Biology

definitions & notes only words
  1. plasma membrane
    a thin membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell
    Another lysosomes function includes helping in repairing a damaged plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, and thus, sealing the wound.
  2. lysosome
    an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells
    One such organelle that is found in all animal cells is lysosome.
  3. organelle
    a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
    A cell is made up of many different organelles.
  4. programmed cell death
    a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival
    Thus, there is programmed cell death, or autolysis.
  5. Reticulum
    a small constellation in the southern hemisphere near Dorado and Hydrus
    Read more on:
    •Ribosomes Function
    •Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Function
    This was all about the lysosomes function in animal cells and human cells.
  6. catabolic
    relating to or characterized by catabolism
    This is because, autophagy may even lead to autophagic cell death, which is a catabolic process that involves degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal machinery.
  7. phagocytosis
    process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
    These organelles are responsible for digesting the macromolecules that pose a threat to the cell by phagocytosis.
  8. macromolecule
    any very large complex molecule
    These organelles are responsible for digesting the macromolecules that pose a threat to the cell by phagocytosis.
  9. cytologist
    a biologist who studies the structure and function of cells
    Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in the year 1949.
  10. intracellular
    located or occurring within a cell or cells
    The other methods that are employed for getting rid of intracellular debris includes endocytosis, wherein there are protein receptors involved which are recycled from the cell surface and autophagy, wherein old, worn out organelles reach the lysosome for destruction.
  11. vacuole
    a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
    Lysosomes are typically found in animal cells, whereas in yeast and some plants cells, the same roles are performed by organelles known as lytic vacuoles.
  12. ribosome
    an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell
    Read more on:
    Ribosomes Function
    •Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Function
    This was all about the lysosomes function in animal cells and human cells.
  13. malfunctioning
    not performing or able to perform its regular function
    Lysosomes are an important part of the cell, however, there are a number of lysosomal storage diseases that are caused due to the malfunctioning of lysosomes, or at least the malfunctioning of one of their digestive proteins.
  14. Tay-Sachs disease
    a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
    These diseases includes Tay-Sachs disease and Pompe's disease.
  15. Sachs disease
    a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
    These diseases includes Tay- Sachs disease and Pompe's disease.
  16. acidic
    being or containing an acid
    At a pH of 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is acidic when compared to the slightly alkaline pH of the cytosol (pH 7.2).
  17. substrate
    the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
    These are caused by a defective or missing digestive proteins, which leads to the accumulation of substrates within the cell, thus, impairing metabolism.
  18. enzyme
    a complex protein produced by cells that acts as a catalyst
    These are spherical organelles that contain specialized enzymes called acid hydrolases.
  19. Tay-Sachs
    a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
    These diseases includes Tay-Sachs disease and Pompe's disease.
  20. plant cell
    a cell that is a structural and functional unit of a plant
    Lysosomes are typically found in animal cells, whereas in yeast and some plants cells, the same roles are performed by organelles known as lytic vacuoles.
  21. malfunction
    fail to work properly
    Lysosomes are an important part of the cell, however, there are a number of lysosomal storage diseases that are caused due to the malfunctioning of lysosomes, or at least the malfunctioning of one of their digestive proteins.
  22. alkaline
    relating to or containing an alkali
    At a pH of 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is acidic when compared to the slightly alkaline pH of the cytosol (pH 7.2).
  23. ingest
    serve oneself to, or consume regularly
    Phagocytosis process consists of ingesting dying cells, useless and unwanted foreign bodies and organelle remnants that may be present in the cytosol.
  24. optimum
    most desirable possible under a restriction
    The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at a pH of 4.5, which is the optimum pH required by the lysosome for functioning.
  25. metabolism
    the organic processes that are necessary for life
    These are caused by a defective or missing digestive proteins, which leads to the accumulation of substrates within the cell, thus, impairing metabolism.
  26. plasma
    the watery fluid in which blood cells are suspended
    Another lysosomes function includes helping in repairing a damaged plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, and thus, sealing the wound.
  27. spherical
    relating to or resembling a ball
    These are spherical organelles that contain specialized enzymes called acid hydrolases.
  28. sac
    an enclosed space
    This is the reason why lysosomes are frequently nicknamed 'suicide-bags' or 'suicide- sacs', due to their role in autolysis.
  29. bacteria
    single-celled organisms that can cause disease
    Lysosomes function entails digesting excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfing and destroying foreign bodies that could harm the cell, like viruses or bacteria.
  30. component
    one of the individual parts making up a composite entity
    This is because, autophagy may even lead to autophagic cell death, which is a catabolic process that involves degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal machinery.
  31. accumulation
    the act of gathering up
    These are caused by a defective or missing digestive proteins, which leads to the accumulation of substrates within the cell, thus, impairing metabolism.
  32. remnant
    a small part remaining after the main part no longer exists
    Phagocytosis process consists of ingesting dying cells, useless and unwanted foreign bodies and organelle remnants that may be present in the cytosol.
  33. Belgian
    of or relating to or characteristic of Belgium or the Belgian people
    Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in the year 1949.
  34. animal
    a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
    One such organelle that is found in all animal cells is lysosome.
  35. body
    an individual 3-dimensional object that has mass
    The word lysosome comes from the Greek words 'lysis', which means dissolution or destruction, and 'soma', which means body.
  36. essential
    basic and fundamental
    The lysosomal membrane protects the cytosol, and thus, the rest of the cell, from the destructive enzymes that are present within the lysosome and which are essential for lysosomes function.