologists, architects, engineers,
    city planners, construction managers, geologists, agronomists
    (soil scientists), hydrologists (water scientists),
    archaeologists, foresters, and marine scientists.
  290. literature
    writings in a particular style on a particular subject
    But don’t forget to enjoy literature:
    novels, nonfiction, essays, and poems.
  291. counter
    a calculator recording the number of times something happens
    Carefully
    designed landscapes can help counter climate change by
    adding trees that provide shade, cool the air, and stabilize
    crumbling riverbanks.
  292. pressure
    the exertion of force to a surface
    Humans have placed enormous pressure on the world’s
    plants and animals.
  293. representative
    serving to typify
    They also
    work with people who live in the communities where they
    are designing landscapes, as well as their elected representatives,
    to build agreement about what a landscape
    should become.
  294. root
    underground plant organ that lacks buds or leaves or nodes
    It contains minerals, water,
    and gases, and organic matter that
    feeds plants through their roots.
  295. electric
    using or providing the flow of charge through a conductor
    There are charging stations for electric cars.
  296. interview
    the questioning of a person, often conducted by journalists
    It may mean researching a
    community’s population data and interviewing its residents.
  297. contact
    the act of touching physically
    You can also contact your
    nearest local chapter of the American Society of Landscape
    Architects to ask for more information about careers and
    design projects in your community.
  298. completely
    with everything necessary
    Other kinds may look completely wild, like a meadow
    or a mountainside.
  299. develop
    progress or evolve through a process of natural growth
    Because they are generally (but not
    always) waterlogged, they have developed their own complex
    webs of life over time.
  300. novel
    an extended fictional work in prose
    But don’t forget to enjoy literature:
    novels, nonfiction, essays, and poems.
  301. surprise
    come upon or take unawares
    SURPRISE MEADOW
    A major benefit of the green roof is that it allows ASLA to
    monitor the amounts of rainfall it captures and holds.
  302. frequently
    many times at short intervals
    Parks are a kind of place
    landscape architects
    design frequently.
  303. tower
    a structure taller than its diameter
    Several sycamore trees tower over the
    site, bringing shade and color to the
    Play-Za.
  304. cause
    events that provide the generative force of something
    Many types of development may contribute
    to climate change and worsen the impact of the extreme
    storms or droughts it causes.
  305. require
    have need of
    Water helps nourish the land and is
    required for nearly all forms of life.
  306. substance
    the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists
    Improvements to water
    quality can also be measured by testing the captured water
    to find out what substances it keeps from running into the
    sewers and the watershed, which flows to the Anacostia and
    Potomac Rivers and eventually to the Chesapeake Bay.
  307. bold
    fearless and daring
    The pavement has become bright
    blue and yellow in bold shapes,
    which looks exciting in sunlight.
  308. track
    a line or route along which something travels or moves
    These
    results are taken from rain gauges and sensors that track
    the flow of water through the roof.
  309. encourage
    inspire with confidence
    They also help conserve natural
    resources by encouraging people to walk or bicycle rather
    than drive cars.
  310. standard
    a basis for comparison
    Standard roofs are hot and hard, and
    contribute to making cities hotter.
  311. throughout
    from first to last
    Throughout the year, Canal Park holds various
    celebrations.
  312. inch
    a unit of length equal to one-twelfth of a foot
    When it rains an inch, this roof and its plants can
    hold 75 percent of that water.
  313. prepare
    make ready or suitable or equip in advance
    They also help
    communities prepare for disasters with designs that reduce
    flooding during storms.
  314. figure
    the form or shape of a person's body
    Designing a landscape involves a lot of drawing to figure
    out how its parts will fit together on a site.
  315. principal
    main or most important
    The student, named Gabby, wrote
    up the idea and shared it with her parents and
    her principal, and then was asked to present it
    to school district leaders.
  316. bury
    place in a grave or tomb
    Rivers and creeks in many cities were buried in years
    past, channeled through drainage pipes to make way for
    development.
  317. disappear
    become invisible or unnoticeable
    Many species have gone extinct, and
    more are in danger of disappearing.
  318. construct
    make by combining materials and parts
    Two large mounds or “waves”
    were constructed to hold meadow plants and cacti that bloom
    and attract pollinating birds and bees.
  319. particularly
    to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common
    People love
    to gather by the canal, particularly
    at the Sunken Stone Garden, just to
    listen to the water, splash, and watch
    people.
  320. district
    a region marked off for administrative or other purposes
    The student, named Gabby, wrote
    up the idea and shared it with her parents and
    her principal, and then was asked to present it
    to school district leaders.
  321. economic
    of or relating to production and management of wealth
    Economic research can help find out how a design might
    affect individuals or businesses near a site.
