8th Grade Vocabulary 480 words

  1. equation
    a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal
    Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

    4.0
  2. factoring
    (mathematics) the resolution of an entity into factors such that when multiplied together they give the original entity
    Students apply basic factoring techniques to second- and simple third-degree polynomials.
  3. grading
    evaluation of performance by assigning a grade or score
    CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST
    Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
    GRADE
    Should students do the grading?
  4. analyze
    break down into components or essential features
    Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
    1.2
  5. expository
    serving to expound or set forth
    In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
  6. evaluate
    evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of
    Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
    3.0
  7. paragraph
    one of several distinct subdivisions of a text intended to separate ideas; the beginning is usually marked by a new indented line
    Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques.
    1.3
  8. assess
    evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of
    First on the pages that follow are lists of the standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–
    Language Arts Test.
  9. include
    have as a part, be made up out of
    In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
  10. conceptually
    in a conceptual manner
    Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

    14.0
  11. juxtapose
    place side by side
    Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
    1.3
  12. document
    anything serving as a representation of a person's thinking by means of symbolic marks
    Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
    2.2
  13. variable
    something that is likely to vary; something that is subject to variation
    Include all the factors and variables that need to be considered.
    c.
  14. concept
    an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
    Vocabulary and Concept Development
    1.1
  15. appropriate
    suitable for a particular person or place or condition etc
    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
  16. define
    show the form or outline of
    Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
  17. analysis
    the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations
    Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
    2.3
  18. structural
    relating to or having or characterized by structure
    Structural Features of Informational Materials
    2.1
  19. identify
    recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something
    Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
    3.6
  20. formatting
    the organization of information according to preset specifications (usually for computer processing)
    Use formatting techniques (e.g., headings, differing fonts) to aid comprehension.
  21. text
    the words of something written
    They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
  22. thesis
    an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument
    Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion.
    1.2
  23. technique
    a practical method or art applied to some particular task
    Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques.
    1.3
  24. solar
    relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun
    Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
  25. summarize
    give a summary (of)
    Record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives on the topic, as appropriate.
    c.
  26. solution
    a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; frequently (but not necessarily) a liquid solution
    Students are able to solve a system of two linear inequalities in two variables and to sketch the solution sets.

    10.0
  27. describe
    give a description of
    They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
  28. factor
    anything that contributes causally to a result
    Include all the factors and variables that need to be considered.
    c.
  29. represent
    be a delegate or spokesperson for; represent somebody's interest or be a proxy or substitute for, as of politicians and office holders representing their constituents, or of a tenant representing other tenants in a housing dispute
    The Word Analysis Strand/Cluster

    The following three California English–Language Arts content standards are included in the Word Analysis
    strand/cluster and are represented in this booklet by 11 test questions for grade 8.
  30. strand
    a poetic term for a shore (as the area periodically covered and uncovered by the tides)
    As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
  31. function
    what something is used for
    Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions.
  32. ethnicity
    an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
    In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
    ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
    such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
  33. coherence
    the state of cohering or sticking together
    Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
    3.0
  34. exposure
    the state of being vulnerable or exposed
    For best results, allow Sun Veil Sunscreen to dry for
    15 minutes before exposure to the sun.
  35. reminisce
    recall the past
    CSR01333.198
    2 What is the main purpose of “Reminiscing”?
  36. paraphrase
    express the same message in different words
    Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices.
  37. strategy
    an elaborate and systematic plan of action
    Writing Strategies
    Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.
  38. reschedule
    assign a new time and place for an event
    B Many student activities should be rescheduled.
  39. distributive
    serving to distribute or allot or disperse
    C Yes, the equations are equivalent by the
    Distributive Property of Multiplication over
    Addition.
  40. molecule
    (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
    Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers.
    d.
  41. structure
    a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts
    They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
  42. selection
    the act of choosing or selecting
    The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
  43. property
    something owned; any tangible or intangible possession that is owned by someone
    Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

    1.1
  44. intercept
    seize on its way
    Students graph a linear equation and compute the x- and y-intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4).
  45. provide
    give something useful or necessary to
    Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
    2.5
  46. textual
    of or relating to or based on a text
    Connect the student's own responses to the writer's techniques and to specific textual references.
    c.
  47. defined
    showing clearly the outline or profile or boundary
    Include a well-defined thesis (i.e., one that makes a clear and knowledgeable judgment).
    b.
  48. warranty
    a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or will meet certain specifications
    Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
    2.2
  49. content
    satisfied or showing satisfaction with things as they are
    They evaluate the content of oral communication.
  50. involve
    contain as a part
    Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

    4.0
  51. rectangle
    a parallelogram with four right angles
    CST Released Test Questions Algebra I
    Released Test Questions Algebra I
    51 A volleyball court is shaped like a rectangle.
  52. source
    the place where something begins, where it springs into being
    Record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives on the topic, as appropriate.
    c.
  53. formula
    a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement
    Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.

    8.0
  54. perimeter
    a line enclosing a plane areas
    It was
    obvious that the statue builders had cut down the island’s trees to make rolling logs
    and wooden scaffolds, which were then used to carry the huge statues from the
    quarry to the island’s perimeter.
  55. ensure
    make certain of
    Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is used.
  56. asteroid
    any of numerous small celestial bodies composed of rock and metal that move around the sun (mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter)
    Students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.
  57. environmentally
    for the environment
    Two types of environmentally friendly energy sources are
    hydropower and solar power.
  58. adulthood
    the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed
    A to tell a story about a childhood experience
    B to capture a feeling from the past
    C to debate whether childhood or adulthood is
    better
    D to describe a person who was important in the
    life of a child
    CSR10200.098
    3 In lines 11 and 12 of “Piano,” the words “my
    manhood is cast down in the flood of
    remembrance” mean that the speaker feels
    A proud of what he has accomplished.
  59. pattern
    a perceptual structure
    Analyze text that uses proposition and support patterns.
  60. narrative
    a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events; presented in writing or drama or cinema or as a radio or television program
    In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
  61. velocity
    distance travelled per unit time
    The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
  62. amaze
    affect with wonder
    CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST GRADE
    Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
    The Amazing Maize Maze
    (1) When the Egyptians built the pyramids, they included mazes to trap thieves.
    (2) Even if a thief managed to enter a pyramid, they would probably never find his or her
    way out. (3) Other ancient mazes have been found, from Sweden to New Mexico.
    (4) Some are carved in rock or painted on cave walls, while others are built from dirt,
    ...
  63. appropriateness
    the quality of being specially suitable
    All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including
    teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content
    standards in Grade 8 English–Language Arts.
  64. evaluation
    act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of
    Evaluation and Revision
    1.6
  65. culturally
    with regard to a culture
    Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
  66. excerpt
    a passage selected from a larger work
    CSR12123.263
    18 Which excerpt reveals the author’s inability to
    train Murphy?
  67. symbolic
    relating to or using or proceeding by means of symbols
    Algebra I
    Grades Eight Through Twelve - Mathematics Content Standards

    Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra.
  68. relevant
    having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
    Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
    2.2
  69. rational
    consistent with or based on or using reason
    Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

