Fairytale words via Wikipedia 160 words

  1. ancient
    belonging to times long past especially of the historical period before the fall of the Western Roman Empire
    The oldest known written fairy tales stem from ancient Egypt, c. 1300 BC (ex.
  2. Andersen
    a Danish author remembered for his fairy stories (1805-1875)
    Simultaneously, writers such as Hans Christian Andersen and George MacDonald continued the tradition of literary fairy tales.
  3. animal
    a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
    Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals.[7]
  4. animate
    make lively
    In comics and animated TV series, The Sandman, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Princess Tutu, Fables and MÄR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative requires.
  5. animated
    having life or vigor or spirit
    In comics and animated TV series, The Sandman, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Princess Tutu, Fables and MÄR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative requires.
  6. animation
    quality of being active or spirited or alive and vigorous
    The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner, with the use of special effects and animation; the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and, indeed, fantasy in general.[68]
  7. anime
    any of various resins or oleoresins
    The anime Magical Princess Minky Momo draws on the fairy tale Momotarō.[69]
  8. archetype
    something that serves as a model or a basis for making copies
    The archetypes and magical nature of fairy tales appeals strongly to children of these ages.
  9. author
    writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)
    The nature of fairy tales, following the oral tradition, enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative, as well as to remember the story as heard.[citation needed]

    [edit] Contemporary tales
    [edit] Literary

    John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy talesIn contemporary literature, many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons, such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairyta...
  10. beast
    a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  11. birch
    any betulaceous tree or shrub of the genus Betula having a thin peeling bark
    Some such tales are The Wonderful Birch, Aschenputtel, Katie Woodencloak, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, Fair, Brown and Trembling, Finette Cendron, Allerleirauh, and Tattercoats.
  12. Book
    the sacred writings of the Christian religions
    However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.[11]
  13. Canterbury Tales
    an uncompleted series of tales written after 1387 by Geoffrey Chaucer
    Allusions to fairy tales appear plentifully in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, and the plays of William Shakespeare.[32]
  14. category
    a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations in a conceptual scheme
    Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5]
  15. century
    a period of 100 years
    Many 18th-century folklorists attempted to recover the "pure" folktale, uncontaminated by literary versions.
  16. character
    a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something
    The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17]
  17. characterization
    the act of describing distinctive characteristics or essential features
    The most notable distinction is that fairytale fantasies, like other fantasies, make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose, characterization, or setting.[78]

    [edit] Film
    Fairy tales have been enacted dramatically; records exist of this in commedia dell'arte,[79] and later in pantomime.[80]
  18. Charles Dickens
    English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
    His acquaintance Charles Dickens protested, "In an utilitarian age, of all other times, it is a matter of grave importance that fairy tales should be respected."[65][66]
  19. child
    a human offspring (son or daughter) of any age
    Fairy tales also tend to take on the color of their location, through the choice of motifs, the style in which they are told, and the depiction of character and local color.[55]

    [edit] Association with children
    Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children.[56]
  20. Cinderella
    a fictional young girl who is saved from her stepmother and stepsisters by her fairy godmother and a handsome prince
    The fairy tale itself became popular among the précieuses of upper-class France (1690–1710),[30] and among the tales told in that time were the ones of La Fontaine and the Contes of Charles Perrault (1697), who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella.[37]
  21. cinema
    a medium that disseminates moving pictures
    The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner, with the use of special effects and animation; the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and, indeed, fantasy in general.[68]
  22. cinematic
    of or pertaining to or characteristic of the cinema
    A more modern cinematic fairy tale would be Luchino Visconti’s Le Notti Bianche, starring Marcello Mastroianni before he became a superstar.
  23. coloring
    a visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit or transmit or reflect
    This can be useful as a shorthand but can also erase the coloring and details of a story.[89]