  322. neighbor
    a person who lives near another
    The
    outer edges of the park have been
    redesigned to welcome in neighbors
    from three sides.
  323. province
    the territory in an administrative district of a nation
    The
    stones were donated by the provinces
    of North Korea and South Korea, to
    symbolize unity.
  324. legal
    established by or founded upon law or official rules
    And it’s all legal!
  325. vast
    unusually great in size or amount or extent or scope
    They
    can be vast or very small.
  326. allow
    make it possible for something to happen
    They have been shaped
    and arranged to allow people to step
    right down to the water and wet their
    feet.
  327. ordinary
    lacking special distinction, rank, or status
    In the height of summer, when roofs are hot, the ASLA
    Green Roof keeps things cool—as much as 59 degrees
    cooler than ordinary black roofs nearby.
  328. grade
    a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality
    This garden was the idea of a sixth grader at
    the school.
  329. exercise
    the activity of exerting muscles to keep fit
    They
    provide places to walk, to sit, to play, to exercise, to explore,
    and to look at the stars.
  330. preserve
    keep in safety and protect from harm, loss, or destruction
    ...group meeting to discuss a landscapeBERM design A mounded bank serving as a separation between two elements in a landscape HA-HA A long ditch used as a fence to preserve a view that would be marred by regular fencing GRADE The degree of slope in a landscape RIPRAP Loose stones used to form a foundation or prevent erosion in...
  331. generate
    bring into existence
    They may generate pollution
    (especially carbon dioxide) and urban heat.
  332. mean
    denote or connote
    It may mean researching a
    community’s population data and interviewing its residents.
  333. create
    bring into existence
    For landscape architects, design is the job of creating a
    landscape to look and work a certain way.
  334. progress
    the act of moving forward, as toward a goal
    You may be surprised at the variety of jobs they have
    in progress at any given time.
  335. valley
    a long depression in the surface of the land
    Landscape is everything around
    you—the ground, plants, animals,
    buildings, hills, valleys, rivers,
    roads, parking lots, power lines,
    fences, beaches, fields.
  336. surround
    extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle
    Water splashes over the smooth-carved
    stones that surround the stream in what
    is called the Sunken Stone Garden.
  337. shine
    emit light; be bright, as of the sun or a light
    Computer models
    can help landscape architects figure out how the sun will
    shine on a site, what happens if the site were to flood, or
    where trees should be planted to provide shade.
  338. educate
    give knowledge acquired by learning and instruction
    It will also serve as a place
    to educate people about the benefits
    of wetlands.
  339. process
    a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
    People in the neighborhood took
    part in the process of deciding what
    the old park would turn into.
  340. spread
    distribute or disperse widely
    Roads and parking lots,
    and communities that spread across a lot of land, are all
    related to our warming climate and contribute to flooding,
    erosion, and wasting water.
  341. instance
    an item of information that is typical of a class or group
    Birds, for instance,
    depend on wetlands as places to stop
    and find foodBesides welcoming people to enjoy
    nature up close, a major goal of the
    Sankofa wetland is to help manage
    excess water in times of heavy rain
    and potential flooding.
  342. wave
    (physics) a movement up and down or back and forth
    Two large mounds or “ waves
    were constructed to hold meadow plants and cacti that bloom
    and attract pollinating birds and bees.
  343. popular
    regarded with great favor or approval by the general public
    It’s also popular
    among BMXers and in-line skaters.
  344. occur
    come to pass
    When erosion occurs, trees may collapse and die, causing
    even more erosion.
  345. discuss
    to consider or examine in speech or writing
    ALLÉE Two parallel rows of trees planted to form a pathway CHARRETTE A group meeting to discuss a landscapeBERM design A mounded bank serving as a separation between two elements in a landscape HA-HA A long ditch used as a fence to preserve a view that...
  346. serve
    devote one's life or efforts to, as of countries or ideas
    It will also serve as a place
    to educate people about the benefits
    of wetlands.
  347. total
    the whole amount
    Community residents,
    local businesspeople, and even a Marin County
    supervisor volunteered to help build it
    The garden is totally organic, which means it
    doesn’t involve the use of pesticides or harmful
    chemicals.
  348. extreme
    of the greatest possible degree, extent, or intensity
    Many types of development may contribute
    to climate change and worsen the impact of the extreme
    storms or droughts it causes.
  349. frequent
    coming at short intervals or habitually
    DIVERSE PLANT COMMUNITIES
    The Sankofa wetland will help
    handle large amounts of water
    that fall during heavy rains, which
    are frequent in New Orleans.
  350. chapter
    a subdivision of a written work; usually numbered and titled
    You can also contact your
    nearest local chapter of the American Society of Landscape
    Architects to ask for more information about careers and
    design projects in your community.