    1.1
  70. equivalent
    being essentially equal to something
    The regiment unit even played a role in securing equivalent pay
    for African-American soldiers.
    4 After fighting at Fort Wagner, however, the men of the 54th had no time to rest.
  71. specific
    stated explicitly or in detail
    Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
    2.2
  72. context
    the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
  73. collide
    crash together with violent impact
    Students know that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.
    f.
  74. parameter
    a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves
    Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
    d.
  75. create
    bring into existence
    Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion.
    1.2
  76. relevance
    the relation of something to the matter at hand
    Analyze the relevance of the setting (e.g., place, time, customs) to the mood, tone, and meaning of the text.
    3.5
  77. elements
    violent or severe weather (viewed as caused by the action of the four elements)
    Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
    2.2
  78. parallel
    being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting
    Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
    3.3
  79. item
    a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group of things that could be enumerated on a list
    Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
    1.3
  80. demonstrate
    give an exhibition of to an interested audience
    Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
  81. parallelism
    similarity by virtue of corresponding
    Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
    1.3
  82. significance
    the quality of being significant
    Reveal the significance of, or the writer's attitude about, the subject.
    c.
  83. rally
    gather
    She could see the value of pep
    rallies for football games; for example, she wanted other sports, clubs, and organizations to
    benefit from the spirit and encouragement our students show at pep rallies.
  84. focus
    the concentration of attention or energy on something
    Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)
    Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.
  85. transition
    the act of passing from one state or place to the next
    Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques.
    1.3
  86. revise
    make revisions in
    Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas.
    2.0
  87. reinforce
    strengthen and support with rewards
    Jackson's opposition to the National Bank; early decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that reinforced the sanctity of contracts and a capitalist economic system of law).
    4.
  88. response
    the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange
    Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
  89. device
    an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose
    Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
    2.6
  90. summary
    briefly giving the gist of something
    Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
    2.5
  91. divide
    a serious disagreement between two groups of people (typically producing tension or hostility)
    Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials.
  92. metaphor
    a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
    Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
    1.2
  93. devices
    an inclination or desire; used in the plural in the phrase `left to your own devices'
    Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
  94. periodic
    happening or recurring at regular intervals
    Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds.
  95. validity
    the quality of being valid and rigorous
    Students use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:

    25.1
  96. processed
    subjected to a special process or treatment
    Upon receiving a returned book or order, your refund will be processed, but you will not be reimbursed for
    shipping charges.
  97. dermatologist
    a doctor who specializes in the physiology and pathology of the skin
    SUN ALERT:
    According to the National Council of Dermatologists, limiting sun exposure, wearing protective
    clothing, and using sunscreens may reduce the risk of skin damage and other harmful effects of
    the sun.
  98. element
    any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
    Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
    2.2
  99. participate
    become a participant; be involved in
    Students understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate in it.
    1.
  100. compute
    make a mathematical calculation or computation
    Students graph a linear equation and compute the x- and y-intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4).
  101. level
    a relative position or degree of value in a graded group
    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
  102. differentiate
    become distinct and acquire a different character
    Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and opinion.
    c.
  103. interpret
    make sense of; assign a meaning to
    Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
  104. reduce
    make smaller
    Students simplify fractions with polynomials in the numerator and denominator by factoring both and reducing them to the lowest terms.

    13.0
  105. clarify
    make clear by removing impurities or solids, as by heating
    They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works.
  106. challenging
    requiring full use of your abilities or resources
    Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

    14.0
  107. conclusion
    a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration
    Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions.
  108. draft
    a current of air (usually coming into a chimney or room or vehicle)
    Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
  109. significant
    rich in significance or implication
    Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
  110. phenomenal
    exceedingly or unbelievably great
    Begin now by taking advantage of this phenomenal offer.
  111. complexity
    the quality of being intricate and compounded
    The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
  112. consumer
    a person who uses goods or services
    Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
    2.2
  113. convention
    the act of convening
    Written and Oral English Language Conventions
    The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.
    1.0
  114. enumerate
    determine the number or amount of
    Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.
    1.
  115. galaxy
    (astronomy) a collection of star systems; any of the billions of systems each having many stars and nebulae and dust
    The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.
  116. emphasis
    intensity or forcefulness of expression
    Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
    1.3
  117. error
    a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention
    Any return due to shipping error or product defect may be returned free of charge.
  118. combine
    put or add together
    Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements.
    c.
  119. coordination
    the regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation
    Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.
  120. inductive
    inducing or influencing; leading on
    Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and provide examples of each.

    24.2
  121. genre
    a kind of literary or artistic work
    Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
    Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive essays of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre.
  122. punctuate
    insert punctuation marks into
    What is the correct way to punctuate the
    underlined part of the sentence?
  123. illustrate
    depict with an illustration
    The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
  124. challenge
    a call to engage in a contest or fight
    Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

    14.0
  125. reciprocal
    concerning each of two or more persons or things; especially given or done in return
    Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power.
  126. randomly
    in a random manner
    A normally
    B occasionally
    C always
    D randomly
    CSL20316.071
    99 Which quotation would best support the thesis
    of the letter?
  127. damage
    the occurrence of a change for the worse
    CSR02043.278
    8 The purpose of Document B is to explain
    A why damaged items cannot be returned.
  128. object
    a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow
    Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

    24.0
  129. simile
    a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like' or `as')
    Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
    1.2
  130. derive
    come from
    Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.

    8.0
  131. motivation
    the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior
    Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts.
    3.4
  132. reflect
    to throw or bend back (from a surface)
    Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
  133. resourceful
    having inner resources; adroit or imaginative
    This
    house makes our whole neighborhood look sloppy, and something must be done soon.
    2 I am a pretty resourceful guy, so before writing to you, I tried to solve the problem myself.
  134. enhance
    increase
    Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
  135. contrast
    the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared
    Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to verify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast.
    2.0
  136. arrive
    reach a destination; arrive by movement or progress
    The island is shaped like a boomerang, and each of
    its three corners has an extinct volcano.

    2 Easter Island was relatively unknown until 1722, when Dutch Admiral Roggeveen
    arrived with the first Europeans ever to set foot on the island.
  137. quotation
    a passage or expression that is quoted or cited
    Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices.
  138. data
    a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
    Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
    c.
  139. assignment
    an undertaking that you have been assigned to do (as by an instructor)
    Any good teacher would make allowances for students who don’t want their
    classmates to grade their assignments.
    5 Grading one another’s papers may be one of the best ways for students to reinforce
    within themselves the ways to respond to the most difficult parts of what they are
    learning.
  140. support
    the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening
    Analyze text that uses proposition and support patterns.
  141. denote
    have as a meaning
    * Denotes key standards

    — 2 —

    This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
  142. formulate
    prepare according to a formula
    Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

    25.2
  143. outline
    the line that appears to bound an object
    Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
  144. codify
    organize into a code or system, such as a body of law
    Analyze the principles and concepts codified in state constitutions between 1777 and 1781 that created the context out of which American political institutions and ideas developed.
    2.
  145. contain
    contain or hold; have within
    Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions.
  146. analogy
    drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect
    Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
    1.2
  147. effect
    a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
    Draw supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.
    d.
  148. wispy
    thin and weak
    He found a cave, pulled12 a tree aside, went in where only he13 on hands and knees could slither deeper14 on his belly, could hitch along15 after the candle flicker, the plunk16 of water somewhere past the tunnel’s17 bend, breathing all his breath away18 deep at the tight place to be19 smaller than he was: wispy little20 body way down under the cold21 rock of the world.
    22 The dark opened23 in a room.
  149. figurative
    (used of the meanings of words or text) not literal; using figures of speech
    Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
    1.2
  150. chart
    a visual display of information
    Organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs.
    2.4
  151. economic
    of or relating to an economy, the system of production and management of material wealth
    They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions.
    8.1
  152. domain
    a particular environment or walk of life
    Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression.

    18.0
  153. logical
    based on known statements or events or conditions
    Students use and know simple aspects of a logical argument:

    24.1
  154. spatial
    pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space
    List the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g.,
  155. underlie
    lie underneath
    Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
    2.5
  156. physical
    involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit
    Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
    2.2
  157. reaction
    an idea evoked by some experience
    Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts.
    3.4
  158. role
    the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group
    United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict

    Students in grade eight study the ideas, issues, and events from the framing of the Constitution up to World War I, with an emphasis on America's role in the war.
  159. crucial
    of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis
    And the simple act of
    listening is crucial to the concept of language, more crucial even than
    reading and writing, and language in turn is crucial to human society.
  160. percent
    a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)
    Students apply algebraic techniques to solve rate problems, work problems, and percent mixture problems.