    [edit] Morphology
    Vladimir Propp specifically studied a collection of Russian fairy tales, but his analysis has been found useful for the tales of other countries.[90]
  24. comic
    of or relating to or characteristic of comedy
    Sometimes, especially in children's literature, fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect, such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka and The ASBO Fairy Tales by Chris Pilbeam.
  25. comic strip
    a sequence of drawings telling a story in a newspaper or comic book
    In comics and animated TV series, The Sandman, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Princess Tutu, Fables and MÄR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative requires.
  26. commedia dell'arte
    Italian comedy of the 16th to 18th centuries improvised from standardized situations and stock characters
    Carlo Gozzi made use of many fairy tale motifs among his Commedia dell'Arte scenarios,[35] including among them one based on The Love For Three Oranges (1761).[36]
  27. create
    bring into existence
    They also encouraged other collectors of fairy tales, as when Yei Theodora Ozaki created a collection, Japanese Fairy Tales (1908), after encouragement from Lang.[46]
  28. cultural
    of or relating to the shared knowledge and values of a society
    The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence.
  29. culture
    all the knowledge and values shared by a society
    The Tale of Two Brothers),[29] and fairy tales appear, now and again, in written literature throughout literate cultures, as in The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100–200 AD),[30] or the Panchatantra (India 3rd century BCE),[30] but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time.
  30. Cupid
    (Roman mythology) god of love; counterpart of Greek Eros
    The Tale of Two Brothers),[29] and fairy tales appear, now and again, in written literature throughout literate cultures, as in The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100–200 AD),[30] or the Panchatantra (India 3rd century BCE),[30] but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time.
  31. curriculum
    an integrated course of academic studies
    In Waldorf schools, fairy tales are used in the first grade as a central part of the curriculum.
  32. cut out
    form and create by cutting out
    Other, later, revisions cut out violence; J. R. R. Tolkien noted that The Juniper Tree often had its cannibalistic stew cut out in a version intended for children.[64]
  33. damsel
    a young unmarried woman
    The figure of the damsel in distress has been particularly attacked by many feminist critics.
  34. definition
    a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol
    Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5]
  35. Disney
    United States film maker who pioneered animated cartoons and created such characters as Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck; founded Disneyland (1901-1966)
    Walt Disney's influential Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was largely (although certainly not solely) intended for the children's market.[68]
  36. dispute
    coming into conflict with
    Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5]
  37. Dragon
    a faint constellation twisting around the north celestial pole and lying between Ursa Major and Cepheus
    What they do show is that the fairy tale has ancient roots, older than the Arabian Nights collection of magical tales (compiled circa 1500 AD),[30] such as Vikram and the Vampire, and Bel and the Dragon.
  38. drama
    a dramatic work intended for performance by actors on a stage
    Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues;[73] this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story, as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin, with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter.[74]
  39. dramatically
    with respect to dramatic value
    Tales were told or enacted dramatically, rather than written down, and handed down from generation to generation.
  40. draw
    cause to move by pulling
    Although fantasy, particularly the sub-genre of fairytale fantasy, draws heavily on fairy tale motifs,[22] the genres are now regarded as distinct.

    [edit] Folk and literary

    A picture by Gustave Doré of Mother Goose reading written (literary) fairy talesThe fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale.
  41. dwarf
    a plant or animal that is atypically small
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  42. edit
    prepare for publication or presentation by correcting, revising, or adapting
    In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.[18]

