Calico was a material imported by the East India Company (a large British business with interests in India, which was under British domination). The fact that there was calico in the American Colonies shows how powerful and influential the British Empire was; despite this, the colonies were about to start a war.
We couldn’t take Momma’s shells, nor Ruth’s baby doll made of flannel bits and calico, nor the wooden bowl Poppa made for me.
(law) someone who owns (is legal possessor of) a business
Compare to "propriety" in the list for Chapters 12-22: both come from the Latin "proprietas" which means "ownership" but "proprietor" refers to the physical ownership of property while "propriety" refers to the self-possession that comes with knowing and following the rules of polite society.
bind by or as if by indentures, as of an apprentice or servant
"Indentured servants" were people that sold their services to someone who had the money to ship them to the Americas. In return, they had to work without payment for a certain number of years (stated in the contract) until they had more than repaid the cost of their passage and were then freed to work for themselves.
“Indentured servants complain all the time and steal us blind at the first opportunity."
the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties
Compare with "insolence" in this list--although the two modern definitions are identical, the obsolete definition of "impudent" as "immodest" (in addition to its Latin root of "pudere" which means "to be ashamed") suggests that "impudence" can be seen as a rudeness that is not as disturbingly direct as "insolence" and thus can be more patiently tolerated.
extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree
The front windows were open, bringing in fresh air and noise from the street; carts rolling over the cobblestones and church bells in the distance mingled with the voices of the four men who sat around the enormous desk.
The description starts off sounding like sincere praise with the adjectives "magnificent" and "fine" but it turns sarcastic when it matches the positive adjective "inimitable" to the negative traits of "pride and conceit." The second half of the sentence insultingly accuses the people of intolerable profaneness ("unholiness"), prevalent ("most frequent or common") lack of principle, and an insufferable ("extremely annoying") political loyalty.
Why the people are magnificent; in their carriages, which are numerous, in their house furniture, which is fine, in their pride and conceit, which are inimitable, in their profaneness, which is intolerable, in the want of principle, which is prevalent, and in their Toryism, which is insufferable.