    16.0
  161. region
    the extended spatial location of something
    They are also able to sketch the region defined by linear inequality (e.g., they sketch the region defined by 2x + 6y < 4).

    7.0
  162. isotope
    one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
    Students know each element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus (the atomic number) and each isotope of the element has a different but specific number of neutrons in the nucleus.
    c.
  163. stanza
    a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
    Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
    modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
  164. perspective
    a way of regarding situations or topics etc.
    They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
  165. emergence
    the act of emerging
    After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
  166. club
    a formal association of people with similar interests
    CST Release Test Questions Grade 8 ELA
    Released Test QuestionsEnglish–Language Arts8
    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST GRADEOpen book
    Document AEvergreen Teen Book Club OfferThe Evergreen Teen Book Club invites you to join us and take full advantage of our limited-time introductory offer.
  167. zero
    a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number
    Students use the quadratic formula or factoring techniques or both to determine whether the graph of a quadratic function will intersect the x-axis in zero, one, or two points.

    23.0
  168. simple
    having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved
    Write documents related to career development, including simple business letters and job applications:
    a.
  169. regiment
    army unit smaller than a division
    Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee) and soldiers on both sides of the war, including those of black soldiers and regiments.
    6.
  170. conflict
    an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals)
    Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
    3.3
  171. immerse
    cause to be immersed
    All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.
  172. pertinent
    being of striking appropriateness and pertinence
    Students understand the concepts of a relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about given relations and functions.

    17.0
  173. consistency
    a harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts
    Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
    3.0
  174. splatter
    dash a liquid upon or against
    I walk into the dark, urine-splattered
    corridor to find him resting comfortably, paws crossed.
  175. adult
    a fully developed person from maturity onward
    CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST GRADE
    Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
    11 The purpose of including the list of activities in
    Document A is to illustrate to the consumer
    that Sun Veil Sunscreen 30 is
    A for both adults and children.
  176. council
    a body serving in an administrative capacity
    SUN ALERT:
    According to the National Council of Dermatologists, limiting sun exposure, wearing protective
    clothing, and using sunscreens may reduce the risk of skin damage and other harmful effects of
    the sun.
  177. receive
    get something; come into possession of
    If you join our club, you will receive a certificate for 3 free books.
  178. refute
    overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof
    Students use counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize that a single counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.

    25.0
  179. achieve
    to gain with effort
    Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original ideas.
  180. elegy
    a mournful poem; a lament for the dead
    Determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry (e.g., ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, elegy, ode, sonnet).
  181. lecturing
    teaching by giving a discourse on some subject (typically to a class)
    Jane Addams: A Woman of Character(1) When you think of women in history who have been true pioneers, the name
    Jane Addams should come to mind. (2) In the late 1800s, she founded Hull House, an
    institution called a settlement house, in Chicago, Illinois. (3) Hull House was established
    as a resource for immigrants as well as for any other residents of Chicago in need of
    assistance. (4) Its mission reflected the compassionate spirit of its founder, who had visited
    a similar institution, ca...
  182. reimburse
    pay back for some expense incurred
    Upon receiving a returned book or order, your refund will be processed, but you will not be reimbursed for
    shipping charges.
  183. subordination
    the state of being subordinate to something
    Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.
  184. energy
    forceful exertion
    Some of that time and energy can be saved by spending a few minutes in class, while
    providing an invaluable learning experience.
    4 I understand that some individuals are sensitive to their classmates seeing their work
    or grades.
  185. academic
    associated with academia or an academy
    All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including
    teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content
    standards in Grade 8 English–Language Arts.
  186. underlying
    being or involving basic facts or principles
    Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
    2.5
  187. statue
    a sculpture representing a human or animal
    To their surprise, they
    were greeted by hundreds of mammoth stone statues lining the shores.
  188. focused
    being in focus or brought into focus
    Writing Strategies
    Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.
  189. format
    the general appearance of a publication
    Follow the conventional format for the type of document (e.g., letter of inquiry, memorandum).
    2.6
  190. area
    the extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary
    Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
    4.
  191. complete
    perfect and complete in every respect; having all necessary qualities
    Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square.

    15.0
  192. commemorate
    call to remembrance; keep alive the memory of someone or something, as in a ceremony
    In 1897, a Monument was
    sculpted in Boston, Massachusetts, to commemorate the heroism of the 54th.
  193. participating
    taking part in an activity
    • DRIVING A CAR• WALKING TO THE STORE• PLAYING ON THE PLAYGROUND• RELAXING AT THE BEACH OR POOL• PARTICIPATING IN OUTDOOR
    SPORTS OR RECREATION

    Sun Veil Sunscreen protects you so you can have fun in the sun, young or old.
  194. assigned
    appointed to a post or duty
    Clarisse Jones
    Social Studies
    Ms. Montoya
    May 9, 2003
    The Massachusetts 54th Infantry Regiment
    1 In 1863, Governor John Andrew of Massachusetts made an important decision
    when he allowed African-American men to enlist as Union soldiers in the Civil War.
    Some of these new enlistees was assigned to the 54th Infantry Regiment.
  195. recognize
    perceive to be the same
    These techniques include finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials.

    12.0
  196. address
    the place where a person or organization can be found or communicated with
    Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
    3.3
  197. exponent
    a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself
    They understand and use the rules of exponents.

    3.0
  198. valid
    well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force
    Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

    25.2
  199. adverse
    in an opposing direction
    Two types of UV rays
    exist within our atmosphere: UVA and UVB. UVA rays do not immediately affect the skin but cause long-
    term adverse effects, like skin aging, wrinkles, and, in some cases, skin cancer.
  200. thermal
    relating to or associated with heat
    Students know substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity.
  201. similar
    having the same or similar characteristics
    Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts.
    3.4
  202. convey
    transmit or serve as the medium for transmission
    Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
    2.5
  203. author
    writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)
    Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author.
  204. idiom
    an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up
    Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
    1.2
  205. bias
    a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
    Evaluate the credibility of a speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material).
    1.9
  206. examine
    observe, check out, and look over carefully or inspect
    Examine the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony).
    7.
  207. environment
    the totality of surrounding conditions
    Examine the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
    4.
  208. interact
    act together or towards others or with others
    Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.
    b.
  209. connect
    connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
    They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
  210. cringe
    draw back, as with fear or pain
    Document B
    Con
    1 A girl cringes as her classmate announces her failing test grade and hands her the
    paper, bathed in the red ink of the student grader.
  211. recommend
    express a good opinion of
    The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
  212. technological
    of or relating to a practical subject that is organized according to scientific principles
    Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the region, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction).
    2.
  213. slither
    to pass or move unobtrusively or smoothly
    He found a cave, pulled12 a tree aside, went in where only he13 on hands and knees could slither deeper14 on his belly, could hitch along15 after the candle flicker, the plunk16 of water somewhere past the tunnel’s17 bend, breathing all his breath away18 deep at the tight place to be19 smaller than he was: wispy little20 body way down under the cold21 rock of the world.
    22 The dark opened23 in a room.
  214. buoyant
    tending to float on a liquid or rise in air or gas
    All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.
  215. monitor
    someone who gives a warning so that a mistake can be avoided
    Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties, interest groups).
    7.
  216. irrational
    not consistent with or using reason
    Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

