Criminal Law 76 words

  1. criminalization
    legislation that makes something illegal
    Consequently, the criminalization of prostitution does not remove the protection offered by the Constitution and the LRA from a sex worker.
  2. criminalize
    declare illegal; outlaw
    The Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957 criminalizes brothel keeping and carnal (sexual) intercourse for reward.
  3. illegality
    unlawfulness by virtue of violating some legal statute
    Though there is no change to the illegality of prostitution, the employee status of sex workers is legally recognized.
  4. vulnerable
    capable of being wounded or hurt
    The Labor Appeal Court noted that sex workers form part of a vulnerable class of employees who are easily exploited due to the nature of their work and their social and legal standing.
  5. illegal
    prohibited by law or by official or accepted rules
    Within this context, the rights of sex workers as employees were vague due to the illegal nature of their trade.
  6. inherently
    in an inherent manner
    In this respect the court stated that the "courts have to be at their most vigilant to safeguard those employees who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in that they are inherently economically and socially weaker than their employers".
  7. South African
    of or pertaining to or characteristic of South Africa or its people
    Sex workers occupy a precarious position in South African society regarding their legal rights.
  8. court of appeals
    a court whose jurisdiction is to review decisions of lower courts or agencies
    As a litigation attorney, he has represented clients in all South African courts up to the Supreme Court of Appeals.
  9. exploited
    developed or used to greatest advantage
    The Labor Appeal Court noted that sex workers form part of a vulnerable class of employees who are easily exploited due to the nature of their work and their social and legal standing.
  10. litigation
    a legal proceeding in a court; a judicial contest to determine and enforce legal rights
    As a litigation attorney, he has represented clients in all South African courts up to the Supreme Court of Appeals.
  11. exploitation
    an act that exploits or victimizes someone (treats them unfairly)
    In this respect the court stated that the "courts have to be at their most vigilant to safeguard those employees who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in that they are inherently economically and socially weaker than their employers".
  12. mediation
    the act of intervening for the purpose of bringing about a settlement
    It is important to note that although sex workers may enjoy the protection of fair labor practices and may approach the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration and other such accredited dispute resolution institutions should they have employment related disputes, the full ambit of the remedies provided by the LRA will not be applicable to sex workers due to the illegal nature of their work.
  13. arbitration
    the act of deciding as an arbiter; giving authoritative judgment
    It is important to note that although sex workers may enjoy the protection of fair labor practices and may approach the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration and other such accredited dispute resolution institutions should they have employment related disputes, the full ambit of the remedies provided by the LRA will not be applicable to sex workers due to the illegal nature of their work.
  14. employment
    the state of being employed or having a job
    In this regard, even though the contract between a sex worker and her employer may be illegal, there exists an employment relationship and based on that relationship the sex worker will fall within the scope of the protection offered by the Labor Relations Act (LRA) and section 23(1) of the Constitution.
  15. trade union
    an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer
    He is one of the top labor lawyers in the country, who has represented trade unions and several large employers.
  16. economically
    in an economical manner
    In this respect the court stated that the "courts have to be at their most vigilant to safeguard those employees who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in that they are inherently economically and socially weaker than their employers".
  17. Constitution
    the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states
    In terms of section 23(1) of the Constitution everyone has the right to fair labor practices.
  18. context
    the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
    Within this context, the rights of sex workers as employees were vague due to the illegal nature of their trade.
  19. vigilant
    carefully observant or attentive; on the lookout for possible danger
    In this respect the court stated that the "courts have to be at their most vigilant to safeguard those employees who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in that they are inherently economically and socially weaker than their employers".
  20. monetary
    relating to or involving money
    However, a monetary compensation may be considered more suitable.
  21. Court
    Australian woman tennis player who won many major championships (born in 1947)
    However, in a recent Labor Appeal Court judgment, sex workers were provided with some relief.
  22. precarious
    not secure; beset with difficulties
    Sex workers occupy a precarious position in South African society regarding their legal rights.
  23. labor
    any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
    In terms of section 23(1) of the Constitution everyone has the right to fair labor practices.
  24. constitutional
    existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
    As such, a sex worker should be entitled to constitutional protection which is intended to protect her dignity from any assault or abuse.
  25. denote
    have as a meaning
    The term “everyone” denotes a generous embrace of the right of all workers or employees to a fair working relationship with their employers.
  26. legally
    by law; conforming to the law
    Though there is no change to the illegality of prostitution, the employee status of sex workers is legally recognized.