    [edit] History of the genre
    Originally, stories we would now call fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre.
  43. edition
    the form in which a text (especially a printed book) is published
    Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale"[14] to refer to the genre, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.
  44. elements
    violent or severe weather (viewed as caused by the action of the four elements)
    Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals.[7]
  45. elf
    (folklore) fairies that are somewhat mischievous
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  46. elves
    an acronym for emissions of light and very low frequency perturbations due to electromagnetic pulse sources; extremely bright extremely short (less than a msec) electrical flashes forming a huge ring (up to 400 km diameter) in the ionosphere
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  47. emerge
    come out into view, as from concealment
    The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, stabilized through the works of many subsequent writers, and emerged as an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm.[19]
  48. enchant
    cast a spell over someone or something; put a hex on someone or something
    While the elements were not all required for all tales, when they appeared they did so in an invariant order — except that each individual element might be negated twice, so that it would appear three times, as when, in Brother and Sister, the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice, so that it is the third that enchants him.[92]
  49. enchanted
    influenced as by charms or incantations
    While the elements were not all required for all tales, when they appeared they did so in an invariant order — except that each individual element might be negated twice, so that it would appear three times, as when, in Brother and Sister, the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice, so that it is the third that enchants him.[92]
  50. essay
    an analytic or interpretive literary composition
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  51. ethnographer
    an anthropologist who does ethnography
    Ethnographers collected fairy tales over the world, finding similar tales in Africa, the Americas, and Australia; Andrew Lang was able to draw on not only the written tales of Europe and Asia, but those collected by ethnographers, to fill his "coloured" fairy books series.[45]
  52. evil
    morally bad or wrong
    In The Golden Bird, the talking fox tests the hero by warning him against entering an inn and, after he succeeds, helps him find the object of his quest; in The Boy Who Drew Cats, the priest advised the hero to stay in small places at night, which protects him from an evil spirit; in Cinderella, the fairy godmother gives Cinderella the dresses she needs to attend the ball, as their mothers' spirits do in Bawang Putih Bawang Merah and The Wonderful Birch; in The Fox Sister, a Buddhist ...
  53. fable
    a short moral story (often with animal characters)
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  54. faerie
    a small being, human in form, playful and having magical powers
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  55. fair
    free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules
    Some such tales are The Wonderful Birch, Aschenputtel, Katie Woodencloak, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, Fair, Brown and Trembling, Finette Cendron, Allerleirauh, and Tattercoats.
  56. fairy
    a small being, human in form, playful and having magical powers
    Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5]
  57. fairy godmother
    a female character in some fairy stories who has magical powers and can bring unexpected good fortune to the hero or heroine
    The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17]
  58. fairy story
    a story about fairies; told to amuse children
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  59. fairytale
    a story about fairies; told to amuse children
    “ Were I asked, what is a fairytale?
  60. fantastic
    extravagantly fanciful in design, construction, appearance
    Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals.[7]
  61. fantasy
    imagination unrestricted by reality
    Before the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[21] Indeed, Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism.
  62. film
    a form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement
    A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, and the characters are aware of their role in the story,[75] such as in the film series Shrek.
  63. folk
    people in general (often used in the plural)
    Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749—in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction—to gain a clear set of tales.[8]
  64. folklore
    the unwritten lore (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture
    The Brothers Grimm rejected several tales for their collection, though told orally to them by Germans, because the tales derived from Perrault, and they concluded they were thereby French and not German tales; an oral version of Bluebeard was thus rejected, and the tale of Briar Rose, clearly related to Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, was included only because Jacob Grimm convinced his brother that the figure of Brynhildr, from much earlier Norse mythology, proved that the sleeping princess was ...
  65. folktale
    a tale circulated by word of mouth among the common folk
    Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5]
  66. fox
    alert carnivorous mammal with pointed muzzle and ears and a bushy tail; most are predators that do not hunt in packs
    The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17]
  67. genre
    a kind of literary or artistic work
    Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5]
  68. giant
    any creature of exceptional size
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  69. godmother
    any woman who serves as a sponsor for a child at baptism
    The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17]
  70. Grimm
    the older of the two Grimm brothers remembered best for their fairy stories; also author of Grimm's law describing consonant changes in Germanic languages (1785-1863)
    The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, stabilized through the works of many subsequent writers, and emerged as an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm.[19]
  71. Hans Christian Andersen
    a Danish author remembered for his fairy stories (1805-1875)
    Simultaneously, writers such as Hans Christian Andersen and George MacDonald continued the tradition of literary fairy tales.
  72. happily
    in a joyous manner
    Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth,[82] My Neighbor Totoro, the films of Michel Ocelot,[83] and Happily N'Ever After.
  73. Hero
    (Greek mythology) priestess of Aphrodite who killed herself when her lover Leander drowned while trying to swim the Hellespont to see her
    Analogies have been drawn between this and the analysis of myths into the Hero's journey.[96]
  74. hero
    someone who fights for a cause
    In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses."[16]
  75. heroine
    the main good female character in a work of fiction
    For instance, tales like Cinderella – in which a persecuted heroine, with the help of the fairy godmother or similar magical helper, attends an event (or three) in which she wins the love of a prince and is identified as his true bride – are classified as type 510, the persecuted heroine.
  76. hobbit
    an imaginary being similar to a person but smaller and with hairy feet; invented by J.R.R. Tolkien
    Before the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[21] Indeed, Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism.
  77. identify
    recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something
    His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest, and furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works.[9]
  78. illustration
    a visual representation (a picture or diagram) that is used make some subject more pleasing or easier to understand
    Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments.[27]

