Ronald Reagan: "Tear Down This Wall"

Ronald Reagan's speech at the Berlin Wall, June 12, 1987.

http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/reagan-tear-down.htm
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definitions & notes only words
  1. Berliner
    an inhabitant of Berlin
    Every man is a Berliner, forced to look upon a scar.
  2. chemical weapon
    chemical substances that can be delivered using munitions and dispersal devices to cause death or severe harm to people and animals and plants
    And the Western allies have likewise made far-reaching proposals to reduce the danger of conventional war and to place a total ban on chemical weapons.
  3. air-raid shelter
    a chamber (often underground) reinforced against bombing and provided with food and living facilities; used during air raids
    In this season of spring in 1945, the people of Berlin emerged from their air-raid shelters to find devastation.
  4. office block
    a building containing offices where work is done
    Where four decades ago there was rubble, today in West Berlin there is the greatest industrial output of any city in Germany--busy office blocks, fine homes and apartments, proud avenues, and the spreading lawns of parkland.
  5. industrialize
    organize (the production of something) into an industry
    In the industrialized nations, a technological revolution is taking place--a revolution marked by rapid, dramatic advances in computers and telecommunications.
  6. technological revolution
    the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
    In the industrialized nations, a technological revolution is taking place--a revolution marked by rapid, dramatic advances in computers and telecommunications.
  7. ennoblement
    the act of raising someone to the nobility
    One final proposal, one close to my heart: Sport represents a source of enjoyment and ennoblement, and you may have noted that the Republic of Korea--South Korea--has offered to permit certain events of the 1988 Olympics to take place in the North.
  8. Berlin
    capital of Germany located in eastern Germany
    Chancellor Kohl, Governing Mayor Diepgen, ladies and gentlemen: Twenty-four years ago, President John F. Kennedy visited Berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the City Hall.
  9. totalitarian state
    a government that subordinates the individual to the state and strictly controls all aspects of life by coercive measures
    But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same--still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state.
  10. Marshall Plan
    a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952); named after George Marshall
    And in 1947 Secretary of State--as you've been told--George Marshall announced the creation of what would become known as the Marshall Plan.
  11. totalitarian
    of a government with an authority exerting absolute control
    But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same--still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state.
  12. hold firm
    refuse to abandon one's opinion or belief
    But through it all, the alliance held firm.
  13. Republic of Korea
    a republic in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula
    One final proposal, one close to my heart: Sport represents a source of enjoyment and ennoblement, and you may have noted that the Republic of Korea--South Korea--has offered to permit certain events of the 1988 Olympics to take place in the North.
  14. parkland
    a large area of land preserved in its natural state as public property
    Where four decades ago there was rubble, today in West Berlin there is the greatest industrial output of any city in Germany--busy office blocks, fine homes and apartments, proud avenues, and the spreading lawns of parkland.
  15. President John F. Kennedy
    35th President of the United States
    Chancellor Kohl, Governing Mayor Diepgen, ladies and gentlemen: Twenty-four years ago, President John F. Kennedy visited Berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the City Hall.
  16. political prisoner
    someone who is imprisoned because of their political views
    Some political prisoners have been released.
  17. backwardness
    lack of normal development of intellectual capacities
    In the Communist world, we see failure, technological backwardness, declining standards of health, even want of the most basic kind--too little food.
  18. human right
    (law) any basic right or freedom to which all human beings are entitled and in whose exercise a government may not interfere (including rights to life and liberty as well as freedom of thought and expression and equality before the law)
    It would be only fitting for Berlin to serve as the site of United Nations meetings, or world conferences on human rights and arms control or other issues that call for international cooperation.
  19. disabused
    freed of a mistaken or misguided notion
    No one could live long in Berlin without being completely disabused of illusions.
  20. telecommunication
    (often plural) the branch of electrical engineering concerned with the technology of electronic communication at a distance
    In the industrialized nations, a technological revolution is taking place--a revolution marked by rapid, dramatic advances in computers and telecommunications.
  21. openness
    without obstructions to passage or view
    We hear much from Moscow about a new policy of reform and openness.
  22. Soviets
    the government of the Soviet Union
    The Soviets may have had other plans.
  23. West Berlin
    the part of Berlin under United States and British and French control until 1989
    Where four decades ago there was rubble, today in West Berlin there is the greatest industrial output of any city in Germany--busy office blocks, fine homes and apartments, proud avenues, and the spreading lawns of parkland.