  351. pleasant
    being in harmony with your taste or likings
    Landscape architects can help make sure that parks,
    playgrounds, schools, and stores are a pleasant walk from
    home, that there are plenty of trees, that water is not wasted,
    and that wildlife is safe.
  352. problem
    a question raised for consideration or solution
    Landscape architects work on ways
    to prevent these problems by providing rain gardens and
    bioswales where water can soak back underground and
    filter out pollution by using soil and plants.
  353. fresh
    recently made, produced, or harvested
    Cities need plenty of places outdoors for people to gather
    and relax in the fresh air.
  354. individual
    being or characteristic of a single thing or person
    Economic research can help find out how a design might
    affect individuals or businesses near a site.
  355. careful
    exercising caution or showing attention
    Carefully
    designed landscapes can help counter climate change by
    adding trees that provide shade, cool the air, and stabilize
    crumbling riverbanks.
  356. compare
    examine and note the similarities or differences of
    After the stream reopened, air temperatures
    in the crowded downtown area of Seoul
    fell by three to four degrees compared to
    temperatures on streets nearby.
  357. arrange
    put into a proper or systematic order
    They have been shaped
    and arranged to allow people to step
    right down to the water and wet their
    feet.
  358. various
    having great diversity or variety
    Throughout the year, Canal Park holds various
    celebrations.
  359. hide
    prevent from being seen or discovered
    Designers of streets usually include healthy trees for shade
    and beauty, lighting, and even hidden systems that can
    handle thousands of gallons of rainwater without sending
    it to the sewers.
  360. cross
    a marking that consists of lines that intersect each other
    Examples include
    pollinator gardens to support native insects, birds, and other
    animals, and land bridges over highways to let creatures that
    need lots of room, such as bears, elk, or moose, cross safely.
  361. control
    power to direct or determine
    The park includes 28 geothermal wells that control
    the temperature within the park’s indoor spaces.
  362. state
    the way something is with respect to its main attributes
    Most states have a public
    university that offers a landscape architecture program.
  363. connect
    fasten or put together two or more pieces
    Busier streets with trees, sidewalks, restaurants,
    stores, and lots of people can make us feel more connected
    and protected.
  364. right
    free from error; especially conforming to fact or truth
    This work may
    involve scientific study of water or air quality or choosing
    the right plants for a site.
  365. contain
    hold or have within
    It contains minerals, water,
    and gases, and organic matter that
    feeds plants through their roots.
  366. able
    having the necessary means or skill to do something
    Millions of people have visited
    the canal, and the park is able to host
    events such as festivals, concerts, and
    political rallies.
  367. issue
    some situation or event that is thought about
    Once you graduate, you will need a license, issued by your
    state.
  368. elect
    choose by a vote for an office or membership
    They also
    work with people who live in the communities where they
    are designing landscapes, as well as their elected representatives,
    to build agreement about what a landscape
    should become.
  369. leader
    a person who rules or guides or inspires others
    The student, named Gabby, wrote
    up the idea and shared it with her parents and
    her principal, and then was asked to present it
    to school district leaders.
  370. determine
    find out or learn with certainty, as by making an inquiry
    They determine
    how a landscape works—by making
    it shady or helping it soak up water,
    for example—as well as how it looks
    and feels to us.
  371. future
    the time yet to come
    Research can tell
    landscape architects what has happened on the site in the
    past and predict what may happen in the future.
  372. divide
    a serious disagreement between two groups of people
    Highways divide many cities, as the
    highway that once covered this stream
    did in Seoul.
  373. measure
    determine the dimensions of something or somebody
    Improvements to water
    quality can also be measured by testing the captured water
    to find out what substances it keeps from running into the
    sewers and the watershed, which flows to the Anacostia and
    Potomac Rivers and eventually to the Chesapeake Bay.
  374. center
    an area that is in the middle of some larger region
    Visit nature centers, and
    join in on nature walks through your community—there
    is a lot of nature to discover wherever you go, even in the
    middle of a city.
  375. fit
    meeting adequate standards for a purpose
    Designing a landscape involves a lot of drawing to figure
    out how its parts will fit together on a site.
  376. political
    involving or characteristic of governing or social power
    Millions of people have visited
    the canal, and the park is able to host
    events such as festivals, concerts, and
    political rallies.
  377. entire
    constituting the full quantity or extent; complete
    Almost the entire roof is covered with plants.
  378. collect
    gather
    Canal Park collects rainwater from the pavement
    and the roofs of its buildings and stores it in
    underground tanks.
  379. train
    educate for a future role or function
    A lot of the food we eat comes from far away,
    hauled many miles by truck, train, or airplane,
    which means it contributes to pollution that
    contributes to climate change.