  27. dispute
    coming into conflict with
    It is important to note that although sex workers may enjoy the protection of fair labor practices and may approach the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration and other such accredited dispute resolution institutions should they have employment related disputes, the full ambit of the remedies provided by the LRA will not be applicable to sex workers due to the illegal nature of their work.
  28. attorney
    a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice
    As a litigation attorney, he has represented clients in all South African courts up to the Supreme Court of Appeals.
  29. African
    a native or inhabitant of Africa
    Sex workers occupy a precarious position in South African society regarding their legal rights.
  30. appeal
    earnest or urgent request
    However, in a recent Labor Appeal Court judgment, sex workers were provided with some relief.
  31. scope
    the state of the environment in which a situation exists
    In this regard, even though the contract between a sex worker and her employer may be illegal, there exists an employment relationship and based on that relationship the sex worker will fall within the scope of the protection offered by the Labor Relations Act (LRA) and section 23(1) of the Constitution.
  32. represent
    be a delegate or spokesperson for; represent somebody's interest or be a proxy or substitute for, as of politicians and office holders representing their constituents, or of a tenant representing other tenants in a housing dispute
    He is one of the top labor lawyers in the country, who has represented trade unions and several large employers.
  33. legal
    established by or founded upon law or official or accepted rules
    Sex workers occupy a precarious position in South African society regarding their legal rights.
  34. progressive
    favoring or promoting progress
    This progressive development of the law has confirmed that although prostitution may be illegal, sex workers are generally a vulnerable class of employees who should be treated with dignity by their employers and clients and should be afforded constitutional protection.
  35. South Africa
    a republic at the southernmost part of Africa; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1910; first European settlers were Dutch (known as Boers)
    ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Lavery Modise and Nadeem Mahomed
    Lavery Modise is deputy chairman of Eversheds, South Africa and heads up the firm’s employment law department.
  36. compensation
    the act of compensating for service or loss or injury
    However, a monetary compensation may be considered more suitable.
  37. provide
    give something useful or necessary to
    However, in a recent Labor Appeal Court judgment, sex workers were provided with some relief.
  38. section
    one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object
    In terms of section 23(1) of the Constitution everyone has the right to fair labor practices.
  39. exploit
    use or manipulate to one's advantage
    The Labor Appeal Court noted that sex workers form part of a vulnerable class of employees who are easily exploited due to the nature of their work and their social and legal standing.
  40. status
    a state at a particular time
    Though there is no change to the illegality of prostitution, the employee status of sex workers is legally recognized.
  41. fair
    free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception; conforming with established standards or rules
    In terms of section 23(1) of the Constitution everyone has the right to fair labor practices.
  42. appropriate
    suitable for a particular person or place or condition etc
    A remedy such as reinstatement arising from an unfair dismissal of an employee would not be appropriate in the circumstances.
  43. court
    an assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business
    In this respect the court stated that the "courts have to be at their most vigilant to safeguard those employees who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in that they are inherently economically and socially weaker than their employers".
  44. Supreme Court
    the highest federal court in the United States; has final appellate jurisdiction and has jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation
    As a litigation attorney, he has represented clients in all South African courts up to the Supreme Court of Appeals.
  45. practice
    a customary way of operation or behavior
    In terms of section 23(1) of the Constitution everyone has the right to fair labor practices.
  46. embrace
    squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness
    The term “everyone” denotes a generous embrace of the right of all workers or employees to a fair working relationship with their employers.
  47. confirmed
    having been established or made firm or received the rite of confirmation
    This progressive development of the law has confirmed that although prostitution may be illegal, sex workers are generally a vulnerable class of employees who should be treated with dignity by their employers and clients and should be afforded constitutional protection.
  48. suitable
    meant or adapted for an occasion or use
    However, a monetary compensation may be considered more suitable.
  49. recognize
    perceive to be the same
    Though there is no change to the illegality of prostitution, the employee status of sex workers is legally recognized.
  50. remove
    remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, or taking off, or remove something abstract
    Consequently, the criminalization of prostitution does not remove the protection offered by the Constitution and the LRA from a sex worker.
  51. trade
    the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services
    Within this context, the rights of sex workers as employees were vague due to the illegal nature of their trade.
  52. confirm
    strengthen or make more firm
    This progressive development of the law has confirmed that although prostitution may be illegal, sex workers are generally a vulnerable class of employees who should be treated with dignity by their employers and clients and should be afforded constitutional protection.
  53. Africa
    the second largest continent; located to the south of Europe and bordered to the west by the South Atlantic and to the east by the Indian Ocean
    ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Lavery Modise and Nadeem Mahomed
    Lavery Modise is deputy chairman of Eversheds, South Africa and heads up the firm’s employment law department.
  54. candidate
    someone who is considered for something (for an office or prize or honor etc.)
    Nadeem Mahomed is a candidate attorney at Eversheds.
  55. resolution
    finding a solution to a problem
    It is important to note that although sex workers may enjoy the protection of fair labor practices and may approach the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration and other such accredited dispute resolution institutions should they have employment related disputes, the full ambit of the remedies provided by the LRA will not be applicable to sex workers due to the illegal nature of their work.
  56. contract
    a binding agreement between two or more persons that is enforceable by law
    In this regard, even though the contract between a sex worker and her employer may be illegal, there exists an employment relationship and based on that relationship the sex worker will fall within the scope of the protection offered by the Labor Relations Act (LRA) and section 23(1) of the Constitution.
  57. institution
    a custom that for a long time has been an important feature of some group or society
    It is important to note that although sex workers may enjoy the protection of fair labor practices and may approach the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration and other such accredited dispute resolution institutions should they have employment related disputes, the full ambit of the remedies provided by the LRA will not be applicable to sex workers due to the illegal nature of their work.
  58. supreme
    greatest in status or authority or power
    As a litigation attorney, he has represented clients in all South African courts up to the Supreme Court of Appeals.
  59. union
    the state of being joined or united or linked
    He is one of the top labor lawyers in the country, who has represented trade unions and several large employers.
  60. recent
    of the immediate past or just previous to the present time
    However, in a recent Labor Appeal Court judgment, sex workers were provided with some relief.
  61. lawyer
    a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice
    He is one of the top labor lawyers in the country, who has represented trade unions and several large employers.
  62. development
    a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
    This progressive development of the law has confirmed that although prostitution may be illegal, sex workers are generally a vulnerable class of employees who should be treated with dignity by their employers and clients and should be afforded constitutional protection.
  63. afford
    have the financial means to do something or buy something
    This progressive development of the law has confirmed that although prostitution may be illegal, sex workers are generally a vulnerable class of employees who should be treated with dignity by their employers and clients and should be afforded constitutional protection.
  64. protect
    shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage
    As such, a sex worker should be entitled to constitutional protection which is intended to protect her dignity from any assault or abuse.
  65. judgment
    the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event
    However, in a recent Labor Appeal Court judgment, sex workers were provided with some relief.
  66. occupy
    live (in a certain place)
    Sex workers occupy a precarious position in South African society regarding their legal rights.
  67. consider
    think about carefully; weigh
    However, a monetary compensation may be considered more suitable.
  68. council
    a body serving in an administrative capacity
    It is important to note that although sex workers may enjoy the protection of fair labor practices and may approach the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration and other such accredited dispute resolution institutions should they have employment related disputes, the full ambit of the remedies provided by the LRA will not be applicable to sex workers due to the illegal nature of their work.
  69. department
    a specialized division of a large organization
    ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Lavery Modise and Nadeem Mahomed
    Lavery Modise is deputy chairman of Eversheds, South Africa and heads up the firm’s employment law department.
  70. circumstances
    your overall circumstances or condition in life (including everything that happens to you)
    A remedy such as reinstatement arising from an unfair dismissal of an employee would not be appropriate in the circumstances.
  71. intend
    have in mind as a purpose
    As such, a sex worker should be entitled to constitutional protection which is intended to protect her dignity from any assault or abuse.
  72. exist
    have an existence, be extant
    In this regard, even though the contract between a sex worker and her employer may be illegal, there exists an employment relationship and based on that relationship the sex worker will fall within the scope of the protection offered by the Labor Relations Act (LRA) and section 23(1) of the Constitution.
  73. author
    writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay)
    ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Lavery Modise and Nadeem Mahomed
    Lavery Modise is deputy chairman of Eversheds, South Africa and heads up the firm’s employment law department.
  74. approach
    move towards
    It is important to note that although sex workers may enjoy the protection of fair labor practices and may approach the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration and other such accredited dispute resolution institutions should they have employment related disputes, the full ambit of the remedies provided by the LRA will not be applicable to sex workers due to the illegal nature of their work.
  75. respect
    regard highly; think much of
    In this respect the court stated that the "courts have to be at their most vigilant to safeguard those employees who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in that they are inherently economically and socially weaker than their employers".
  76. several
    (used with count nouns) of an indefinite number more than 2 or 3 but not many
    He is one of the top labor lawyers in the country, who has represented trade unions and several large employers.