  24. encircle
    form a circle around
    Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe.
  25. burnt-out
    destroyed or badly damaged by fire
    I was struck by the sign on a burnt-out, gutted structure that was being rebuilt.
  26. nuclear weapon
    a weapon of mass destruction whose explosive power derives from a nuclear reaction
    And because we remained strong, today we have within reach the possibility, not merely of limiting the growth of arms, but of eliminating, for the first time, an entire class of nuclear weapons from the face of the earth.
  27. comity
    a state or atmosphere of harmony or mutual civility
    Freedom replaces the ancient hatreds among the nations with comity and peace.
  28. disabuse
    free somebody from an erroneous belief
    No one could live long in Berlin without being completely disabused of illusions.
  29. George Marshall
    United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959)
    And in 1947 Secretary of State--as you've been told-- George Marshall announced the creation of what would become known as the Marshall Plan.
  30. deterrence
    a negative motivational influence
    And in cooperation with many of our allies, the United States is pursuing the Strategic Defense Initiative--research to base deterrence not on the threat of offensive retaliation, but on defenses that truly defend; on systems, in short, that will n
  31. rebirth
    reincarnation
    Italy, France, Belgium--virtually every nation in Western Europe saw political and economic rebirth; the European Community was founded.
  32. implicit in
    in the nature of something though not readily apparent
    Today the city thrives in spite of the challenges implicit in the very presence of this wall.
  33. cut across
    cut using a diagonal line
    From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers.
  34. Gorbachev
    Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
    General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate!
  35. liberalization
    the act of making less strict
    General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate!
  36. redouble
    double again
    Yet in this age of redoubled economic growth, of information and innovation, the Soviet Union faces a choice: It must make fundamental changes, or it will become obsolete.
  37. European Community
    an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
    Italy, France, Belgium--virtually every nation in Western Europe saw political and economic rebirth; the European Community was founded.
  38. deployment
    the distribution of forces in preparation for battle or work
    The Western alliance responded by committing itself to a counter- deployment unless the Soviets agreed to negotiate a better solution; namely, the elimination of such weapons on both sides.
  39. meeting place
    a public facility to meet for open discussion
    And surely there is no better place than Berlin, the meeting place of East and West, to make a start.
  40. checkpoint
    a place (as at a frontier) where travellers are stopped for inspection and clearance
    But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same--still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state.
  41. usher in
    be a precursor of
    Let us use this occasion, the 750th anniversary of this city, to usher in a new era, to seek a still fuller, richer life for the Berlin of the future.
  42. inescapable
    impossible to avoid or evade
    After these four decades, then, there stands before the entire world one great and inescapable conclusion: Freedom leads to prosperity.
  43. Brandenburg
    the territory of an Elector (of the Holy Roman Empire) that expanded to become the kingdom of Prussia in 1701
    Standing before the Brandenburg Gate, every man is a German, separated from his fellow men.
  44. rebuild
    build again
    I was struck by the sign on a burnt-out, gutted structure that was being rebuilt.
  45. tear down
    tear down so as to make flat with the ground
    Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!
  46. commemorating
    intended as a commemoration
    In the Reichstag a few moments ago, I saw a display commemorating this 40th anniversary of the Marshall Plan.
  47. thwarting
    an act of hindering someone's plans or efforts
    The totalitarian world produces backwardness because it does such violence to the spirit, thwarting the human impulse to create, to enjoy, to worship.
  48. 40th
    the ordinal number of forty in counting order
    In the Reichstag a few moments ago, I saw a display commemorating this 40th anniversary of the Marshall Plan.
  49. arms control
    a limitation on the size and armament of the armed forces of a country
    It would be only fitting for Berlin to serve as the site of United Nations meetings, or world conferences on human rights and arms control or other issues that call for international cooperation.
  50. East German
    relating to or characteristic of East Germany
    Years ago, before the East Germans began rebuilding their churches, they erected a secular structure: the television tower at Alexander Platz.
  51. unassailable
    impossible to attack
    So we must maintain defenses of unassailable strength.
  52. Marshall
    United States actor (1914-1998)
    And in 1947 Secretary of State--as you've been told--George Marshall announced the creation of what would become known as the Marshall Plan.