    [edit] History

    Ivan Bilibin's illustration of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilisa the BeautifulThe oral tradition of the fairy tale came long before the written page.
  79. imply
    express or state indirectly
    Other authors may have specific motives, such as multicultural or feminist reevaluations of predominantly Eurocentric masculine-dominated fairy tales, implying critique of older narratives.[76]
  80. inspire
    serve as the inciting cause of
    The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence.
  81. inspiring
    stimulating or exalting to the spirit
    The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence.
  82. invariant
    unvarying in nature
    While the elements were not all required for all tales, when they appeared they did so in an invariant order — except that each individual element might be negated twice, so that it would appear three times, as when, in Brother and Sister, the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice, so that it is the third that enchants him.[92]
  83. ironically
    in an ironic manner
    The first collectors to attempt to preserve not only the plot and characters of the tale, but also the style in which they were told, were the Brothers Grimm, collecting German fairy tales; ironically, this meant although their first edition (1812 & 1815)[30] remains a treasure for folklorists, they rewrote the tales in later editions to make them more acceptable, which ensured their sales and the later popularity of their work.[39]
  84. journey
    the act of traveling from one place to another
    In The Red Ettin, the role is split into the mother – who offers the hero the whole of a journey cake with her curse or half with her blessing – and when he takes the half, a fairy who gives him advice; in Mr Simigdáli, the sun, the moon, and the stars all give the heroine a magical gift.
  85. labyrinth
    complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost
    Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth,[82] My Neighbor Totoro, the films of Michel Ocelot,[83] and Happily N'Ever After.
  86. literary
    of or relating to or characteristic of literature
    In this evolution, the name was coined when the précieuses took up writing literary stories; Madame d'Aulnoy invented the term conte de fée, or fairy tale.[20]
  87. literature
    published writings in a particular style on a particular subject
    In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.[18]

    [edit] History of the genre
    Originally, stories we would now call fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre.
  88. Little Red Riding Hood
    a girl in a fairy tale who meets a wolf while going to visit her grandmother
    Similarly, the close agreement between the opening of Grimms' version of Little Red Riding Hood and Perrault's tale points to an influence—although Grimms' version adds a different ending (perhaps derived from The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids).[54]
  89. lore
    knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote
    Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749—in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction—to gain a clear set of tales.[8]
  90. madame
    title used for a married Frenchwoman
    (The term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's conte de fées, first used in her collection in 1697.)[6]
  91. magic
    any art that invokes supernatural powers
    (George MacDonald, The Fantastic Imagination) ”

    As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves.[10]
  92. magical
    possessing or using or characteristic of or appropriate to supernatural powers
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  93. maiden
    an unmarried girl (especially a virgin)
    Rapunzel is type 310 (The Maiden in the Tower), but it opens with a child being demanded in return for stolen food, as does Puddocky; but Puddocky is not a Maiden in the Tower tale, while The Canary Prince, which opens with a jealous stepmother, is.
  94. marvel
    be amazed at
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  95. marvelous
    extraordinarily good or great ; used especially as intensifiers
    It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous.
  96. moralizing
    indulgence in moral pronouncements; the exposition (often superficially) of a particular moral code
    The moralizing strain in the Victorian era altered the classical tales to teach lessons, as when George Cruikshank rewrote Cinderella in 1854 to contain temperance themes.
  97. Mother Goose
    the imaginary author of a collection of nursery rhymes
    Although fantasy, particularly the sub-genre of fairytale fantasy, draws heavily on fairy tale motifs,[22] the genres are now regarded as distinct.

