Biology 36 words

  1. plasma membrane
    a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell
    Another lysosomes function includes helping in repairing a damaged plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, and thus, sealing the wound.
  2. lysosome
    an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells (especially in leukocytes and liver and kidney cells)
    One such organelle that is found in all animal cells is lysosome.
  3. organelle
    a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
    A cell is made up of many different organelles.
  4. programmed cell death
    a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival
    Thus, there is programmed cell death, or autolysis.
  5. Reticulum
    a small constellation in the southern hemisphere near Dorado and Hydrus
    Read more on:
    •Ribosomes Function
    •Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Function
    This was all about the lysosomes function in animal cells and human cells.
  6. catabolic
    relating to or characterized by catabolism
    This is because, autophagy may even lead to autophagic cell death, which is a catabolic process that involves degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal machinery.
  7. phagocytosis
    process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
    These organelles are responsible for digesting the macromolecules that pose a threat to the cell by phagocytosis.
  8. macromolecule
    any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals
    These organelles are responsible for digesting the macromolecules that pose a threat to the cell by phagocytosis.
  9. cytologist
    a biologist who studies the structure and function of cells
    Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in the year 1949.
  10. intracellular
    located or occurring within a cell or cells
    The other methods that are employed for getting rid of intracellular debris includes endocytosis, wherein there are protein receptors involved which are recycled from the cell surface and autophagy, wherein old, worn out organelles reach the lysosome for destruction.
  11. vacuole
    a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
    Lysosomes are typically found in animal cells, whereas in yeast and some plants cells, the same roles are performed by organelles known as lytic vacuoles.
  12. ribosome
    an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; they attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and then stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when it reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecule for use by the cell
    Read more on:
    Ribosomes Function
    •Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Function
    This was all about the lysosomes function in animal cells and human cells.
  13. malfunctioning
    not performing or able to perform its regular function
    Lysosomes are an important part of the cell, however, there are a number of lysosomal storage diseases that are caused due to the malfunctioning of lysosomes, or at least the malfunctioning of one of their digestive proteins.
  14. Tay-Sachs disease
    a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
    These diseases includes Tay-Sachs disease and Pompe's disease.
  15. Sachs disease
    a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
    These diseases includes Tay-Sachs disease and Pompe's disease.
  16. acidic
    being or containing an acid; of a solution having an excess of hydrogen atoms (having a pH of less than 7)
    At a pH of 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is acidic when compared to the slightly alkaline pH of the cytosol (pH 7.2).
  17. substrate
    the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
    These are caused by a defective or missing digestive proteins, which leads to the accumulation of substrates within the cell, thus, impairing metabolism.
  18. enzyme
    any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
    These are spherical organelles that contain specialized enzymes called acid hydrolases.
  19. Tay-Sachs
    a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occurring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
    These diseases includes Tay-Sachs disease and Pompe's disease.
  20. plant cell
    a cell that is a structural and functional unit of a plant
    Lysosomes are typically found in animal cells, whereas in yeast and some plants cells, the same roles are performed by organelles known as lytic vacuoles.
  21. malfunction
    fail to function or function improperly
    Lysosomes are an important part of the cell, however, there are a number of lysosomal storage diseases that are caused due to the malfunctioning of lysosomes, or at least the malfunctioning of one of their digestive proteins.
  22. alkaline
    relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
    At a pH of 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is acidic when compared to the slightly alkaline pH of the cytosol (pH 7.2).
  23. ingest
    serve oneself to, or consume regularly
    Phagocytosis process consists of ingesting dying cells, useless and unwanted foreign bodies and organelle remnants that may be present in the cytosol.
  24. optimum
    most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied
    The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at a pH of 4.5, which is the optimum pH required by the lysosome for functioning.
  25. metabolism
    the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
    These are caused by a defective or missing digestive proteins, which leads to the accumulation of substrates within the cell, thus, impairing metabolism.
  26. plasma
    the colorless watery fluid of the blood and lymph that contains no cells, but in which the blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes) are suspended
    Another lysosomes function includes helping in repairing a damaged plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, and thus, sealing the wound.
  27. spherical
    of or relating to spheres or resembling a sphere
    These are spherical organelles that contain specialized enzymes called acid hydrolases.
  28. sac
    an enclosed space
    This is the reason why lysosomes are frequently nicknamed 'suicide-bags' or 'suicide-sacs', due to their role in autolysis.
  29. bacteria
    (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered to be plants
    Lysosomes function entails digesting excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfing and destroying foreign bodies that could harm the cell, like viruses or bacteria.
  30. component
    an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system
    This is because, autophagy may even lead to autophagic cell death, which is a catabolic process that involves degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal machinery.
  31. accumulation
    the act of accumulating
    These are caused by a defective or missing digestive proteins, which leads to the accumulation of substrates within the cell, thus, impairing metabolism.
  32. remnant
    a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists
    Phagocytosis process consists of ingesting dying cells, useless and unwanted foreign bodies and organelle remnants that may be present in the cytosol.
  33. Belgian
    of or relating to or characteristic of Belgium or the Belgian people
    Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in the year 1949.
  34. animal
    a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
    One such organelle that is found in all animal cells is lysosome.
  35. body
    an individual 3-dimensional object that has mass and that is distinguishable from other objects
    The word lysosome comes from the Greek words 'lysis', which means dissolution or destruction, and 'soma', which means body.
  36. essential
    basic and fundamental
    The lysosomal membrane protects the cytosol, and thus, the rest of the cell, from the destructive enzymes that are present within the lysosome and which are essential for lysosomes function.