  53. devastation
    the state of being decayed or destroyed
    In this season of spring in 1945, the people of Berlin emerged from their air-raid shelters to find devastation.
  54. technological
    of a practical subject organized by scientific principles
    In the Communist world, we see failure, technological backwardness, declining standards of health, even want of the most basic kind--too little food.
  55. crudely
    in a crude or unrefined manner
    As I looked out a moment ago from the Reichstag, that embodiment of German unity, I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner: "This wall will fall.
  56. city hall
    a building that houses administrative offices of a municipal government
    Chancellor Kohl, Governing Mayor Diepgen, ladies and gentlemen: Twenty-four years ago, President John F. Kennedy visited Berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the City Hall.
  57. mistrust
    regard as untrustworthy
    But we must remember a crucial fact: East and West do not mistrust each other because we are armed; we are armed because we mistrust each other.
  58. barb
    a point facing the main point making an arrowhead or spear
    From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers.
  59. industrialized
    made industrial; converted to industrialism
    In the industrialized nations, a technological revolution is taking place--a revolution marked by rapid, dramatic advances in computers and telecommunications.
  60. freedom
    the condition of being free
    We come to Berlin, we American presidents, because it's our duty to speak, in this place, of freedom.
  61. standard of living
    a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone or some group
    From 1950 to 1960 alone, the standard of living in West Germany and Berlin doubled.
  62. withstand
    resist or confront with resistance
    For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth.
  63. freedom of speech
    right guaranteed by the 1st Amendment to the US Constitution
    Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty--that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy
  64. unite
    join or combine
    Thousands of miles away, the people of the United States reached out to help.
  65. sign on
    engage by written agreement
    I was struck by the sign on a burnt-out, gutted structure that was being rebuilt.
  66. Adenauer
    German statesman; chancellor of West Germany (1876-1967)
    Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty--that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy
  67. President Kennedy
    35th President of the United States
    When President Kennedy spoke at the City Hall those 24 years ago, freedom was encircled, Berlin was under siege.
  68. view as
    keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view
    Virtually ever since, the authorities have been working to correct what they view as the tower's one major flaw, treating the glass sphere at the top with paints and chemicals of every kind.
  69. free people
    people who are free
    Free people of Berlin: Today, as in the past, the United States stands for the strict observance and full implementation of all parts of the Four Power Agreement of 1971.
  70. kohl
    a cosmetic preparation used by women in Egypt and Arabia to darken the edges of their eyelids
    Chancellor Kohl, Governing Mayor Diepgen, ladies and gentlemen: Twenty-four years ago, President John F. Kennedy visited Berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the City Hall.
  71. West
    the countries of Europe and North America and South America
    For I join you, as I join your fellow countrymen in the West, in this firm, this unalterable belief: Es gibt nur ein Berlin.
  72. West Germany
    a republic in north central Europe on the North Sea
    In West Germany and here in Berlin, there took place an economic miracle, the Wirtschaftswunder.
  73. today
    on this day as distinct from yesterday or tomorrow
    And today I, myself, make my second visit to your city.
  74. Soviet
    of or relating to or characteristic of the former Soviet Union or its people
    Even today, the Soviet Union still cannot feed itself.
  75. implementation
    carrying into effect
    Free people of Berlin: Today, as in the past, the United States stands for the strict observance and full implementation of all parts of the Four Power Agreement of 1971.
  76. economic growth
    steady growth in the productive capacity of the economy
    Throughout the Pacific, free markets are working miracle after miracle of economic growth.
  77. East
    the countries of Asia
    I understand that it is being seen and heard as well in the East.
  78. suitcase
    a portable rectangular container for carrying clothes
    [I still have a suitcase in Berlin.]
  79. barbed wire
    strong wire with barbs at regular intervals used to prevent passage
    From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers.
  80. gash
    cut open
    From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers.
  81. sign of the cross
    a gesture with the right hand moving to form a cross
    Yet even today when the sun strikes that sphere--that sphere that towers over all Berlin--the light makes the sign of the cross.
  82. continent
    one of the large landmasses of the earth
    Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe.
  83. scar
    a mark left by the healing of injured tissue
    Every man is a Berliner, forced to look upon a scar.
  84. Soviet Union
    a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991
    Even today, the Soviet Union still cannot feed itself.
  85. unalterable
    not capable of being changed
    For I join you, as I join your fellow countrymen in the West, in this firm, this unalterable belief: Es gibt nur ein Berlin.