    1.1
  217. rely
    have confidence or faith in
    C that his mother relied on him when he was
    a child.
  218. process
    a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
    Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
  219. aplomb
    great coolness and composure under strain
    Reminiscingby Ralph Cortez1 Watermelons were so much sweeter then,
    2 When boys were the stuff of super men,
    3 And summers seemed so much longer too,
    4 With nothing pending and nothing due.
    5 We were swordsmen—swashbuckling heroes,
    6 Eternal victors—never zeroes;
    7 Second basemen and clean-up hitters;
    8 Forever winners, never quitters.
    9 Play was a ritual in those days,
    10 To go on magical mind forays,
    11 To play the game with aplomb and ease,
    12 To venture forth when and where we’d pl...
  220. compromise
    an accommodation in which both sides make concessions
    Discuss the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and California's admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise of 1850.
    5.
  221. immigration
    migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
    List the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g.,
  222. inverse
    reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect
    A –1
    B 0
    1
    C
    1000
    D 3
    CSA10152
    16 What is the multiplicative inverse of ?
    2
    A •2
    1
    B •
    2
    1C
    2
    D 2
    CSA10153

    — 6 —


    This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
  223. expansion
    the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope
    Describe the country's physical landscapes, political divisions, and territorial expansion during the terms of the first four presidents.
    2.
  224. location
    the act of putting something in a certain place
    Describe the development of the agrarian economy in the South, identify the locations of the cotton-producing states, and discuss the significance of cotton and the cotton gin.
    2.
  225. precise
    sharply exact or accurate or delimited
    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
  226. awareness
    state of elementary or undifferentiated consciousness
    The writing exhibits students' awareness of audience and purpose.
  227. assign
    select something or someone for a specific purpose
    Clarisse Jones
    Social Studies
    Ms. Montoya
    May 9, 2003
    The Massachusetts 54th Infantry Regiment
    1 In 1863, Governor John Andrew of Massachusetts made an important decision
    when he allowed African-American men to enlist as Union soldiers in the Civil War.
    Some of these new enlistees was assigned to the 54th Infantry Regiment.
  228. story
    a record or narrative description of past events
    Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives:
    a.
  229. normally
    under normal conditions
    For Indoor Photography:
    In a normally lit room—1/30 of a second
    In a brightly lit room—1/60 of a second
    For Outdoor Photography:
    Cloudy conditions—1/125 of a second
    Sunny conditions—1/250 of a second
    Extremely bright conditions—1/500
    or 1/1000 of a second


    Picture of a Shutter Speed Dial
    60
    125
    250
    30
    500
    1
    1000
    2
    B
    For Photography in Very Dark Settings:
    1—The “1” stands for 1 second.
    2—The “2” stands for 2 seconds.
  230. underestimate
    make too low an estimate of
    A The amount of time spent in direct sunlight is
    usually underestimated.
  231. rope
    a strong line
    The Sixth no sooner had begun
    About the beast to grope,
    Than, seizing on the swinging tail
    40 That fell within his scope,
    “I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
    Is very like a rope!”
  232. symbolism
    the practice of investing things with symbolic meaning
    Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
  233. amendment
    a statement that is added to or revises or improves a proposal or document (a bill or constitution etc.)
    Understand the significance of Jefferson's Statute for Religious Freedom as a forerunner of the First Amendment and the origins, purpose, and differing views of the founding fathers on the issue of the separation of church and state.
    6.
  234. gender
    the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
    In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
    ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
    such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
  235. adequately
    in an adequate manner or to an adequate degree
    NUMBER OF NUMBER OF
    STRAND/REPORTING CLUSTER QUESTIONS RELEASED
    ON EXAM TEST QUESTIONS
    • Word Analysis 9 11
    • Reading Comprehension 18 27
    • Literary Response and Analysis 15 23
    • Writing Strategies 17 25
    • Written Conventions 16 28
    TOTAL 75114

    In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of
    the academic content standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–Language Arts Test; (2) the questions
    demonstrate a ran...
  236. label
    a brief description given for purposes of identification
    This can be done by attaching the pre-addressed return
    label enclosed in every shipment.
  237. rent
    a payment or series of payments made by the lessee to an owner for use of some property, facility, equipment, or service
    Mr. Jones used to rent that house, but he
    moved out over six months ago.
  238. contact
    the act of touching physically
    In this instance, contact our Customer Service Department by calling 1-800-613-XXXX between 9:00 a.m.
    and 5:00 p.m.
  239. chemical
    of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes
    Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.
  240. criterion
    the ideal in terms of which something can be judged
    NUMBER OF NUMBER OF
    STRAND/REPORTING CLUSTER QUESTIONS RELEASED
    ON EXAM TEST QUESTIONS
    • Word Analysis 9 11
    • Reading Comprehension 18 27
    • Literary Response and Analysis 15 23
    • Writing Strategies 17 25
    • Written Conventions 16 28
    TOTAL 75114

    In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of
    the academic content standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–Language Arts Test; (2) the questions
    demonstrate a ran...
  241. hypothesis
    a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena
    Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.

    24.3
  242. mammoth
    any of numerous extinct elephants widely distributed in the Pleistocene; extremely large with hairy coats and long upcurved tusks
    To their surprise, they
    were greeted by hundreds of mammoth stone statues lining the shores.
  243. formal
    being in accord with established forms and conventions and requirements (as e.g. of formal dress)
    Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions.
  244. issue
    some situation or event that is thought about
    United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict

    Students in grade eight study the ideas, issues, and events from the framing of the Constitution up to World War I, with an emphasis on America's role in the war.
  245. biased
    favoring one person or side over another
    Evaluate the credibility of a speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material).
    1.9
  246. gravity
    (physics) the force of attraction between all masses in the universe; especially the attraction of the earth's mass for bodies near its surface
    Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

    24.0
  247. technical
    of or relating to technique or proficiency in a practical skill
    Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
    2.6
  248. integrate
    make into a whole or make part of a whole
    Some of the released test questions for Algebra I are
    the same test questions found in different combinations on the Integrated Mathematics 1 and 2 California
    Standards Tests and the Summative High School Mathematics California Standards Test.
  249. flag
    emblem usually consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design
    CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST GRADE
    Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
    The Amazing Maize Maze
    (1) When the Egyptians built the pyramids, they included mazes to trap thieves.
    (2) Even if a thief managed to enter a pyramid, they would probably never find his or her
    way out. (3) Other ancient mazes have been found, from Sweden to New Mexico.
    (4) Some are carved in rock or painted on cave walls, while others are built from dirt,
    stones,...
  250. contemporary
    occurring in the same period of time
    In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
  251. deteriorate
    become worse or disintegrate
    The composure of the classroom
    gradually deteriorates.

    — 21 —
    This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
  252. motion
    the act of changing location from one place to another
    Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

    24.0
  253. pause
    cease an action temporarily
    Press START/PAUSE two times to begin play.
  254. hyperbole
    extravagant exaggeration
    The author uses a hyperbole to illustrate that
    the dog grew
    A surprisingly affectionate.
  255. slope
    be at an angle
    Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.