    [edit] Folk and literary

    A picture by Gustave Doré of Mother Goose reading written (literary) fairy talesThe fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale.
  98. motif
    a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in literary or artistic work
    Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale"[14] to refer to the genre, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or
  99. myth
    a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people
    Analogies have been drawn between this and the analysis of myths into the Hero's journey.[96]
  100. mythical
    based on or told of in traditional stories; lacking factual basis or historical validity
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  101. mythical being
    an imaginary being of myth or fable
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  102. mythological
    based on or told of in traditional stories; lacking factual basis or historical validity
    One mythological interpretation claimed that many fairy tales, including Hansel and Gretel, Sleeping Beauty, and The Frog King, all were solar myths; this mode of interpretation is rather less popular now.[99]
  103. mythology
    myths collectively; the body of stories associated with a culture or institution or person
    The Brothers Grimm rejected several tales for their collection, though told orally to them by Germans, because the tales derived from Perrault, and they concluded they were thereby French and not German tales; an oral version of Bluebeard was thus rejected, and the tale of Briar Rose, clearly related to Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, was included only because Jacob Grimm convinced his brother that the figure of Brynhildr, from much earlier Norse mythology, proved that the sleeping prince...
  104. Norse mythology
    the mythology of Scandinavia (shared in part by Britain and Germany) until the establishment of Christianity
    The Brothers Grimm rejected several tales for their collection, though told orally to them by Germans, because the tales derived from Perrault, and they concluded they were thereby French and not German tales; an oral version of Bluebeard was thus rejected, and the tale of Briar Rose, clearly related to Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, was included only because Jacob Grimm convinced his brother that the figure of Brynhildr, from much earlier Norse mythology, proved that the sleeping prince...
  105. notable
    worthy of notice
    Other notable figures who have employed fairy tales include Oscar Wilde, A. S. Byatt, Jane Yolen, Terri Windling, Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, Margaret Atwood, Kate Bernheimer, Espido Freire, Tanith Lee, James Thurber, Robin McKinley, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Kelly Link, Bruce Holland Rogers, Donna Jo Napoli, Cameron Dokey, Robert Bly, Gail Carson Levine, Annette Marie Hyder, Jasper Fforde and many others.[citation needed]

    It may be hard to lay down the rule between fairy tales a...
  106. novel
    an extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story
    Indeed, a novel of that time, depicting a countess's suitor offering to tell such a tale, has the countess exclaim that she loves fairy tales as if she were still a child.[58]
  107. ogre
    (folklore) a giant who likes to eat human beings
    The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17]
  108. originally
    with reference to the origin or beginning
    In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.[18]

    [edit] History of the genre
    Originally, stories we would now call fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre.
  109. pantomime
    a performance using gestures and body movements without words
    The most notable distinction is that fairytale fantasies, like other fantasies, make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose, characterization, or setting.[78]

    [edit] Film
    Fairy tales have been enacted dramatically; records exist of this in commedia dell'arte,[79] and later in pantomime.[80]
  110. parody
    a composition that imitates or misrepresents somebody's style, usually in a humorous way
    And each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody.[26]
  111. picture book
    a book consisting chiefly of pictures
    Examples of narrative reversal rejecting this figure include The Paperbag Princess by Robert Munsch, a picture book aimed at children in which a princess rescues a prince, and Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber, which retells a number of fairy tales from a female point of view.[citation needed]

    One use of the genre occurred in a military technology journal named Defense AT&L, which published an article as a fairytale titled Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal/Noise Ratios.
  112. plot
    a small area of ground covered by specific vegetation
    His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest, and furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works.[9]
  113. point of view
    a mental position from which things are viewed
    From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives.[15]
  114. prince
    a male member of a royal family other than the sovereign (especially the son of a sovereign)
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  115. princess
    a female member of a royal family other than the queen (especially the daughter of a sovereign)
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  116. published
    prepared and printed for distribution and sale
    Simultaneously, Pu Songling, in China, included many fairy tales in his collection, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (published posthumously, 1766).[31]
  117. quest
    the act of searching for something
    His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest, and furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works.[9]
  118. read
    look at, interpret, and say out loud something that is written or printed
    I should reply, Read Undine: that is a fairytale ... of all fairytales I know, I think Undine the most beautiful.
  119. realistically
    in a realistic manner
    It involves many of the romantic conventions of fairy tales, yet it takes place in post-World War II Italy, and it ends realistically.