  86. weapon
    any instrument used in fighting or hunting
    The Western alliance responded by committing itself to a counter-deployment unless the Soviets agreed to negotiate a better solution; namely, the elimination of such weapons on both sides.
  87. walk away
    go away from
    As the alliance, in turn, prepared to go forward with its counter-deployment, there were difficult days--days of protests like those during my 1982 visit to this city--and the Soviets later walked away from the table.
  88. reach out
    reach outward in space
    Thousands of miles away, the people of the United States reached out to help.
  89. eliminate
    end, take out, or do away with
    And because we remained strong, today we have within reach the possibility, not merely of limiting the growth of arms, but of eliminating, for the first time, an entire class of nuclear weapons from the face of the earth.
  90. affirmation
    the act of asserting or stating something
    Something that speaks with a powerful voice of affirmation, that says yes to this city, yes to the future, yes to freedom.
  91. Western
    a film about life in the western United States during the period of exploration and development
    Our gathering today is being broadcast throughout Western Europe and North America.
  92. afflict
    cause physical pain or suffering in
    I understand the fear of war and the pain of division that afflict this continent-- and I pledge to you my country's efforts to help overcome these burdens.
  93. usher
    someone employed to conduct others
    Let us use this occasion, the 750th anniversary of this city, to usher in a new era, to seek a still fuller, richer life for the Berlin of the future.
  94. commemorate
    call to remembrance
    In the Reichstag a few moments ago, I saw a display commemorating this 40th anniversary of the Marshall Plan.
  95. strengthen
    make strong or stronger
    The sign read simply: "The Marshall Plan is helping here to strengthen the free world."
  96. take place
    come to pass
    In West Germany and here in Berlin, there took place an economic miracle, the Wirtschaftswunder.
  97. imprint
    mark or stamp with or as if with pressure
    Yet it is here in Berlin where the wall emerges most clearly; here, cutting across your city, where the news photo and the television screen have imprinted this brutal division of a continent upon the mind of the world.
  98. sector
    a particular aspect of life or activity
    Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe.
  99. rubble
    the remains of something that has been destroyed
    Where four decades ago there was rubble, today in West Berlin there is the greatest industrial output of any city in Germany--busy office blocks, fine homes and apartments, proud avenues, and the spreading lawns of parkland.
  100. barrier
    a structure or object that impedes free movement
    Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe.
  101. invite
    ask someone in a friendly way to do something
    And I invite those who protested then-- I invite those who protest today--to mark this fact: Because we remained strong, the Soviets came back to the table.
  102. emerge
    come out into view, as from concealment
    Yet it is here in Berlin where the wall emerges most clearly; here, cutting across your city, where the news photo and the television screen have imprinted this brutal division of a continent upon the mind of the world.
  103. demonstrate
    give an exhibition of to an interested audience
    And what better way to demonstrate to the world the openness of this city than to offer in some future year to hold the Olympic games here in Berlin, East and West?
  104. barbed
    having or covered with protective quills, spines, or thorns
    From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers.
  105. gut
    the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
    I was struck by the sign on a burnt-out, gutted structure that was being rebuilt.
  106. deter
    turn away from by persuasion
    While we pursue these arms reductions, I pledge to you that we will maintain the capacity to deter Soviet aggression at any level at which it might occur.
  107. cooperate
    work together on a common enterprise of project
    We in the West stand ready to cooperate with the East to promote true openness, to break down barriers that separate people, to create a safe, freer world.
  108. come about
    come to pass
    Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty--that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy
  109. elimination
    the act of removing or getting rid of something
    The Western alliance responded by committing itself to a counter-deployment unless the Soviets agreed to negotiate a better solution; namely, the elimination of such weapons on both sides.
  110. dot
    a very small circular shape
    I understand that Berliners of my own generation can remember seeing signs like it dotted throughout the western sectors of the city.
  111. city
    a large and densely populated urban area
    Chancellor Kohl, Governing Mayor Diepgen, ladies and gentlemen: Twenty-four years ago, President John F. Kennedy visited Berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the City Hall.
  112. enlighten
    give spiritual insight to
    There is no better way to establish hope for the future than to enlighten young minds, and we would be honored to sponsor summer youth exchanges, cultural events, and other programs for young Berliners from the East.