  380. experience
    the content of observation or participation in an event
    Landscape architects make public spaces for
    people to enjoy the outdoors, to play, to walk or bicycle, or to
    hike and experience nature.
  381. system
    a group of independent elements comprising a unified whole
    Designers of streets usually include healthy trees for shade
    and beauty, lighting, and even hidden systems that can
    handle thousands of gallons of rainwater without sending
    it to the sewers.
  382. purpose
    what something is used for
    One important purpose of green roofs is to capture and
    hold rainwater.
  383. former
    the first of two or the first mentioned of two
    And who
    better to design a skatepark than a
    landscape architect—especially one
    like Mike McIntyre, who is a former
    sponsored skateboarder and BMX
    racer?
  384. particular
    unique or specific to a person or thing or category
    When landscape architects
    design landscapes, they consider
    how their changes will affect the
    insects, fish, birds, and mammals
    that live in a particular habitat.
  385. exist
    have a presence
    There are
    a lot of existing trees that will stay—
    elm, hickory, willow, mulberry,
    and rain trees, among others.
  386. increase
    a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous
    The pavement is designed not to increase urban
    heat during the day.
  387. bank
    financial institution that accepts deposits and lends money
    ALLÉE Two parallel rows of trees planted to form a pathway CHARRETTE A group meeting to discuss a landscapeBERM design A mounded bank serving as a separation between two elements in a landscape HA-HA A long ditch used as a fence to preserve a view that would be marred by regular fencing...
  388. forget
    dismiss from the mind; stop remembering
    But don’t forget to enjoy literature:
    novels, nonfiction, essays, and poems.
  389. raise
    move upwards
    Gabby worked to raise
    money to start the garden.
  390. according
    in agreement with
    The
    landscape architect has studied
    how water moves across the site,
    according to the height of the land
    and drainage patterns.
  391. common
    having no special distinction or quality
    Living roofs, or green roofs, are becoming
    increasingly common on top of buildings,
    especially in cities.
  392. result
    something that follows as a consequence
    These
    results are taken from rain gauges and sensors that track
    the flow of water through the roof.
  393. politics
    the activities involved in managing a state or a government
    Read widely: Social studies, politics, and
    economics will help.
  394. simple
    having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved
    It begins with
    simple sketches.
  395. decide
    reach, make, or come to a conclusion about something
    People in the neighborhood took
    part in the process of deciding what
    the old park would turn into.
  396. drive
    operate or control a vehicle
    They also help conserve natural
    resources by encouraging people to walk or bicycle rather
    than drive cars.
  397. effect
    a phenomenon that is caused by some previous phenomenon
    The ways we use landscapes have a big effect on global
    climate change.
  398. several
    of an indefinite number more than 2 or 3 but not many
    Several sycamore trees tower over the
    site, bringing shade and color to the
    Play-Za.
  399. relate
    give an account of
    Roads and parking lots,
    and communities that spread across a lot of land, are all
    related to our warming climate and contribute to flooding,
    erosion, and wasting water.
  400. human
    a person; a hominid with a large brain and articulate speech
    Humans have placed enormous pressure on the world’s
    plants and animals.
  401. attend
    be present
    And at night when the weather is
    warm, people flock to watch movies or attend
    concerts.
  402. matter
    that which has mass and occupies space
    It contains minerals, water,
    and gases, and organic matter that
    feeds plants through their roots.
  403. consider
    think about carefully; weigh
    When landscape architects
    design landscapes, they consider
    how their changes will affect the
    insects, fish, birds, and mammals
    that live in a particular habitat.
  404. carry
    physically move while supporting, by vehicle, hands, or body
    The goal is to make these places
    in ways that help improve the environment
    When it rains in cities and suburbs, rainwater may carry
    pollution from roads to sewers, and it often flows right
    into our creeks and rivers.
  405. certain
    established beyond doubt or question; definitely known
    For landscape architects, design is the job of creating a
    landscape to look and work a certain way.
  406. mind
    that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings
    Parks, gardens, plazas, whole cities, and wilderness are
    among the places landscape architects design with people in
    mind, to bring them together or give them places to spend
    time alone.
  407. general
    applying to all or most members of a category or group
    Because they are generally (but not
    always) waterlogged, they have developed their own complex
    webs of life over time.
  408. power
    possession of the qualities required to do something
    Landscape is everything around
    you—the ground, plants, animals,
    buildings, hills, valleys, rivers,
    roads, parking lots, power lines,
    fences, beaches, fields.
  409. might
    physical strength
    Economic research can help find out how a design might
    affect individuals or businesses near a site.
Created on February 8, 2018

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