    8.0
  256. indicate
    indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; either spatially or figuratively
    Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.
  257. locate
    discover the location of; determine the place of; find by searching or examining
    Trace patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets, and trade and locate such development on a map.
    2.
  258. generate
    bring into existence
    CST Release Test Questions Grade 8 ELA
    GRADE CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST
    Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
    95 Which sentence could best be added at the
    end of the first paragraph to generate reader
    interest?
  259. direction
    a line leading to a place or point
    Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
    2.6
  260. interpretation
    the act of interpreting something as expressed in an artistic performance
    Exhibit careful reading and insight in their interpretations.
    b.
  261. articulate
    express or state clearly
    Determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry (e.g., ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, elegy, ode, sonnet).
  262. involved
    connected by participation or association or use
    Outline the physical obstacles to and the economic and political factors involved in building a network of roads, canals, and railroads (e.g.,
  263. positive
    characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.
    The sun gives life to the world.
    2 Along with the many positive aspects of the sun, however, there are dangerous effects to consider.
  264. community
    a group of people living in a particular local area
    Study the lives of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools and churches to advance their rights and communities.
    5.
  265. clue
    evidence that helps to solve a problem
    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
  266. affect
    have an effect upon
    Interpret and evaluate the various ways in which visual image makers (e.g., graphic artists, illustrators, news photographers) communicate information and affect impressions and opinions.
    2.0
  267. recite
    repeat aloud from memory
    Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
    modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
  268. immigrant
    a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there
    Irish immigrants and the Great Irish Famine).
    4.
  269. institution
    a custom that for a long time has been an important feature of some group or society
    After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
  270. prepare
    make ready or suitable or equip in advance for a particular purpose or for some use, event, etc
    Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of organization, which generally includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and summaries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion.
    1.5
  271. scope
    the state of the environment in which a situation exists
    Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of ideas.
    2.4
  272. cultural
    of or relating to the shared knowledge and values of a society
    Trace the origins and development of slavery; its effects on black Americans and on the region's political, social, religious, economic, and cultural development; and identify the strategies that were tried to both overturn and preserve it (e.g., through the writings and historical documents on Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey).
    3.
  273. access
    the right to enter
    I
    used the Internet to access public records about the house, but the owner of that house
    is not listed.
  274. researcher
    a scientist who devotes himself to doing research
    According to a report entitled “Are Students Getting Enough Sleep?”
    from a recent edition of Sebastian Valley Times, “sleepiness decreases concentration,
    reduces short-term memory, and causes bad moods.”

    4 Researchers have learned that teens routinely fall asleep and wake up later than
    adults.
  275. nutrient
    any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue
    D The health teacher asserts, “Eating well
    provides the body with important nutrients.”
  276. consistent
    the same throughout in structure or composition
    Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas.
    2.0
  277. clear
    readily apparent to the mind
    Writing Strategies
    Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.
  278. precede
    be earlier in time; go back further
    Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
    1.
  279. revision
    the act of revising or altering (involving reconsideration and modification)
    Evaluation and Revision
    1.6
  280. progress
    the act of moving forward (as toward a goal)
    Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
  281. emphasize
    to stress, single out as important
    Compare the conflicting interpretations of state and federal authority as emphasized in the speeches and writings of statesmen such as Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.
    2.
  282. purchase
    obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction
    However, if you decide to
    purchase just one book at regular club price, you will receive a certificate for an
    additional 3 free selections after your first order is placed.
  283. tradition
    a specific practice of long standing
    Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author.
  284. application
    the action of putting something into operation
    Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
    Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive essays of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre.
  285. respond
    show a response or a reaction to something
    Literary Response and Analysis
    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
  286. displace
    cause to move, usually with force or pressure
    Students know the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced.
    d.
  287. policy
    a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group
    Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
    5.
  288. event
    something that happens at a given place and time
    Relate a clear, coherent incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details.
    b.
  289. federal
    characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities
    Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.
    1.
  290. complex
    complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts
    Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
    2.6
  291. train
    educate for a future role or function
    Picture of a beagle named "Murphy"
    2 Murphy was the first dog I ever trained personally, and I was delighted at the enthusiasm with which he
    took to the newspaper.
  292. administer
    work in an administrative capacity; supervise or be in charge of
    This
    test is one of the California Standards Tests administered as part of the Standardized Testing and Reporting
    (STAR) Program under policies set by the State Board of Education.
  293. similarity
    the quality of being similar
    Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of ideas.
    2.4
  294. alternate
    go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions
    B alternate the length of lines.
  295. install
    set up for use
    Once installed, solar panels do not need to be monotored very often.
  296. major
    greater in scope or effect
    After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
  297. fluency
    powerful and effective language
    WORD ANALYSIS, FLUENCY, AND SYSTEMATIC VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT:
    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as
    historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized
    vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level appropriate words.

    8RW1.1
  298. founding
    the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new
    Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
    1.
  299. assimilate
    make similar
    Trace the development of the American education system from its earliest roots, including the roles of religious and private schools and Horace Mann's campaign for free public education and its assimilating role in American culture.
    6.
  300. proviso
    a stipulated condition
    Analyze the significance of the States' Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the Wilmot Proviso (1846), the Compromise of 1850, Henry Clay's role in the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott v.
  301. feature
    a prominent attribute or aspect of something
    Structural Features of Informational Materials
    2.1
  302. deduction
    the act of subtracting (removing a part from the whole)
    Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.

    24.3
  303. initial
    occurring at the beginning
    While the
    initial cost and effort of using environmentally friendly power sources might be high,
    the price of not using them is even higher.
  304. announce
    make known; make an announcement
    You know, Brucie is usually
    so distant with strangers.”
    5 At a dinner party last week, after I had been mugged by a large sheepdog, I announced quite piteously,
    “Oh dear, he seems to have swallowed one of my earrings.”
  305. essential
    basic and fundamental
    They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
  306. cumulative
    increasing by successive addition
    Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.
    c.
  307. construct
    make by combining materials and parts
    Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

    25.2
  308. experience
    the content of direct observation or participation in an event
    Identify the push-pull factors in the movement of former slaves to the cities in the North and to the West and their differing experiences in those regions (e.g., the experiences of Buffalo Soldiers).
    3.
  309. concluding
    occurring at or forming an end or termination
    A obviously
    B however
    C still
    D likewise

    CSW00062.008

    64 Which of these would make the best concluding

    sentence to Edward’s letter?
  310. incline
    lower or bend (the head or upper body), as in a nod or bow
    CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
    Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
    The Blind Men and the Elephant

    by John Godfrey Saxe

    It was six men of Indostan

    To learning much inclined,
    Who went to see the Elephant
    (Though all of them were blind),

    5 That each by observation
    Might satisfy his mind.
  311. found
    food and lodging provided in addition to money
    After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
  312. research
    a search for knowledge
    Research and Technology
    1.4
  313. drafting
    the craft of drawing blueprints
    Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
  314. raise
    move upwards
    Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power.
  315. wave
    (physics) a movement up and down or back and forth
    List the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g.,
  316. specify
    be specific about
    Describe the political philosophy underpinning the Constitution as specified in the Federalist Papers (authored by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay) and the role of such leaders as Madison, George Washington, Roger Sherman, Gouverneur Morris, and James Wilson in the writing and ratification of the Constitution.
    5.
  317. style
    how something is done or how it happens
    Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
  318. conserve
    keep constant through physical or chemical reactions or evolutionary change
    Do you look for new ways
    to conserve energy?
  319. develop
    grow, progress, unfold, or evolve through a process of evolution, natural growth, differentiation, or a conducive environment
    Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of organization, which generally includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and summaries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion.
    1.5
  320. anticipate
    regard something as probable or likely
    Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
    2.5
  321. surprise
    come upon or take unawares
    Don’t let anyone think you’re a greenhorn.”
    10 After George counted his money he looked out of the window and was surprised to see that the train was
    still in Winesburg.
    11 The young man, going out of his town to meet the adventure of life, began to think but he did not think of
    anything very big or dramatic.
    12 He thought of little things—Turk Smollet wheeling boards through the main street of his town in the
    morning, Butch Wheeler, the lamp lighter of Winesburg, hurrying throu...
  322. trace
    an indication that something has been present
    After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
  323. whistle
    the sound made by something moving rapidly or by steam coming out of a small aperture
    Her eyes, one blue, one brown
    never leave them.