  113. 1950s
    the decade from 1950 to 1959
    In the 1950s, Khrushchev predicted: "We will bury you."
  114. Central America
    the isthmus joining North America and South America
    In the Philippines, in South and Central America, democracy has been given a rebirth.
  115. cooperation
    the practice of working together on a common enterprise
    And in cooperation with many of our allies, the United States is pursuing the Strategic Defense Initiative--research to base deterrence not on the threat of offensive retaliation, but on defenses that truly defend; on systems, in short, that will n
  116. free trade
    international trade free of government interference
    The German leaders reduced tariffs, expanded free trade, lowered taxes.
  117. thwart
    hinder or prevent, as an effort, plan, or desire
    The totalitarian world produces backwardness because it does such violence to the spirit, thwarting the human impulse to create, to enjoy, to worship.
  118. prosperity
    the condition of having good fortune
    Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty--that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy
  119. flaw
    an imperfection in an object or machine
    Virtually ever since, the authorities have been working to correct what they view as the tower's one major flaw, treating the glass sphere at the top with paints and chemicals of every kind.
  120. symbol
    something visible that represents something invisible
    The totalitarian world finds even symbols of love and of worship an affront.
  121. alliance
    the state of being confederated
    Beginning 10 years ago, the Soviets challenged the Western alliance with a grave new threat, hundreds of new and more deadly SS-20 nuclear missiles, capable of striking every capital in Europe.
  122. impose
    charge and collect payment
    But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same--still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state.
  123. way of life
    a course of conduct
    But I believe there's something deeper, something that involves Berlin's whole look and feel and way of life--not mere sentiment.
  124. embodiment
    a concrete representation of an otherwise cloudy concept
    As I looked out a moment ago from the Reichstag, that embodiment of German unity, I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner: "This wall will fall.
  125. implicit
    suggested though not directly expressed
    Today the city thrives in spite of the challenges implicit in the very presence of this wall.
  126. sphere
    a round three-dimensional closed surface
    Virtually ever since, the authorities have been working to correct what they view as the tower's one major flaw, treating the glass sphere at the top with paints and chemicals of every kind.
  127. aspiration
    a cherished desire
    Something instead, that has seen the difficulties of life in Berlin but chose to accept them, that continues to build this good and proud city in contrast to a surrounding totalitarian presence that refuses to release human energies or aspirations.
  128. Europe
    the 2nd smallest continent
    Our gathering today is being broadcast throughout Western Europe and North America.
  129. rebuilding
    building again
    Years ago, before the East Germans began rebuilding their churches, they erected a secular structure: the television tower at Alexander Platz.
  130. restriction
    an act of limiting
    But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same--still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state.
  131. sponsor
    an advocate who presents a person
    There is no better way to establish hope for the future than to enlighten young minds, and we would be honored to sponsor summer youth exchanges, cultural events, and other programs for young Berliners from the East.
  132. miracle
    a marvelous event brought about by a divine being
    In West Germany and here in Berlin, there took place an economic miracle, the Wirtschaftswunder.
  133. affront
    a deliberately offensive act
    The totalitarian world finds even symbols of love and of worship an affront.
  134. expand
    extend in one or more directions
    The German leaders reduced tariffs, expanded free trade, lowered taxes.
  135. anniversary
    the date on which an event occurred in some previous year
    In the Reichstag a few moments ago, I saw a display commemorating this 40th anniversary of the Marshall Plan.
  136. retaliation
    action taken in return for an injury or offense
    And in cooperation with many of our allies, the United States is pursuing the Strategic Defense Initiative--research to base deterrence not on the threat of offensive retaliation, but on defenses that truly defend; on systems, in short, that will n
  137. go forward
    move ahead; travel onward in time or space
    As the alliance, in turn, prepared to go forward with its counter-deployment, there were difficult days--days of protests like those during my 1982 visit to this city--and the Soviets later walked away from the table.
  138. wall
    an architectural partition with a height and length greater than its thickness; used to divide or enclose an area or to support another structure
    Behind me stands a wall that encircles the free sectors of this city, part of a vast system of barriers that divides the entire continent of Europe.
  139. clothe
    provide with clothes or put clothes on
    Where there was want, today there's abundance--food, clothing, automobiles--the wonderful goods of the Ku'damm.
  140. redoubled
    become much greater in intensity or size or amount
    Yet in this age of redoubled economic growth, of information and innovation, the Soviet Union faces a choice: It must make fundamental changes, or it will become obsolete.