    [edit] Motifs

    Beauty and the Beast, illustration by Warwick GobleAny comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other.
  120. reflect
    to throw or bend back (from a surface)
    The Tale of Two Brothers),[29] and fairy tales appear, now and again, in written literature throughout literate cultures, as in The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100–200 AD),[30] or the Panchatantra (India 3rd century BCE),[30] but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time.
  121. relevant
    having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
    Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth,[82] My Neighbor Totoro, the films of Michel Ocelot,[83] and Happily N'Ever After.
  122. resurface
    cover with a new surface
    The tale itself resurfaced in Western literature in the 16th and 17th centuries, with The Facetious Nights of Straparola by Giovanni Francesco Straparola (Italy, 1550 and 1553),[30] which contains many fairy tales in its inset tales, and the Neapolitan tales of Giambattista Basile (Naples, 1634–6),[30] which are all fairy tales.[34]
  123. riddle
    pierce with many holes
    Folklorists have attempted to determine the origin by internal evidence, which can not always be clear; Joseph Jacobs, comparing the Scottish tale The Ridere of Riddles with the version collected by the Brothers Grimm, The Riddle, noted that in The Ridere of Riddles one hero ends up polygamously married, which might point to an ancient custom, but in The Riddle, the simpler riddle might argue greater antiquity.[51]
  124. robin
    small Old World songbird with a reddish breast
    Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues;[73] this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story, as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin, with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter.[74]
  125. role
    the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group
    A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, and the characters are aware of their role in the story,[75] such as in the film series Shrek.
  126. scenario
    an outline or synopsis of a play (or, by extension, of a literary work)
    Carlo Gozzi made use of many fairy tale motifs among his Commedia dell'Arte scenarios,[35] including among them one based on The Love For Three Oranges (1761).[36]
  127. series
    similar things placed in order or happening one after another
    Ethnographers collected fairy tales over the world, finding similar tales in Africa, the Americas, and Australia; Andrew Lang was able to draw on not only the written tales of Europe and Asia, but those collected by ethnographers, to fill his "coloured" fairy books series.[45]
  128. sleeping
    the state of being asleep
    The fairy tale itself became popular among the précieuses of upper-class France (1690–1710),[30] and among the tales told in that time were the ones of La Fontaine and the Contes of Charles Perrault (1697), who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella.[37]
  129. Sleeping Beauty
    fairy story: princess under an evil spell who could be awakened only by a prince's kiss
    The fairy tale itself became popular among the précieuses of upper-class France (1690–1710),[30] and among the tales told in that time were the ones of La Fontaine and the Contes of Charles Perrault (1697), who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella.[37]
  130. Snow
    English writer of novels about moral dilemmas in academe (1905-1980)
    Detail showing fairy-tale scenes: Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, Hansel and Gretel.The précieuses, including Madame d'Aulnoy, intended their works for adults, but regarded their source as the tales that servants, or other women of lower class, would tell to children.[57]
  131. special effect
    an effect used to produce scenes that cannot be achieved by normal techniques (especially on film)
    The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner, with the use of special effects and animation; the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and, indeed, fantasy in general.[68]
  132. story
    a record or narrative description of past events
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  133. stylistic
    of or relating to style (especially in the use of language)
    The stylistic evidence indicates that these, and many later collections, reworked folk tales into literary forms.[23]
  134. subsequent
    following in time or order
    The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, stabilized through the works of many subsequent writers, and emerged as an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm.[19]
  135. symbolize
    express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
    Perrault concluded his versions with one, although not always completely moral: Cinderella concludes with the observation that her beauty and character would have been useless without her godmother, reflecting the importance of social connections, but could symbolize a spiritual meaning.[98]
  136. tale
    a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events; presented in writing or drama or cinema or as a radio or television program
    Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5]
  137. tell
    narrate or give a detailed account of
    Although fantasy, particularly the sub-genre of fairytale fantasy, draws heavily on fairy tale motifs,[22] the genres are now regarded as distinct.