    10 When the Shepherd’s whistle
    releases her,
    she’s off, like an arrow, running east,
    her bared teeth showing
    the wolf that still lives in her.

    15 She circles wide, closing in,
    a black and white blur at
    the edge of a sheep’s bad dream.
  324. reliable
    worthy of reliance or trust
    A reliable
    B relied upon
    C relying on them
    D are reliable
    CSL11192.133

    — 59 —
    This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
  325. negative
    characterized by or displaying negation or denial or opposition or resistance; having no positive features
    UVB rays produce immediate
    negative effects and are the main culprits of sunburns.
    3 Skin protection is extremely important.
  326. quarry
    animal hunted or caught for food
    The discovery of a large
    stone quarry unlocked clues.
  327. liquid
    fluid matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
    Students know the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion.
    e.
  328. limit
    as far as something can go
    Describe the lives of free blacks and the laws that limited their freedom and economic opportunities.
    8.10
  329. sequence
    a following of one thing after another in time
    Identify the sequence of activities needed to design a system, operate a tool, or explain the bylaws of an organization.
    b.
  330. brave
    possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching
    Their brave acts made the
    group one of the most famous.
    2 In May 1863, the 54th Infantry Regiment, led by Colonel Robert Shaw, completed
    its training and headed into battle.
  331. sum
    a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers
    The rest of the student body could get a little more sleep
    and arrive an hour or so later.

    6 To sum up, teens need as much or more sleep than adults, have a later sleep cycle,
    and learn and behave better when rested.
  332. consider
    think about carefully; weigh
    Include all the factors and variables that need to be considered.
    c.
  333. compose
    form the substance of
    All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
  334. resolve
    find the solution
    Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
    3.3
  335. panel
    sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat and rectangular) section or component of something
    After collecting energy from the sun, huge panels store
    the solar power.
  336. shape
    a perceptual structure
    After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
  337. agrarian
    relating to rural matters
    Describe the development of the agrarian economy in the South, identify the locations of the cotton-producing states, and discuss the significance of cotton and the cotton gin.
    2.
  338. scuffle
    fight or struggle in a confused way at close quarters
    But after a few noisy scuffles in which he knocked a picture
    off the wall, scratched the piano, and smashed a lamp, we just gave in—only to discover that, left to his own
    devices, he hopped up and down as delicately as a ballet dancer.
    4 It’s not just our own dogs that bother me.
  339. peer
    look searchingly
    Document A
    Pro
    1 The Supreme Court was absolutely correct to say it’s OK for students to grade one
    another’s homework, quizzes, and tests; in fact, it’s a great idea.
    2 By grading one another’s papers and seeing the problems their peers encounter, as well
    as their own, students double their exposure to the troubles that they may meet on future
    exams and tests.
  340. principle
    a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct
    Describe the nation's blend of civic republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English parliamentary traditions.
    8.2
  341. soliloquy
    speech you make to yourself
    Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
    modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
  342. inference
    the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation
    Draw supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.
    d.
  343. protect
    shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage
    Enumerate the advantages of a common market among the states as foreseen in and protected by the Constitution's clauses on interstate commerce, common coinage, and full-faith and credit.
    4.
  344. injure
    cause injuries or bodily harm to
    Sergeant William Carney,
    the flag bearer of the 54th, was severely injured as he carried the flag back to safety.
  345. insect
    small air-breathing arthropod
    The
    land becomes a wide green billiard table on which tiny human insects toil up and down.

    4 All through his boyhood and young manhood, George Willard had been in the habit of walking on Trunion
    Pike.
  346. elapse
    pass by
    Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.
    c.
  347. justification
    the act of defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning
    Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, involving linear equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for each step.

    6.0
  348. adventure
    a wild and exciting undertaking (not necessarily lawful)
    This catalog offers a wide selection of over 500 books in every issue, including mysteries, romances, adventures,
    biographies, cookbooks, crafts, sports, and many more.
  349. site
    the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located)
    For more information about the California Standards Tests, visit the California Department of Education’s
    Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/resources.asp.

    — 1 —
    This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
  350. individualism
    the quality of being individual
    Identify common themes in American art as well as transcendentalism and individualism (e.g., writings about and by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Melville, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow).
    8.7
  351. recur
    happen or occur again
    Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
    3.6
  352. baffle
    be a mystery or bewildering to
    What was even more baffling was how the people
    moved the creations, some of which weighed many tons.
  353. influence
    a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc
    Understand the most important points in the history of English language and use common word origins to determine the historical influences on English word meanings.
    1.3
  354. administrator
    someone who manages a government agency or department
    All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including
    teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content
    standards in Grade 8 English–Language Arts.
  355. available
    obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service
    C available almost everywhere.
  356. static
    not in physical motion
    Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction.
    e.
  357. vary
    become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one's or its former characteristics or essence
    Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style.
    1.2
  358. interpreting
    an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious
    Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data.
    e.
  359. investigation
    an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities
    Investigation and Experimentation
    9.
  360. passage
    the act of passing from one state or place to the next
    Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas.
    2.0
  361. opportunity
    a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances
    Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties, interest groups).
    7.
  362. economy
    the system of production and distribution and consumption
    After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
  363. balance
    harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design)
    Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original ideas.
  364. manual
    of or relating to the hands
    Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
    2.2
  365. attitude
    a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways
    Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author.
  366. conclude
    bring to a close
    A obviously
    B however
    C still
    D likewise

    CSW00062.008

    64 Which of these would make the best concluding

    sentence to Edward’s letter?
  367. civil
    of or occurring within the state or between or among citizens of the state
    They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions.
    8.1
  368. frail
    physically weak
    My brain never loses
    A touch I bring:
    Frail of an eggshell,
    20 Pull of a string,
    Beat of a pulse
    That tells me life
    Thumps in a person
    But not in a knife.
    25 Signs that say:
    “Please do not touch,”
    Disappoint me
    Very much.
  369. aftermath
    the consequences of an event (especially a catastrophic event)
    Describe the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War, including territorial settlements, the aftermath of the wars, and the effects the wars had on the lives of Americans, including Mexican Americans today.
    8.9
  370. relaxing
    affording physical or mental rest
    • DRIVING A CAR• WALKING TO THE STORE• PLAYING ON THE PLAYGROUND• RELAXING AT THE BEACH OR POOL• PARTICIPATING IN OUTDOOR
    SPORTS OR RECREATION

    Sun Veil Sunscreen protects you so you can have fun in the sun, young or old.
  371. liberate
    grant freedom to; free from confinement
    Students know chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat.
    d.
  372. record
    anything (such as a document or a phonograph record or a photograph) providing permanent evidence of or information about past events
    Record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives on the topic, as appropriate.
    c.
  373. suffrage
    a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment
    Examine the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony).
    7.
  374. dialect
    the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
    Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
  375. compound
    a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
    Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements.
    c.
  376. maintain
    keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., "keep clean"
    Maintain a reasonable tone.
    2.5
  377. skid
    one of a pair of planks used to make a track for rolling or sliding objects
    Feel the vibrations as your Rocket Ball glides through the universe, scoringpoints as it glances off Saturn’s rings or skids past Jupiter.
  378. accurately
    strictly correctly
    Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
    2.5
  379. traditional
    consisting of or derived from tradition
    Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
    3.6
  380. justify
    show to be right by providing justification or proof
    Students determine whether a relation defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion.

    19.0
  381. resource
    a source of aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed
    Explain how the ordinances of 1785 and 1787 privatized national resources and transferred federally owned lands into private holdings, townships, and states.
    3.
  382. exist
    have an existence, be extant
    In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
    ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
    such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
  383. climax
    the highest point of anything conceived of as growing or developing or unfolding
    Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
    3.3
  384. infer
    conclude by reasoning; in logic
    Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
    1.2
  385. functioning
    performing or able to perform its regular function
    Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.
  386. accomplish
    to gain with effort
    A to tell a story about a childhood experience
    B to capture a feeling from the past
    C to debate whether childhood or adulthood is
    better
    D to describe a person who was important in the
    life of a child
    CSR10200.098
    3 In lines 11 and 12 of “Piano,” the words “my
    manhood is cast down in the flood of
    remembrance” mean that the speaker feels
    A proud of what he has accomplished.
  387. measure
    determine the measurements of something or somebody, take measurements of
    Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth.
    d.
  388. ordinance
    an authoritative rule
    Explain how the ordinances of 1785 and 1787 privatized national resources and transferred federally owned lands into private holdings, townships, and states.
    3.
  389. planet
    (astronomy) any of the nine large celestial bodies in the solar system that revolve around the sun and shine by reflected light; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto in order of their proximity to the sun; viewed from the constellation Hercules, all the planets rotate around the sun in a counterclockwise direction
    Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
  390. bounce
    spring back; spring away from an impact
    Each time
    you are able to use your flippers to
    bounce your Rocket Ball off these moving
    objects, you score bonus points.
  391. conducive
    tending to bring about; being partly responsible for
    Releasing this sort of personal information should
    be avoided, especially by institutions that seek to provide a supportive environment
    conducive to mutual learning during essential years of human development.
  392. award
    give, especially as an honor or reward
    Jane Addams: A Woman of Character(1) When you think of women in history who have been true pioneers, the name
    Jane Addams should come to mind. (2) In the late 1800s, she founded Hull House, an
    institution called a settlement house, in Chicago, Illinois. (3) Hull House was established
    as a resource for immigrants as well as for any other residents of Chicago in need of
    assistance. (4) Its mission reflected the compassionate spirit of its founder, who had visited
    a similar institution, ca...
  393. rash
    imprudently incurring risk
    If the skin becomes irritated or a rash develops, discontinue use immediately.
  394. antenna
    one of a pair of mobile appendages on the head of e.g. insects and crustaceans; typically sensitive to touch and taste
    CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST GRADEReleased Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
    My Fingers
    by Mary O’Neill
    My fingers are antennae.
  395. absolute
    perfect or complete or pure
    Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

    4.0
  396. concern
    something that interests you because it is important or affects you
    Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
    2.5
  397. extraction
    the action of taking out something (especially using effort or force)
    Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the region, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction).
    2.
  398. statistics
    a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters
    Because of her letters and use of statistics,
    hospitals began changing the way they take care of patients.
  399. solid
    not soft or yielding to pressure
    Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers.
    d.
  400. employ
    put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose
    Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
    2.2
  401. foray
    a sudden short attack
    Reminiscingby Ralph Cortez1 Watermelons were so much sweeter then,
    2 When boys were the stuff of super men,
    3 And summers seemed so much longer too,
    4 With nothing pending and nothing due.
    5 We were swordsmen—swashbuckling heroes,
    6 Eternal victors—never zeroes;
    7 Second basemen and clean-up hitters;
    8 Forever winners, never quitters.
    9 Play was a ritual in those days,
    10 To go on magical mind forays,
    11 To play the game with aplomb and ease,
    12 To venture forth when and where we’d pl...
  402. logically
    according to logical reasoning
    Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of organization, which generally includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and summaries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion.
    1.5
  403. constitutional
    existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
    Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
    1.
  404. irony
    incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
    Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
  405. statistical
    of or relating to statistics
    The rest of her career was spent writing letters and working to improve
    hospitals by using statistical studies.

    2 Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 to a wealthy British family.
  406. outcome
    something that results
    Outline the major treaties with American Indian nations during the administrations of the first four presidents and the varying outcomes of those treaties.

    8.6
  407. cycle
    a periodically repeated sequence of events
    Studies show that some schools have already adjusted school hours to better match
    the teen sleep cycle; consequently, students in these schools are learning better on
    the new schedule.

    5 Some of my classmates argue that starting school an hour later will prevent them
    from participating in after-school athletic programs and extracurricular activities.
  408. statistic
    a datum that can be represented numerically
    Because of her letters and use of statistics,
    hospitals began changing the way they take care of patients.
  409. monument
    a structure erected to commemorate persons or events
    In 1897, a Monument was
    sculpted in Boston, Massachusetts, to commemorate the heroism of the 54th.
  410. touch
    make physical contact with, come in contact with
    C with a gentle touch.
  411. epic
    a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
    Determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry (e.g., ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, elegy, ode, sonnet).
  412. button
    a round fastener sewn to shirts and coats etc to fit through buttonholes
    The shutter remains open for as long as
    the shutter button is held down.

    — 19 — CSR0P130
    This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
  413. entrepreneur
    someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
    Discuss entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers in politics, commerce, and industry (e.g.,
  414. commence
    set in motion, cause to start
    Dear Sebastian Valley School Board:

    1 Currently, school commences before most people even dream about waking up.
  415. insight
    clear or deep perception of a situation
    Exhibit careful reading and insight in their interpretations.
    b.
  416. theme
    the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
    Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
    3.6
  417. expose
    to show, make visible or apparent
    DIRECTIONS:
    Apply Sun Veil’s disappearing blue-colored sunblock liberally to completely cover all exposed
    skin.
  418. inert
    unable to move or resist motion
    Students know how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals, and inert gases.
    b.
  419. computer
    a machine for performing calculations automatically
    Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches by using computer networks and modems.
    1.5
  420. capture
    capture as if by hunting, snaring, or trapping
    Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
    2.5
  421. insidious
    working or spreading in a hidden and usually injurious way
    Watermelon
    Pianoby D. H. Lawrence1 Softly, in the dusk, a woman is singing to me:
    2 Taking me back down the vista of years, till I see3 A child sitting under the piano, in the boom of the tingling strings4 And pressing the small, poised feet of a mother who smiles as she sings.
    5 In spite of myself, the insidious mastery of song6 Betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to belong7 To the old Sunday evenings at home, winter outside8 And hymns in the cozy parlor, the tinkling piano o...
  422. tusk
    a long pointed tooth specialized for fighting or digging; especially in an elephant or walrus or hog
    The Second, feeling of the tusk,
    Cried, “Ho! what have we here
    15 So very round and smooth and sharp?
  423. appropriately
    in an appropriate manner
    This
    memorial honors these heroes appropriately by depicting Colonel Shaw and his troops
    marching into battle.
  424. integrated
    formed or united into a whole
    Some of the released test questions for Algebra I are
    the same test questions found in different combinations on the Integrated Mathematics 1 and 2 California
    Standards Tests and the Summative High School Mathematics California Standards Test.
  425. dawn
    the first light of day
    The east was pink with the dawn and long streaks of light climbed into the sky where a few stars still
    shone.

    3 Beyond the last house on Trunion Pike in Winesburg, there is a great stretch of open fields.
  426. present
    temporal sense; intermediate between past and future; now existing or happening or in consideration
    Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and opinion.
    c.
  427. identical
    being the exact same one; not any other:
    They were very similar to one another, each
    with a large nose and long ears, but they were not identical.
  428. incident
    a single distinct event
    Relate a clear, coherent incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details.
    b.
  429. releasing
    emotionally purging (of e.g. art)
    Releasing this sort of personal information should
    be avoided, especially by institutions that seek to provide a supportive environment
    conducive to mutual learning during essential years of human development.
  430. symbol
    something visible that by association or convention represents something else that is invisible
    Algebra I
    Grades Eight Through Twelve - Mathematics Content Standards

    Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra.
  431. utility
    the quality of being of practical use
    Consumers can and must make a difference by considering alternate
    energy options.

    2 Each year electric utilities in the United States provide trillions of kilowatt-hours to
    their customers, but this energy source gives off tons of carbon monoxide.
  432. dramatic
    pertaining to or characteristic of drama
    Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
    modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
  433. select
    pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives
    NUMBER OF NUMBER OF
    STRAND/REPORTING CLUSTER QUESTIONS RELEASED
    ON EXAM TEST QUESTIONS
    • Word Analysis 9 11
    • Reading Comprehension 18 27
    • Literary Response and Analysis 15 23
    • Writing Strategies 17 25
    • Written Conventions 16 28
    TOTAL 75114

    In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of
    the academic content standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–Language Arts Test; (2) the questions
    demonstrate a ran...
  434. establish
    set up or found
    Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion.
    1.2
  435. sedition
    an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government
    Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
    5.
  436. wake
    stop sleeping
    Dear Sebastian Valley School Board:

    1 Currently, school commences before most people even dream about waking up.
  437. accumulate
    get or gather together
    You accumulate 2 bonus points with each cash purchase of one book.
  438. logic
    the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference
    Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
    3.0
  439. associate
    bring or come into association or action
    Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic incentives associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny (e.g., the Lewis and Clark expedition, accounts of the removal of Indians, the Cherokees' "Trail of Tears," settlement of the Great Plains) and the territorial acquisitions that spanned numerous decades.
    3.
  440. funds
    assets in the form of money
    Jane Addams: A Woman of Character(1) When you think of women in history who have been true pioneers, the name
    Jane Addams should come to mind. (2) In the late 1800s, she founded Hull House, an
    institution called a settlement house, in Chicago, Illinois. (3) Hull House was established
    as a resource for immigrants as well as for any other residents of Chicago in need of
    assistance. (4) Its mission reflected the compassionate spirit of its founder, who had visited
    a similar institution, ca...
  441. host
    a person who invites guests to a social event (such as a party in his or her own home) and who is responsible for them while they are there
    I am sitting with a group in front of the fire when all of a sudden the
    large mutt of the host appears in the archway.
  442. battery
    a collection of related things intended for use together
    They do need a large, expensive battery bank; consequently, the cost of installation
    can be high.

    4 Hydropower which uses the movement of water to create energy, is less expensive
    per kilowatt-hour than solar power and does not require a battery bank.
  443. annually
    by the year; every year (usually with reference to a sum of money paid or received)
    In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
  444. scamper
    to move about or proceed hurriedly
    He scampered hurriedly aboard.
  445. replace
    put something back where it belongs
    Which word can best be used to replace the
    word run without changing the meaning of the
    sentence?
  446. astronomical
    relating or belonging to the science of astronomy
    Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth.
    d.
  447. trunk
    the main stem of a tree; usually covered with bark; the bole is usually the part that is commercially useful for lumber
    The Third approached the animal,
    20 And happening to take
    The squirming trunk within his hands,
    Thus boldly up and spake:
    “I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
    Is very like a snake!”

    25 The Fourth reached out an eager hand,
    And felt about the knee.
  448. doctrine
    a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
    Know the changing boundaries of the United States and describe the relationships the country had with its neighbors (current Mexico and Canada) and Europe, including the influence of the Monroe Doctrine, and how those relationships influenced westward expansion and the Mexican-American War.
    3.
  449. preserve
    keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction
    Describe the principles of federalism, dual sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, the nature and purpose of majority rule, and the ways in which the American idea of constitutionalism preserves individual rights.
    8.3
  450. procedure
    a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
    Students use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:

    25.1
  451. nation
    a politically organized body of people under a single government
    They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions.
    8.1
  452. onslaught
    (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)
    As a result of his bravery, Carney was the first African American to receive the
    Congressional Medal of Honor.
    3 Almost half of the soldiers in the 54th Infantry Regiment were wounded or killed
    in the onslaught at Fort Wagner.
  453. communicate
    transfer to another
    Interpret and evaluate the various ways in which visual image makers (e.g., graphic artists, illustrators, news photographers) communicate information and affect impressions and opinions.
    2.0
  454. edit
    prepare for publication or presentation by correcting, revising, or adapting
    Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is used.
  455. link
    connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
    In this sentence, the word instead does not
    correctly link ideas.
  456. removal
    the act of removing
    Discuss the election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and his actions as president (e.g., the spoils system, veto of the National Bank, policy of Indian removal, opposition to the Supreme Court).
    2.
  457. supreme
    greatest in status or authority or power
    Jackson's opposition to the National Bank; early decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that reinforced the sanctity of contracts and a capitalist economic system of law).
    4.
  458. obnoxious
    causing disapproval or protest
    Jackson is athletic, graceful, obnoxious, and filled with conceit, while Hailey is slow, a little fat, and
    gentle to her bones.

    4 Jackson also has a truck neurosis.
  459. breach
    an opening (especially a gap in a dike or fortification)
    Teachers and schools should
    not advocate student grading and public announcement of grades because it provides a
    traumatizing breach of privacy for students and families and it subjects students to harsh
    judgments and treatment by their peers.
    3 Since 1974, a law known as the Buckley Amendment has prohibited the release of
    education records maintained by schools in order to preserve the privacy of students
    and their families.
  460. secession
    formal separation from an alliance or federation
    Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession and the earliest origins of that doctrine.
    4.
  461. length
    the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place
    B alternate the length of lines.
  462. highlight
    an area of lightness in a picture
    Our catalog also contains such highlights as interviews with
    your favorite authors, reviews of newly released novels, and a teen top-ten list for both fiction and nonfiction.
  463. action
    something done (usually as opposed to something said)
    Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
    2.2
  464. soar
    rise rapidly
    Whenever a comet,
    asteroid, or meteor takes a direct hit, your score will soar.
  465. guarantee
    an unconditional commitment that something will happen or that something is true
    Sun Veil Sunscreen is guaranteed 100% effective or your money back.
  466. fund
    a reserve of money set aside for some purpose
    Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
    5.
  467. approve
    judge to be right or commendable; think well of
    In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
    ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
    such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
  468. debate
    a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
    Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
    4.
  469. advantage
    the quality of having a superior or more favorable position
    Enumerate the advantages of a common market among the states as foreseen in and protected by the Constitution's clauses on interstate commerce, common coinage, and full-faith and credit.
    4.
  470. arrange
    put into a proper or systematic order
    Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
    2.5
  471. definition
    a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol
    Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to verify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast.
    2.0
  472. accurate
    (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct
    Copyright © 2002 by The New York Times Company and Scholastic Inc. Reprinted bypermission of Scholastic Inc.
    CSR1P150

    30 Which summary of paragraph 3 of Document A
    is the most accurate?
  473. reveal
    make visible
    Reveal the significance of, or the writer's attitude about, the subject.
    c.
  474. future
    the time yet to come
    Explain how the war affected combatants, civilians, the physical environment, and future warfare.
    8.11
  475. benefit
    something that aids or promotes well-being
    As our member, you can benefit from all of our super sales and our Bonus
    Program.
  476. clause
    a separate section of a legal document (as a statute or contract or will)
    Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
    4.
  477. delight
    a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction
    Picture of a beagle named "Murphy"
    2 Murphy was the first dog I ever trained personally, and I was delighted at the enthusiasm with which he
    took to the newspaper.
  478. liberally
    in a generous manner
    DIRECTIONS:
    Apply Sun Veil’s disappearing blue-colored sunblock liberally to completely cover all exposed
    skin.
  479. prior
    earlier in time
    Examine the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
    4.
  480. status
    a state at a particular time
    Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
    4.