  141. limiting
    restricting the scope or freedom of action
    And because we remained strong, today we have within reach the possibility, not merely of limiting the growth of arms, but of eliminating, for the first time, an entire class of nuclear weapons from the face of the earth.
  142. decade
    a period of 10 years
    Where four decades ago there was rubble, today in West Berlin there is the greatest industrial output of any city in Germany--busy office blocks, fine homes and apartments, proud avenues, and the spreading lawns of parkland.
  143. inhabitant
    a person who lives in a particular place
    And I invite Mr. Gorbachev: Let us work to bring the Eastern and Western parts of the city closer together, so that all the inhabitants of all Berlin can enjoy the benefits that come with life in one of the great cities of the world.
  144. seek
    try to locate or discover or establish the existence of
    General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate!
  145. Philippine
    of or relating to or characteristic of the Philippines or its people or customs
    In the Philippines, in South and Central America, democracy has been given a rebirth.
  146. allies
    an coalition of nations joining to fight a common enemy
    And the Western allies have likewise made far-reaching proposals to reduce the danger of conventional war and to place a total ban on chemical weapons.
  147. strategic
    relating to an elaborate and systematic plan of action
    At the talks in Geneva, we have also proposed deep cuts in strategic offensive weapons.
  148. encircled
    confined on all sides
    When President Kennedy spoke at the City Hall those 24 years ago, freedom was encircled, Berlin was under siege.
  149. businessman
    a person engaged in commercial or industrial business
    Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty--that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy
  150. transform
    change or alter in form, appearance, or nature
    And freedom itself is transforming the globe.
  151. hub
    central part of a car wheel through which the axle passes
    We look to the day when West Berlin can become one of the chief aviation hubs in all central Europe.
  152. Khrushchev
    Soviet statesman and premier who denounced Stalin
    In the 1950s, Khrushchev predicted: "We will bury you."
  153. jammed
    filled to capacity
    Certain foreign news broadcasts are no longer being jammed.
  154. count on
    judge to be probable
    But my friends, there were a few things the Soviets didn't count on--Berliner Herz, Berliner Humor, ja, und Berliner Schnauze.
  155. break down
    stop operating or functioning
    We in the West stand ready to cooperate with the East to promote true openness, to break down barriers that separate people, to create a safe, freer world.
  156. economic
    of or relating to production and management of wealth
    Japan rose from ruin to become an economic giant.
  157. ally
    a friendly nation
    And the Western allies have likewise made far-reaching proposals to reduce the danger of conventional war and to place a total ban on chemical weapons.
  158. abiding
    unceasing
    In a word, I would submit that what keeps you in Berlin is love--love both profound and abiding.
  159. permit
    allow the presence of or allow without opposing
    Today I say: As long as the gate is closed, as long as this scar of a wall is permitted to stand, it is not the German question alone that remains open, but the question of freedom for all mankind.
  160. countryman
    a man from your own country
    For I join you, as I join your fellow countrymen in the West, in this firm, this unalterable belief: Es gibt nur ein Berlin.
  161. reduce
    make smaller
    The German leaders reduced tariffs, expanded free trade, lowered taxes.
  162. dramatically
    with respect to dramatic value
    There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace.
  163. only when
    never except when
    Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty--that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy
  164. Baltic
    a sea in northern Europe; stronghold of the Russian navy
    From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers.
  165. threat
    declaration of an intention to inflict harm on another
    Beginning 10 years ago, the Soviets challenged the Western alliance with a grave new threat, hundreds of new and more deadly SS-20 nuclear missiles, capable of striking every capital in Europe.
  166. fuller
    a workman who fulls freshly woven cloth for a living
    Let us use this occasion, the 750th anniversary of this city, to usher in a new era, to seek a still fuller, richer life for the Berlin of the future.
  167. Nation
    United States prohibitionist who raided saloons and destroyed bottles of liquor with a hatchet (1846-1911)
    It would be only fitting for Berlin to serve as the site of United Nations meetings, or world conferences on human rights and arms control or other issues that call for international cooperation.
  168. thrive
    make steady progress
    Today the city thrives in spite of the challenges implicit in the very presence of this wall.
  169. Geneva
    a city in southwestern Switzerland at the western end of Lake Geneva; it is the headquarters of various international organizations
    At the talks in Geneva, we have also proposed deep cuts in strategic offensive weapons.
  170. close together
    located close together
    And I invite Mr. Gorbachev: Let us work to bring the Eastern and Western parts of the city closer together, so that all the inhabitants of all Berlin can enjoy the benefits that come with life in one of the great cities of the world.
  171. broadcast
    disseminate over the airwaves, as in radio or television
    Our gathering today is being broadcast throughout Western Europe and North America.
  172. obsolete
    no longer in use
    Yet in this age of redoubled economic growth, of information and innovation, the Soviet Union faces a choice: It must make fundamental changes, or it will become obsolete.
  173. aggression
    a disposition to behave forcefully and energetically
    While we pursue these arms reductions, I pledge to you that we will maintain the capacity to deter Soviet aggression at any level at which it might occur.
  174. well-being
    a contented state of being happy and healthy and prosperous
    But in the West today, we see a free world that has achieved a level of prosperity and well-being unprecedented in all human history.
  175. virtually
    in essence or effect but not in fact
    Italy, France, Belgium-- virtually every nation in Western Europe saw political and economic rebirth; the European Community was founded.
  176. economical
    using the minimum of time or resources for effectiveness
    To open Berlin still further to all Europe, East and West, let us expand the vital air access to this city, finding ways of making commercial air service to Berlin more convenient, more comfortable, and more economical.
  177. counter
    a calculator recording the number of times something happens
    The Western alliance responded by committing itself to a counter-deployment unless the Soviets agreed to negotiate a better solution; namely, the elimination of such weapons on both sides.
  178. tower
    a structure taller than its diameter
    From the Baltic, south, those barriers cut across Germany in a gash of barbed wire, concrete, dog runs, and guard towers.
  179. observance
    conformity with law or custom or practice etc.
    Free people of Berlin: Today, as in the past, the United States stands for the strict observance and full implementation of all parts of the Four Power Agreement of 1971.
  180. pledge
    a binding commitment to do or give or refrain from something
    I understand the fear of war and the pain of division that afflict this continent-- and I pledge to you my country's efforts to help overcome these burdens.
  181. aviation
    the art of operating aircraft
    We look to the day when West Berlin can become one of the chief aviation hubs in all central Europe.
  182. proposal
    the act of making a suggestion
    As I speak, NATO ministers are meeting in Iceland to review the progress of our proposals for eliminating these weapons.
  183. nation
    a politically organized body of people under a government
    But I must confess, we're drawn here by other things as well: by the feeling of history in this city, more than 500 years older than our own nation; by the beauty of the Grunewald and the Tiergarten; most of all, by your courage and determination.
  184. predict
    tell in advance
    In the 1950s, Khrushchev predicted: "We will bury you."
  185. protest
    a formal and solemn declaration of objection
    As the alliance, in turn, prepared to go forward with its counter-deployment, there were difficult days--days of protests like those during my 1982 visit to this city--and the Soviets later walked away from the table.
  186. defiant
    boldly resisting authority or an opposing force
    Certainly there's a great deal to be said for your fortitude, for your defiant courage.
  187. blockade
    a war measure isolating an area of importance to the enemy
    You've done so in spite of threats--the Soviet attempts to impose the East-mark, the blockade.
  188. fortitude
    strength of mind that enables one to endure adversity
    Certainly there's a great deal to be said for your fortitude, for your defiant courage.
  189. gate
    a movable barrier in a fence or wall
    Standing before the Brandenburg Gate, every man is a German, separated from his fellow men.
  190. negotiate
    discuss the terms of an arrangement
    The Western alliance responded by committing itself to a counter-deployment unless the Soviets agreed to negotiate a better solution; namely, the elimination of such weapons on both sides.
  191. chaos
    formless state of matter before the creation of the cosmos
    Speaking precisely 40 years ago this month, he said: "Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos."
  192. Iceland
    a volcanic island in the North Atlantic near the Arctic Circle
    As I speak, NATO ministers are meeting in Iceland to review the progress of our proposals for eliminating these weapons.
  193. dotted
    having a pattern of dots
    I understand that Berliners of my own generation can remember seeing signs like it dotted throughout the western sectors of the city.
  194. lament
    a cry of sorrow and grief
    Yet I do not come here to lament.
  195. president
    the chief executive of a republic
    Well, since then two other presidents have come, each in his turn, to Berlin.
  196. chemical
    produced by reactions involving atomic or molecular changes
    And the Western allies have likewise made far-reaching proposals to reduce the danger of conventional war and to place a total ban on chemical weapons.
  197. stand for
    express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
    Free people of Berlin: Today, as in the past, the United States stands for the strict observance and full implementation of all parts of the Four Power Agreement of 1971.
  198. desperation
    a state in which all hope is lost or absent
    Speaking precisely 40 years ago this month, he said: "Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos."
  199. surround
    extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle
    Something instead, that has seen the difficulties of life in Berlin but chose to accept them, that continues to build this good and proud city in contrast to a surrounding totalitarian presence that refuses to release human energies or aspirations.
  200. fundamental
    serving as an essential component
    Yet in this age of redoubled economic growth, of information and innovation, the Soviet Union faces a choice: It must make fundamental changes, or it will become obsolete.
  201. unmistakable
    clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
    There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace.
  202. maintain
    keep in a certain state, position, or activity
    So we must maintain defenses of unassailable strength.
  203. missile
    a weapon that is forcibly thrown or projected at a target
    Beginning 10 years ago, the Soviets challenged the Western alliance with a grave new threat, hundreds of new and more deadly SS-20 nuclear missiles, capable of striking every capital in Europe.
  204. South Korea
    a republic in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula
    One final proposal, one close to my heart: Sport represents a source of enjoyment and ennoblement, and you may have noted that the Republic of Korea-- South Korea--has offered to permit certain events of the 1988 Olympics to take place in the North.
  205. unprecedented
    novel; having no earlier occurrence
    But in the West today, we see a free world that has achieved a level of prosperity and well-being unprecedented in all human history.
  206. United Nations
    an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
    It would be only fitting for Berlin to serve as the site of United Nations meetings, or world conferences on human rights and arms control or other issues that call for international cooperation.
  207. refuse
    show unwillingness towards
    For many months, the Soviets refused to bargain in earnestness.
  208. suppress
    to put down by force or authority
    There in Berlin, like the city itself, symbols of love, symbols of worship, cannot be suppressed.
  209. arm
    a human limb
    But there remain armed guards and checkpoints all the same--still a restriction on the right to travel, still an instrument to impose upon ordinary men and women the will of a totalitarian state.
  210. pursue
    follow in an effort to capture
    While we pursue these arms reductions, I pledge to you that we will maintain the capacity to deter Soviet aggression at any level at which it might occur.
  211. jam
    press tightly together or cram
    Certain foreign news broadcasts are no longer being jammed.
  212. humor
    a message that has the power to evoke laughter
    But my friends, there were a few things the Soviets didn't count on--Berliner Herz, Berliner Humor, ja, und Berliner Schnauze.
  213. Korea
    an Asian peninsula (off Manchuria) separating the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan; the Korean name is Dae-Han-Min-Gook or Han-Gook
    One final proposal, one close to my heart: Sport represents a source of enjoyment and ennoblement, and you may have noted that the Republic of Korea--South Korea--has offered to permit certain events of the 1988 Olympics to take place in the North.
  214. stand
    be standing; be upright
    To those listening throughout Eastern Europe, a special word: Although I cannot be with you, I address my remarks to you just as surely as to those standing here before me.
  215. Hall
    United States explorer who led three expeditions to the Arctic (1821-1871)
    Chancellor Kohl, Governing Mayor Diepgen, ladies and gentlemen: Twenty-four years ago, President John F. Kennedy visited Berlin, speaking to the people of this city and the world at the City Hall.
  216. offensive
    unpleasant or disgusting especially to the senses
    At the talks in Geneva, we have also proposed deep cuts in strategic offensive weapons.
  217. tariff
    a government tax on imports or exports
    The German leaders reduced tariffs, expanded free trade, lowered taxes.
  218. secular
    someone who is not a clergyman or a professional person
    Years ago, before the East Germans began rebuilding their churches, they erected a secular structure: the television tower at Alexander Platz.
  219. Union
    the United States
    Even today, the Soviet Union still cannot feed itself.
  220. flourish
    grow vigorously
    Adenauer, Erhard, Reuter, and other leaders understood the practical importance of liberty--that just as truth can flourish only when the journalist is given freedom of speech, so prosperity can come about only when the farmer and businessman enjoy

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