    [edit] Folk and literary

    A picture by Gustave Doré of Mother Goose reading written (literary) fairy talesThe fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale.
  138. term
    a limited period of time
    (The term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's conte de fées, first used in her collection in 1697.)[6]
  139. theme
    the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
    The moralizing strain in the Victorian era altered the classical tales to teach lessons, as when George Cruikshank rewrote Cinderella in 1854 to contain temperance themes.
  140. title
    the name of a work of art or literary composition etc.
    The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children.[60]
  141. titled
    belonging to the peerage
    The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children.[60]
  142. Tolkien
    British philologist and writer of fantasies (born in South Africa) (1892-1973)
    In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12]
  143. tradition
    a specific practice of long standing
    And each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody.[26]
  144. troll
    (Scandanavian folklore) a supernatural creature (either a dwarf or a giant) that is supposed to live in caves or in the mountains
    Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.
  145. unreal
    lacking material form or substance; unreal
    It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous.
  146. vampire
    (folklore) a corpse that rises at night to drink the blood of the living
    What they do show is that the fairy tale has ancient roots, older than the Arabian Nights collection of magical tales (compiled circa 1500 AD),[30] such as Vikram and the Vampire, and Bel and the Dragon.
  147. villain
    a wicked or evil person; someone who does evil deliberately
    On the other hand, in many respects, violence – particularly when punishing villains – was increased.[63]
  148. visualize
    form a mental picture of something that is invisible or abstract
    The nature of fairy tales, following the oral tradition, enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative, as well as to remember the story as heard.[citation needed]

    [edit] Contemporary tales
    [edit] Literary

    John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy talesIn contemporary literature, many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons, such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairyta...
  149. Walt Disney
    United States film maker who pioneered animated cartoons and created such characters as Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck; founded Disneyland (1901-1966)
    Walt Disney's influential Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was largely (although certainly not solely) intended for the children's market.[68]
  150. wicked
    having committed unrighteous acts
    The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17]
  151. William Shakespeare
    English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
    Allusions to fairy tales appear plentifully in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, and the plays of William Shakespeare.[32]
  152. Wise
    United States religious leader (born in Bohemia) who united reform Jewish organizations in the United States (1819-1900)
    Other notable figures who have employed fairy tales include Oscar Wilde, A. S. Byatt, Jane Yolen, Terri Windling, Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, Margaret Atwood, Kate Bernheimer, Espido Freire, Tanith Lee, James Thurber, Robin McKinley, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Kelly Link, Bruce Holland Rogers, Donna Jo Napoli, Cameron Dokey, Robert Bly, Gail Carson Levine, Annette Marie Hyder, Jasper Fforde and many others.[citation needed]

    It may be hard to lay down the rule between fairy tales and fant...
  153. witch
    a female sorcerer or magician
    The Brothers Grimm concentrated mostly on eliminating sexual references;[61] Rapunzel, in the first edition, revealed the prince's visits by asking why her clothing had grown tight, thus letting the witch deduce that she was pregnant, but in subsequent editions carelessly revealed that it was easier to pull up the prince than the witch.[62]
  154. wizard
    one who practices magic or sorcery
    Before the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[21] Indeed, Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism.
  155. Wolf
    Austrian composer (1860-1903)
    Similarly, the close agreement between the opening of Grimms' version of Little Red Riding Hood and Perrault's tale points to an influence—although Grimms' version adds a different ending (perhaps derived from The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids).[54]
  156. wonderful
    extraordinarily good or great ; used especially as intensifiers
    Before the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[21] Indeed, Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism.
  157. write
    write or name the letters that comprise the conventionally accepted form of (a word or part of a word)
    In this evolution, the name was coined when the précieuses took up writing literary stories; Madame d'Aulnoy invented the term conte de fée, or fairy tale.[20]
  158. writer
    a person who is able to write and has written something
    The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, stabilized through the works of many subsequent writers, and emerged as an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm.[19]
  159. writing
    letters or symbols that are written or imprinted on a surface to represent the sounds or words of a language
    In this evolution, the name was coined when the précieuses took up writing literary stories; Madame d'Aulnoy invented the term conte de fée, or fairy tale.[20]
  160. written
    set down in writing in any of various ways
    Although fantasy, particularly the sub-genre of fairytale fantasy, draws heavily on fairy tale motifs,[22] the genres are now regarded as distinct.

    [edit] Folk and literary

    A picture by Gustave Doré of Mother Goose reading written (literary) fairy talesThe fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale.