L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status 257 words

  1. Giraffa
    type genus of the Giraffidae
    Giraffa Giraffe Die Giraffe 6.55 6.50 6.90 7 7 7 100 19.02
  2. cognate
    related by blood
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  3. incongruent
    not congruent
    At testing, participants were presented
    with both congruent (i.e., words for the word-learning group) and incongruent
    (i.e., pictures for the word-learning group) stimuli.
  4. experimental condition
    the procedure that is varied in order to estimate a variable's effect by comparison with a control condition
    The latter did not differ from the test following the
    first learning session (.44).
    631 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Table 3 Accuracy (proportion of correct responses) for the different experimental conditions
    for English (fourth graders)
    Test session
    Method Cognate status 1st session 2nd session 1 week 1 month Mean
    Picture-word Cognates .66 .80 .63 .59 .67
  5. congruent
    corresponding in character or kind
    At testing, participants were presented
    with both congruent (i.e., words for the word-learning group) and incongruent
    (i.e., pictures for the word-learning group) stimuli.
  6. goniometer
    direction finder that determines the angular direction of incoming radio signals
    Goniometro Goniometer Das Goniometer 5.85 5.90 6.75 10 10 10 95 0.00
  7. interaction
    a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting
    Fourth-Grade Students
    The main effects and interactions that proved significant for either English
    and/or German are shown in Table 2.
  8. maximizing
    making as great as possible
    Thus, similarity in form,
    when coupled with dissimilarity in meaning, may not always be helpful for
    learners.
    639 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Specifically, we propose that in the acquisition of L2, when competence
    is limited and participants have difficulties in recalling the correct items, two
    strategies are employed with reference to the L1: either maximizing the similarities
    ormaximizing the differ...
  9. conceptual
    being or characterized by concepts or their formation
    Both models assumed a direct link between the lexicon of the L1 and
    the conceptual system.
  10. acquisition
    something acquired
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  11. participant
    someone who takes part in an activity
    Furthermore, in order to assess the
    efficacy of the two methods over time, participants’ performance was evaluated
    in four different experimental sessions.
  12. retrieval
    the act of regaining or saving something lost (or in danger of becoming lost)
    Several explanations may be offered for these results,
    some emphasizing the way in which cognates and noncognates are represented
    in memory and some relating to the differences between the two set of words
    with regard to retrieval processes.
  13. status
    a state at a particular time
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  14. method
    a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps)
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  15. hypothesize
    to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds
    As a consequence, it may
    be plausible to hypothesize that in learning a new language, setting up a new
    entry in memory is more demanding than modifying a preexisting similar
    entry, and this would facilitate the learning of L2 cognates over noncognates.
  16. mediated
    acting or brought about through an intervening agency
    This pattern
    of a stronger superiority of the picture-learning method in the latter sessions
    shows that the effects of the picture- mediated learning method may be fully
    appreciated when the learning sessions are spaced in time.
  17. processing
    preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure
    The teaching/learning method may play a relevant role in the acquisition of
    a new language because it can modulate lexical processing.
  18. corresponding
    similar especially in position or purpose
    After a learning phase during which L2
    words were presented either together with the corresponding translation in L1 (wordlearning
    method) or with the picture of the object to which the word refers (picturelearning
    method), children were tested at different points in time.
  19. experimental psychology
    the branch of psychology that uses experimental methods to study psychological issues
    Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition,
    15, 316–325.
  20. methodological
    relating to the methodology of some discipline
    Furthermore, at the methodological level, this allowed us
    to check the performance on the same set of items, minimizing effects due to
    specific item in one language.
  21. grade
    a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eighth ...
  22. lexicon
    a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them
    Both models assumed a direct link between the lexicon of the L1 and
    the conceptual system.
  23. similarity
    the quality of being similar
    Some of them
    concern linguistic aspects (e.g., word class, degree of similarity between languages),
    others concern the teaching methods adopted and the corresponding
    learning strategies, still others relate to the learner (e.g., age, motivation, knowledge
    of other languages), and so on.
  24. proficient
    having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
    Although both models describe
    the processing of L2 words, it has been proposed that they refer to different
    levels of proficiency in L2. Specifically, Kroll and Curley (1988) and Chen
    and Leung (1989) tested adult beginners with different levels of expertise in
    the L2, showing that whereas the more proficient individuals were equally
    fast in translating and naming pictures in L2, the less proficient ones were
    faster in translating than in naming pictures in the L2. Thus, the performan...
  25. asymmetric
    characterized by asymmetry in the spatial arrangement or placement of parts or components
    Category interference in translation and picture
    naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory
    representations.
  26. maximize
    make as big or large as possible
    In our study, the cognate stimuli were cognates in all three languages, and this
    would maximize the possibility of detecting a difference between cognates and
    noncognate stimuli.
  27. determinant
    a determining or causal element or factor
    Determinants of word translation.
  28. word processing
    rapid and efficient processing (storage and printing) of linguistic data for composition and editing
    The more often cited study on this issue was
    conducted by Potter, So, von Eckhart, and Feldman (1984), who tested two
    models of word processing and representation of the corresponding linguistic
    knowledge in memory: the word association model and the concept mediation
    model.
  29. correspond
    take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to
    After a learning phase during which L2
    words were presented either together with the corresponding translation in L1 (wordlearning
    method) or with the picture of the object to which the word refers (picturelearning
    method), children were tested at different points in time.
  30. polyp
    a small vascular growth on the surface of a mucous membrane
    In a rendition
    of an English or a German word, two (possible) ways to maximize similarities
    between the two languages are the following:
    1. transforming L2 phonemes into “canonical” L1 graphemes (e.g., writing
    “Carafe” for “Karaffe,” because in Italian the sound /k/ is spelled as /c/);
    2. adapting L2 words to L1 word forms (e.g., adding a vowel in last position:
    “Polipe” instead of “ Polyp,” because nouns in Italian tend to end with a
    vowel).
  31. evaluate
    evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of
    Specifically, we (a) compared two teaching/learning methods
    in four experimental sessions with different temporal features, (b) evaluated the
    vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages by learners of two age groups,
    and (c) assessed the role of words’ cognate status in the learning process.
  32. modulate
    fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of
    The results showed
    that the picture-based method leads to a better performance than the word-basedmethod,
    but this effect was modulated by cognate status and age of learning.
  33. carafe
    a bottle with a stopper; for serving wine or water
    In a rendition
    of an English or a German word, two (possible) ways to maximize similarities
    between the two languages are the following:
    1. transforming L2 phonemes into “canonical” L1 graphemes (e.g., writing
    Carafe” for “Karaffe,” because in Italian the sound /k/ is spelled as /c/);
    2. adapting L2 words to L1 word forms (e.g., adding a vowel in last position:
    “Polipe” instead of “Polyp,” because nouns in Italian tend to end with a
    vowel).
  34. facilitate
    make easier
    On the one hand,
    cognates were found to facilitate the acquisition of L2 words, but when the language was
    familiar (i.e.,
  35. experimental
    of the nature of or undergoing an experiment
    Specifically, we (a) compared two teaching/learning methods
    in four experimental sessions with different temporal features, (b) evaluated the
    vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages by learners of two age groups,
    and (c) assessed the role of words’ cognate status in the learning process.
  36. mediate
    act between parties with a view to reconciling differences
    This pattern
    of a stronger superiority of the picture-learning method in the latter sessions
    shows that the effects of the picture- mediated learning method may be fully
    appreciated when the learning sessions are spaced in time.
  37. interact
    act together or towards others or with others
    On the other hand, cognate status interacted with the learning method in the
    older children, indicating that the word method was particularly effective for cognate
    words.
  38. cognitive
    of or being or relating to or involving cognition
    In R. J.
    Harris (Ed.), Cognitive processing in bilinguals (pp. 253–264).
  39. significant
    rich in significance or implication
    The results showed a
    significant congruency effect: Participants were more efficient with congruent
    stimuli, in other words, the word-learning group was faster in translating in
    L2, whereas the picture-learning group was faster in naming pictures in L2.
    However, a main effect of learning method was not found.
  40. cognition
    the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning
    Memory and Cognition, 18, 279–288.
  41. representation
    the act of representing; standing in for someone or some group and speaking with authority in their behalf
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 624
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    The results of the few studies that have focused on the role of these two
    different methods of vocabulary acquisition challenge current models of lexical
    representation in bilinguals.
  42. concept
    an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
    The more often cited study on this issue was
    conducted by Potter, So, von Eckhart, and Feldman (1984), who tested two
    models of word processing and representation of the corresponding linguistic
    knowledge in memory: the word association model and the concept mediation
    model.
  43. effect
    a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  44. response
    the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange
    The authors
    proposed that young beginners used pictorial representations rather than L1
    words as media to produce the corresponding L2 responses.
  45. mediation
    the act of intervening for the purpose of bringing about a settlement
    The more often cited study on this issue was
    conducted by Potter, So, von Eckhart, and Feldman (1984), who tested two
    models of word processing and representation of the corresponding linguistic
    knowledge in memory: the word association model and the concept mediation
    model.
  46. attenuate
    become weaker, in strength, value, or magnitude
    However, this concern may be
    attenuated if we consider that mean word length was controlled for between
    languages and that the same set of stimuli was used to compare the two methods.
  47. assess
    evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of
    Specifically, we (a) compared two teaching/learning methods
    in four experimental sessions with different temporal features, (b) evaluated the
    vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages by learners of two age groups,
    and (c) assessed the role of words’ cognate status in the learning process.
  48. middle school
    a school for students intermediate between elementary school and college; usually grades 9 to 12
    In the cognate-rating study, we presented 63 Italian-English, Italian-
    German, and English-German word pairs corresponding to the names of the
    pictures used in the first pretest and asked 20 third-year middle school Italian
    children (13 years old) to evaluate the orthographic similarity within each word
    pair on a 7-point scale.
    627 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Table 1 Mean cognate ratings and mean leng...
  49. multilingual
    using or knowing more than one language
    Lexical processing in bilingual or multilingual speakers.
  50. process
    a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
    Specifically, we (a) compared two teaching/learning methods
    in four experimental sessions with different temporal features, (b) evaluated the
    vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages by learners of two age groups,
    and (c) assessed the role of words’ cognate status in the learning process.
  51. investigate
    conduct an inquiry or investigation of
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  52. translate
    restate (words) from one language into another language
    The results showed a
    significant congruency effect: Participants were more efficient with congruent
    stimuli, in other words, the word-learning group was faster in translating in
    L2, whereas the picture-learning group was faster in naming pictures in L2.
    However, a main effect of learning method was not found.
  53. link
    connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
    Both models assumed a direct link between the lexicon of the L1 and
    the conceptual system.
  54. appendix
    a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
    For each name, cognate status ratings,
    length, name agreement, and word frequency are shown in the Appendix.1
  55. linguistic
    consisting of or related to language
    Some of them
    concern linguistic aspects (e.g., word class, degree of similarity between languages),
    others concern the teaching methods adopted and the corresponding
    learning strategies, still others relate to the learner (e.g., age, motivation, knowledge
    of other languages), and so on.
  56. methodology
    the system of methods followed in a particular discipline
    In that study, a similar methodology and a similar
    population were used; that is, a verbal method and a visual method were used
    to assess the acquisition of L2 words in fourth-grade students.
  57. bourn
    an archaic term for a boundary
    In A. F. Healy
    & L. E. Bourn (Eds.), Foreign language learning: psycholinguistic experiment on
    training and retention (pp. 365–395).
  58. factor
    anything that contributes causally to a result
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 623
    C 
    2009 Language Learning Research Club, University of Michigan
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Introduction
    Several factors affect the learning of a second language (L2).
  59. concurrent
    occurring or operating at the same time
    Keywords second language learning; L2 vocabulary learning; cognate status; teaching/
    learning methods; immediate and delayed learning; concurrent acquisition of two foreign
    languages
    Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed toClaudio Tonzar, Institute of Psychology,
    University of Urbino, Via Ubaldini 17, 61029 Urbino (PU), Italy.
  60. processed
    subjected to a special process or treatment
    As expected, there was an effect
    of cognate status, with cognates being processed more accurately than noncognates.
  61. morphological
    relating to or concerned with the formation of admissible words in a language
    The representation of cognates
    and noncognates words in bilingual memory: Can cognate status be characterized as
    a special kind of morphological relation?
  62. strategy
    an elaborate and systematic plan of action
    Some of them
    concern linguistic aspects (e.g., word class, degree of similarity between languages),
    others concern the teaching methods adopted and the corresponding
    learning strategies, still others relate to the learner (e.g., age, motivation, knowledge
    of other languages), and so on.
  63. relevant
    having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
    The teaching/learning method may play a relevant role in the acquisition of
    a new language because it can modulate lexical processing.
  64. percentage
    a proportion in relation to a whole (which is usually the amount per hundred)
    Results
    In Figure 1, the percentages of correct responses are plotted as a function of
    learning method, cognate status, language, and grade.
  65. phase
    any distinct time period in a sequence of events
    After a learning phase during which L2
    words were presented either together with the corresponding translation in L1 (wordlearning
    method) or with the picture of the object to which the word refers (picturelearning
    method), children were tested at different points in time.
  66. tutorial
    a session of intensive tuition given by a tutor to an individual or to a small number of students
    In A. M. B. De Groot & J. F.
    Kroll (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycholinguistic perspectives
    (pp. 169–199).
  67. links
    a golf course that is built on sandy ground near a shore
    The shift from one form of representation to the other is assumed
    to be gradual and to be composed of changes in the relative weight given to
    the lexical and conceptual links: As fluency increases, the existing L2-to-L1
    lexical links are complemented, rather than substituted, by stronger additional
    links between the L2 lexicon and the conceptual system.
  68. delete
    cut or eliminate
    Two ways to maximize differences are the following:
    3. using letters of L2 that are not part of the L1 alphabet (e.g., inserting “w,”
    “y,”or “ß,” which are not part of the Italian alphabet; “Flatoß” instead of
    “Fl¨ote”);
    4. adapting L1 words to L2 word forms (e.g., deleting a vowel, or adding a
    consonant, thus differentiating it from Italian words that generally have a
    final-position vowel; “M¨uhler” instead of M¨uhle).
  69. Cantonese
    the dialect of Chinese spoken in Canton and neighboring provinces and in Hong Kong and elsewhere outside China
    Chen (1990) compared two groups of Cantonese-speaking college
    students who were instructed to learn words in a novel language (French) using
    two different learning methods.
  70. activate
    put in motion or move to act
    This pattern of results appeared to be very robust (for reviews, see Chen,
    1992; De Groot, 1993; Kroll, 1993; Kroll & De Groot, 1997; Kroll, Michael,
    & Sankaranarayanan, 1998; Kroll & Tokowicz, 2001) and led Kroll and Stewart
    (1994) to propose the revised hierarchical model (RHM), which assumes
    that less fluent bilinguals process words in the L2 by relying on their lexical
    knowledge in the L1, whereas more proficient bilinguals use the concept-to-L2
    link to process words without activatin...
  71. empirical
    derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
    This is a quite common situation
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 638
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    that has attracted quite a lot of attention from the general public but about which
    not much rigorous empirical evidence is available at present.
  72. psychology
    the science of mental life
    Keywords second language learning; L2 vocabulary learning; cognate status; teaching/
    learning methods; immediate and delayed learning; concurrent acquisition of two foreign
    languages
    Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed toClaudio Tonzar, Institute of Psychology,
    University of Urbino, Via Ubaldini 17, 61029 Urbino (PU), Italy.
  73. furthermore
    in addition
    Furthermore, in order to assess the
    efficacy of the two methods over time, participants’ performance was evaluated
    in four different experimental sessions.
  74. canonical
    conforming to orthodox or recognized rules
    In a rendition
    of an English or a German word, two (possible) ways to maximize similarities
    between the two languages are the following:
    1. transforming L2 phonemes into “ canonical” L1 graphemes (e.g., writing
    “Carafe” for “Karaffe,” because in Italian the sound /k/ is spelled as /c/);
    2. adapting L2 words to L1 word forms (e.g., adding a vowel in last position:
    “Polipe” instead of “Polyp,” because nouns in Italian tend to end with a
    vowel).
  75. giraffe
    tallest living quadruped; having a spotted coat and small horns and very long neck and legs; of savannahs of tropical Africa
    Giraffa Giraffe Die Giraffe 6.55 6.50 6.90 7 7 7 100 19.02
  76. memory
    the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered
    The more often cited study on this issue was
    conducted by Potter, So, von Eckhart, and Feldman (1984), who tested two
    models of word processing and representation of the corresponding linguistic
    knowledge in memory: the word association model and the concept mediation
    model.
  77. hierarchical
    classified according to various criteria into successive levels or layers
    This pattern of results appeared to be very robust (for reviews, see Chen,
    1992; De Groot, 1993; Kroll, 1993; Kroll & De Groot, 1997; Kroll, Michael,
    & Sankaranarayanan, 1998; Kroll & Tokowicz, 2001) and led Kroll and Stewart
    (1994) to propose the revised hierarchical model (RHM), which assumes
    that less fluent bilinguals process words in the L2 by relying on their lexical
    knowledge in the L1, whereas more proficient bilinguals use the concept-to-L2
    link to process words without activ...
  78. concurrently
    overlapping in duration
    A further observation about the
    relative “independence” of two languages learned concurrently involves the rate
    of substitutions of the two languages: Very rarely words in one language were
    substituted for by words in the other language.
  79. overall
    including everything
    In line with a developmental
    perspective, we expected that, overall, older students performed better
    than younger students.
  80. statistically
    with respect to statistics
    In the discussion, we will
    mainly focus on the patterns that were statistically significant for both age
    groups in both languages.
  81. pattern
    a perceptual structure
    This pattern of results appeared to be very robust (for reviews, see Chen,
    1992; De Groot, 1993; Kroll, 1993; Kroll & De Groot, 1997; Kroll, Michael,
    & Sankaranarayanan, 1998; Kroll & Tokowicz, 2001) and led Kroll and Stewart
    (1994) to propose the revised hierarchical model (RHM), which assumes
    that less fluent bilinguals process words in the L2 by relying on their lexical
    knowledge in the L1, whereas more proficient bilinguals use the concept-to-L2
    link to process words without activ...
  82. variability
    the quality of being subject to variation
    For our
    participants, such superiority tends to be smaller in the first testing session
    and larger in the latter sessions although there is some variability probably
    due to the very low performance for German in some conditions.
  83. expose
    to show, make visible or apparent
    Students in neither grade
    had been systematically exposed to German, although eighth graders had been
    taught English in the previous 2 years, albeit on a very restricted schedule.
  84. revise
    make revisions in
    This pattern of results appeared to be very robust (for reviews, see Chen,
    1992; De Groot, 1993; Kroll, 1993; Kroll & De Groot, 1997; Kroll, Michael,
    & Sankaranarayanan, 1998; Kroll & Tokowicz, 2001) and led Kroll and Stewart
    (1994) to propose the revised hierarchical model (RHM), which assumes
    that less fluent bilinguals process words in the L2 by relying on their lexical
    knowledge in the L1, whereas more proficient bilinguals use the concept-to-L2
    link to process words without activ...
  85. involve
    contain as a part
    The issue
    of learning two L2s at a time is a theoretically interesting matter because
    it touches on the constraints of the acquisition mechanism involved in L2
    learning.
  86. accuracy
    the quality of being near to the true value
    The latter did not differ from the test following the
    first learning session (.44).
    631 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Table 3 Accuracy (proportion of correct responses) for the different experimental conditions
    for English (fourth graders)
    Test session
    Method Cognate status 1st session 2nd session 1 week 1 month Mean
    Picture-word Cognates .66 .80 .63 .59 .67
  87. role
    the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group
    Specifically, we (a) compared two teaching/learning methods
    in four experimental sessions with different temporal features, (b) evaluated the
    vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages by learners of two age groups,
    and (c) assessed the role of words’ cognate status in the learning process.
  88. contiguity
    the attribute of being so near as to be touching
    In this article, we present a study aimed
    at investigating how some of these factors affected vocabulary acquisition in a
    school environment in which two foreign languages are acquired in close temporal
    contiguity.
  89. journal
    a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations
    International Journal
    of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5, 267–278.
  90. write down
    put down in writing; of texts, musical compositions, etc.
    Twenty
    fourth-year primary school Italian children (9 years old) were asked to write
    down
    the name of the depicted objects.
  91. crayfish
    small freshwater decapod crustacean that resembles a lobster
    Gambero Crayfish Der Krebs 1.10 1.20 1.15 7 8 5 70 4.36
  92. present
    temporal sense; intermediate between past and future; now existing or happening or in consideration
    After a learning phase during which L2
    words were presented either together with the corresponding translation in L1 (wordlearning
    method) or with the picture of the object to which the word refers (picturelearning
    method), children were tested at different points in time.
  93. adult
    a fully developed person from maturity onward
    Although both models describe
    the processing of L2 words, it has been proposed that they refer to different
    levels of proficiency in L2. Specifically, Kroll and Curley (1988) and Chen
    and Leung (1989) tested adult beginners with different levels of expertise in
    the L2, showing that whereas the more proficient individuals were equally
    fast in translating and naming pictures in L2, the less proficient ones were
    faster in translating than in naming pictures in the L2. Thus, the performan...
  94. assume
    take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
    Both models assumed a direct link between the lexicon of the L1 and
    the conceptual system.
  95. perform
    get (something) done
    In line with a developmental
    perspective, we expected that, overall, older students performed better
    than younger students.
  96. consider
    think about carefully; weigh
    A word is considered a cognate when it is orthographically and/or
    phonologically similar to its translation in another language.
  97. investigating
    the work of inquiring into something thoroughly and systematically
    In this article, we present a study aimed
    at investigating how some of these factors affected vocabulary acquisition in a
    school environment in which two foreign languages are acquired in close temporal
    contiguity.
  98. primary school
    a school for young children; usually the first 6 or 8 grades
    Twenty
    fourth-year primary school Italian children (9 years old) were asked to write
    down the name of the depicted objects.
  99. Oxford University
    a university in England
    New
    York: Oxford University Press.
  100. significantly
    in a significant manner
    Name agreement (in the L1) for cognates (96.00%) did
    not differ from that for noncognates (93.25%), t(19) = 1.11, p = .280, whereas
    rated orthographic similarities did differ: Stimuli belonging to the cognates
    group were considered significantly different from those of the noncognates
    group (see Table 1 for means, t-values, and effect sizes).
  101. proportion
    the relation between things (or parts of things) with respect to their comparative quantity, magnitude, or degree
    The analyses of
    variance (ANOVA) on proportion of correct responses were performed after a
    2 arcsin transformation.
  102. summarize
    give a summary (of)
    Summary
    Let us briefly summarize the main results.
  103. specifically
    in distinction from others
    Specifically, we (a) compared two teaching/learning methods
    in four experimental sessions with different temporal features, (b) evaluated the
    vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages by learners of two age groups,
    and (c) assessed the role of words’ cognate status in the learning process.
  104. parasitic
    relating to or caused by parasites
    The automatic cognate form assumption: Evidence for the parasitic
    model of vocabulary development.
  105. reiterate
    to say, state, or perform again
    In addition, we should reiterate that
    such superiority is context-sensitive.
  106. level
    a relative position or degree of value in a graded group
    Although both models describe
    the processing of L2 words, it has been proposed that they refer to different
    levels of proficiency in L2. Specifically, Kroll and Curley (1988) and Chen
    and Leung (1989) tested adult beginners with different levels of expertise in
    the L2, showing that whereas the more proficient individuals were equally
    fast in translating and naming pictures in L2, the less proficient ones were
    faster in translating than in naming pictures in the L2. Thus, the performan...
  107. perspective
    a way of regarding situations or topics etc.
    In line with a developmental
    perspective, we expected that, overall, older students performed better
    than younger students.
  108. summary
    briefly giving the gist of something
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 630
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Table 2 ANOVA summary table concerning fourth-grade participants
    English German
    Significant effects F p ηp
    2 F p ηp
    2
    Learning method, F(1, 121) 9.94 .002 .08 13.09 .0004 .10
  109. lingua
    a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity
    Confronto tra modalit`a iconiche e verbali
    nell’apprendimento lessicale della lingua straniera in et`a scolare.
  110. length
    the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place
    In the cognate-rating study, we presented 63 Italian-English, Italian-
    German, and English-German word pairs corresponding to the names of the
    pictures used in the first pretest and asked 20 third-year middle school Italian
    children (13 years old) to evaluate the orthographic similarity within each word
    pair on a 7-point scale.
    627 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Table 1 Mean cognate ratings and mean length
  111. highlight
    an area of lightness in a picture
    This pattern of results highlights two aspects.
  112. efficacy
    capacity or power to produce a desired effect
    Furthermore, in order to assess the
    efficacy of the two methods over time, participants’ performance was evaluated
    in four different experimental sessions.
  113. accurate
    (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct
    Participants
    performed better in the picture-word than in the word-word condition (.55 vs.
    .46), and they were more accurate with cognates than noncognates (averaging
    across conditions, .64 vs. .36).
  114. acquire
    come into the possession of something concrete or abstract
    In this article, we present a study aimed
    at investigating how some of these factors affected vocabulary acquisition in a
    school environment in which two foreign languages are acquired in close temporal
    contiguity.
  115. accurately
    strictly correctly
    Previous studies on L2
    performance have shown that cognates are translated faster and more accurately
    than noncognates, both in forward and backward direction (e.g.,
  116. differential
    a quality that differentiates between similar things
    From a theoretical standpoint, this study provides evidence on the differential
    role played by the links between the conceptual system and the L1 and L2
    Table 8 Proportion of wrongly reported words for cognates and noncognates as a
    function of the two strategies
    Maximizing similarities Maximizing differences
    Cognate Transform L2 into Adapt L2 to Insert peculiar Adapt L1 to
    status “canonical” L1 L1 word forms L2 letters L2 word forms
    Cognates 27.3 12.5 0.9 3.03
  117. ascribe
    attribute or credit to
    In fact, Lotto and De Groot (1998), although acknowledging
    the possibility that the difference in processing cognate and non-cognate words
    may be ascribed to the level of representation, pointed out that formal similarity
    between cognate translations may act either at the learning level, as there is
    less to learn with cognate words than with noncognate words, or at the retrieval
    level, as cognates constitute a strong cue for the retrieval of the corresponding
    translation.
  118. rendition
    a performance of a musical composition or a dramatic role etc.
    In a rendition
    of an English or a German word, two (possible) ways to maximize similarities
    between the two languages are the following:
    1. transforming L2 phonemes into “canonical” L1 graphemes (e.g., writing
    “Carafe” for “Karaffe,” because in Italian the sound /k/ is spelled as /c/);
    2. adapting L2 words to L1 word forms (e.g., adding a vowel in last position:
    “Polipe” instead of “Polyp,” because nouns in Italian tend to end with a
    vowel).
  119. pathology
    the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases
    American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 381–
    394.
  120. differentiate
    become distinct and acquire a different character
    Two ways to maximize differences are the following:
    3. using letters of L2 that are not part of the L1 alphabet (e.g., inserting “w,”
    “y,”or “ß,” which are not part of the Italian alphabet; “Flatoß” instead of
    “Fl¨ote”);
    4. adapting L1 words to L2 word forms (e.g., deleting a vowel, or adding a
    consonant, thus differentiating it from Italian words that generally have a
    final-position vowel; “M¨uhler” instead of M¨uhle).
  121. visual
    relating to or using sight
    In that study, a similar methodology and a similar
    population were used; that is, a verbal method and a visual method were used
    to assess the acquisition of L2 words in fourth-grade students.
  122. issue
    some situation or event that is thought about
    In the second
    method (the word-word condition), L2 words were presented together with
    the correspondingwords in the first language (L1).Afewstudies have addressed
    this issue.
  123. manipulate
    influence or control shrewdly or deviously
    The three factors we manipulated—learning/teaching method, test session,
    and cognate status—were all significant.
  124. immersion
    the act of wetting something by submerging it
    Language interference and language learning
    techniques transfer in L2 and L3 immersion programmes.
  125. adapt
    make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose
    In a rendition
    of an English or a German word, two (possible) ways to maximize similarities
    between the two languages are the following:
    1. transforming L2 phonemes into “canonical” L1 graphemes (e.g., writing
    “Carafe” for “Karaffe,” because in Italian the sound /k/ is spelled as /c/);
    2. adapting L2 words to L1 word forms (e.g., adding a vowel in last position:
    “Polipe” instead of “Polyp,” because nouns in Italian tend to end with a
    vowel).
  126. exposure
    the state of being vulnerable or exposed
    English for the eighth-grade children), this effect decreased with exposure
    to language.
  127. orthography
    a method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols
    The finding that the word-learning method is more effective for cognate words
    suggests that the formal similarity of words in the two languages may be a
    helpful retrieval cue of the orthographic form of words in L2. This may be
    particularly effective in a language like Italian, for which the mapping from
    phonology to orthography is highly regular.
  128. decrease
    a change downward
    English for the eighth-grade children), this effect decreased with exposure
    to language.
  129. administer
    work in an administrative capacity; supervise or be in charge of
    Immediate Test 1 was administered at the end of the first
    learning session and Immediate Test 2 was administered at the end of the
    second learning session.
  130. fluency
    powerful and effective language
    The shift from one form of representation to the other is assumed
    to be gradual and to be composed of changes in the relative weight given to
    the lexical and conceptual links: As fluency increases, the existing L2-to-L1
    lexical links are complemented, rather than substituted, by stronger additional
    links between the L2 lexicon and the conceptual system.
  131. acquiring
    the act of acquiring something
    The relationship between two languages invites some considerations about
    the issue of acquiring two languages at a time.
  132. revised
    improved or brought up to date
    This pattern of results appeared to be very robust (for reviews, see Chen,
    1992; De Groot, 1993; Kroll, 1993; Kroll & De Groot, 1997; Kroll, Michael,
    & Sankaranarayanan, 1998; Kroll & Tokowicz, 2001) and led Kroll and Stewart
    (1994) to propose the revised hierarchical model (RHM), which assumes
    that less fluent bilinguals process words in the L2 by relying on their lexical
    knowledge in the L1, whereas more proficient bilinguals use the concept-to-L2
    link to process words without activ...
  133. formal
    being in accord with established forms and conventions and requirements (as e.g. of formal dress)
    On the one hand, because the formal similarity of
    the two words may be a facilitating cue for retrieval, a larger effect of cognate
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 626
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    status in theword-learning method than in the picture-learning method could be
    predicted.
  134. motivation
    the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior
    Some of them
    concern linguistic aspects (e.g., word class, degree of similarity between languages),
    others concern the teaching methods adopted and the corresponding
    learning strategies, still others relate to the learner (e.g., age, motivation, knowledge
    of other languages), and so on.
  135. involved
    connected by participation or association or use
    The issue
    of learning two L2s at a time is a theoretically interesting matter because
    it touches on the constraints of the acquisition mechanism involved in L2
    learning.
  136. concern
    something that interests you because it is important or affects you
    Some implications concerning learning two languages at a time in the school
    setting are discussed.
  137. aspect
    a characteristic to be considered
    Some of them
    concern linguistic aspects (e.g., word class, degree of similarity between languages),
    others concern the teaching methods adopted and the corresponding
    learning strategies, still others relate to the learner (e.g., age, motivation, knowledge
    of other languages), and so on.
  138. implication
    something that is inferred (deduced or entailed or implied)
    Some implications concerning learning two languages at a time in the school
    setting are discussed.
  139. similar
    having the same or similar characteristics
    A word is considered a cognate when it is orthographically and/or
    phonologically similar to its translation in another language.
  140. projector
    an optical device for projecting a beam of light
    Pairs, in each session, were presented at a rate of 8 s using a slide projector,
    and the experimenter read aloud the name in the L2. Participants were asked to
    pay attention to the foreign words, because at the end of the session they would
    be asked to write them down.
    629 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    In order to quantify learning, participants performed four test sessions
    for each language.
  141. emphasizing
    the act of giving special importance or significance to something
    Several explanations may be offered for these results,
    some emphasizing the way in which cognates and noncognates are represented
    in memory and some relating to the differences between the two set of words
    with regard to retrieval processes.
  142. retention
    the act of retaining something
    In A. F. Healy
    & L. E. Bourn (Eds.), Foreign language learning: psycholinguistic experiment on
    training and retention (pp. 365–395).
  143. detecting
    a police investigation to determine the perpetrator
    In our study, the cognate stimuli were cognates in all three languages, and this
    would maximize the possibility of detecting a difference between cognates and
    noncognate stimuli.
  144. temporal
    of or relating to or limited by time
    In this article, we present a study aimed
    at investigating how some of these factors affected vocabulary acquisition in a
    school environment in which two foreign languages are acquired in close temporal
    contiguity.
  145. analysis
    the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations
    In order to simplify the exposition of the results, the analyses for the two
    age groups and the two languages will be presented separately.
  146. conform
    be similar, be in line with
    Analyzing a subset of learners’ errors, we
    found that when a cognate was wrongly reported, it conformed more often to
    the strategy of maximizing the similarities, wherease when a noncognate was
    wrongly reported, it conformed more often to the strategy of maximizing the
    differences (see Table 8).
  147. expertise
    skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge
    Although both models describe
    the processing of L2 words, it has been proposed that they refer to different
    levels of proficiency in L2. Specifically, Kroll and Curley (1988) and Chen
    and Leung (1989) tested adult beginners with different levels of expertise in
    the L2, showing that whereas the more proficient individuals were equally
    fast in translating and naming pictures in L2, the less proficient ones were
    faster in translating than in naming pictures in the L2. Thus, the performan...
  148. non
    negation of a word or group of words
    Similarly, the superiority of cognate words is in line with
    previous studies showing that cognates are translated faster than non-cognates
    637 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    (e.g.,
  149. registered
    listed or recorded officially
    As expected, the worst recall scores were registered in the
    635 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    last session, 1 month later (English, fourth graders: .45, eighth graders: .62;
  150. triple
    having three units or components or elements
    The three 2-way interactions should be viewed in light of the triple interaction
    Learning method × Cognate status × Test session.
  151. elementary school
    a school for young children; usually the first 6 or 8 grades
    When this happened, it affected
    the “weaker” language; that is, about 5% of elementary school children and
    3% of middle school children produced an English term instead of the required
    German word.
  152. exploited
    developed or used to greatest advantage
    If Italian children learning L2 exploited knowledge of their L1 when learning
    in the L2, we should detect signs of interference from L1 to L2. For
    example, words that are similar but have different meanings in two languages
    (false friends) may hinder rather than help learning.
  153. entry
    the act of entering
    For instance, S´anchez-Casas et al. suggested
    that cognates share the same lexical representation, whereas noncognates are
    represented as separate entries in lexical memory.
  154. rely
    have confidence or faith in
    This pattern of results appeared to be very robust (for reviews, see Chen,
    1992; De Groot, 1993; Kroll, 1993; Kroll & De Groot, 1997; Kroll, Michael,
    & Sankaranarayanan, 1998; Kroll & Tokowicz, 2001) and led Kroll and Stewart
    (1994) to propose the revised hierarchical model (RHM), which assumes
    that less fluent bilinguals process words in the L2 by relying on their lexical
    knowledge in the L1, whereas more proficient bilinguals use the concept-to-L2
    link to process words without activ...
  155. retrieve
    get or find back; recover the use of
    Lexical memory in novice bilinguals: The role of
    concepts in retrieving second language words.
  156. focus
    the concentration of attention or energy on something
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 624
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    The results of the few studies that have focused on the role of these two
    different methods of vocabulary acquisition challenge current models of lexical
    representation in bilinguals.
  157. category
    a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations in a conceptual scheme
    Objects belonging to 12 semantic categories
    (buildings, vehicles, weapons,musical instruments, animals, plants, fish,
    kitchen utensils, fruits, tools, clothes and vegetables) were depicted.
  158. medium
    the surrounding environment
    The authors
    proposed that young beginners used pictorial representations rather than L1
    words as media to produce the corresponding L2 responses.
  159. depict
    give a description of
    Objects belonging to 12 semantic categories
    (buildings, vehicles, weapons,musical instruments, animals, plants, fish,
    kitchen utensils, fruits, tools, clothes and vegetables) were depicted.
  160. clarify
    make clear by removing impurities or solids, as by heating
    The present study may help to clarify this issue by examining
    fourth- and eighth-grade children in a school setting.
  161. contrast
    the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared
    The same two learning methods were contrasted by Lotto and De Groot
    (1998), who instructed two groups of Dutch undergraduates to learn words in
    a novel language (Italian).
  162. item
    a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group of things that could be enumerated on a list
    Furthermore, at the methodological level, this allowed us
    to check the performance on the same set of items, minimizing effects due to
    specific item in one language.
  163. evidence
    your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief
    Furthermore, it is relevant from a social point of view, as many
    curricula provide the opportunity (or, sometimes, requirement) to learn two
    languages at school, and yet no firm evidence exists on how this may affect the
    outcome of the learning process.
  164. structural
    relating to or having or characterized by structure
    The superiority showed by the picture method compared to the verbal
    one over time suggests that the link among the structural description of an
    object, its visual representation, and its name is more efficient than the link
    between the corresponding L1 and L2 names.
  165. outcome
    something that results
    Furthermore, it is relevant from a social point of view, as many
    curricula provide the opportunity (or, sometimes, requirement) to learn two
    languages at school, and yet no firm evidence exists on how this may affect the
    outcome of the learning process.
  166. pumpkin
    a coarse vine widely cultivated for its large pulpy round orange fruit with firm orange skin and numerous seeds; subspecies of Cucurbita pepo include the summer squashes and a few autumn squashes
    Zucca Pumpkin Der K¨urbis 1.20 1.20 1.15 5 7 6 100 24.45
  167. competence
    the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually
    Thus, similarity in form,
    when coupled with dissimilarity in meaning, may not always be helpful for
    learners.
    639 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Specifically, we propose that in the acquisition of L2, when competence
    is limited and participants have difficulties in recalling the correct items, two
    strategies are employed with reference to the L1: either maximizing the similarities
    ormaximizing the differ...
  168. affect
    have an effect upon
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 623
    C 
    2009 Language Learning Research Club, University of Michigan
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Introduction
    Several factors affect the learning of a second language (L2).
  169. examine
    observe, check out, and look over carefully or inspect
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  170. substitution
    the act of putting one thing or person in the place of another: "he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help"
    A further observation about the
    relative “independence” of two languages learned concurrently involves the rate
    of substitutions of the two languages: Very rarely words in one language were
    substituted for by words in the other language.
  171. university
    a large and diverse institution of higher learning created to educate for life and for a profession and to grant degrees
    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333
    L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children:
    Effects of Learning Method and Cognate
    Status
    Claudio Tonzar
    University of Urbino
    Lorella Lotto
    University of Padova
    Remo Job
    University of Trento, Italy
    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or wordmediated
    learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary
    acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German.We examined children from
    fourth and eig...
  172. theoretically
    in theory; according to the assumed facts
    The issue
    of learning two L2s at a time is a theoretically interesting matter because
    it touches on the constraints of the acquisition mechanism involved in L2
    learning.
  173. assumption
    the act of assuming or taking for granted
    Given that the two groups of children
    taking part in the study differ in their knowledge of one of the L2s we used
    (English), we will not compare directly the results of the two age groups, on
    the assumption that it is likely that eighth-grade students would perform better.
  174. ostrich
    fast-running African flightless bird with two-toed feet; largest living bird
    Struzzo Ostrich Der Strauß 1.35 2.20 1.55 7 7 6 95 14.60
  175. microphone
    device for converting sound waves into electrical energy
    Microfono Microphone Das Mikrophon 5.60 5.60 6.05 9 10 9 100 10.73
  176. complement
    something added to complete or embellish or make perfect
    The shift from one form of representation to the other is assumed
    to be gradual and to be composed of changes in the relative weight given to
    the lexical and conceptual links: As fluency increases, the existing L2-to-L1
    lexical links are complemented, rather than substituted, by stronger additional
    links between the L2 lexicon and the conceptual system.
  177. suggest
    make a proposal, declare a plan for something
    For instance, S´anchez-Casas et al. suggested
    that cognates share the same lexical representation, whereas noncognates are
    represented as separate entries in lexical memory.
  178. previous
    just preceding something else in time or order
    However, in previous studies, more advanced
    L2 learners were also older L2 learners; thus, age and proficiency may be
    confounded.
  179. index
    an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed
    Two measures were derived from the two pretests: an index of name agreement
    and the mean similarity ratings.We used these indexes to select the experimental
    material.
  180. register
    an official written record of names or events or transactions
    As expected, the worst recall scores were registered in the
    635 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    last session, 1 month later (English, fourth graders: .45, eighth graders: .62;
  181. procedure
    a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
    Materials and Procedure
    The 40 pictures selected on the basis of the two pretests and the corresponding
    names in Italian, English, and German were used throughout the study (see the
    Appendix).
  182. curriculum
    an integrated course of academic studies
    Furthermore, it is relevant from a social point of view, as many
    curricula provide the opportunity (or, sometimes, requirement) to learn two
    languages at school, and yet no firm evidence exists on how this may affect the
    outcome of the learning process.
  183. variance
    the quality of being subject to variation
    The analyses of
    variance (ANOVA) on proportion of correct responses were performed after a
    2 arcsin transformation.
  184. constraint
    the state of being physically constrained
    The issue
    of learning two L2s at a time is a theoretically interesting matter because
    it touches on the constraints of the acquisition mechanism involved in L2
    learning.
  185. insert
    introduce
    Two ways to maximize differences are the following:
    3. using letters of L2 that are not part of the L1 alphabet (e.g., inserting “w,”
    “y,”or “ß,” which are not part of the Italian alphabet; “Flatoß” instead of
    “Fl¨ote”);
    4. adapting L1 words to L2 word forms (e.g., deleting a vowel, or adding a
    consonant, thus differentiating it from Italian words that generally have a
    final-position vowel; “M¨uhler” instead of M¨uhle).
  186. data
    a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
    Congruent with Chen’s (1990) data, performance
    was better when learning and test condition were congruent, compared to when
    they were incongruent.
  187. datum
    an item of factual information derived from measurement or research
    Congruent with Chen’s (1990) data, performance
    was better when learning and test condition were congruent, compared to when
    they were incongruent.
  188. efficient
    being effective without wasting time or effort or expense
    The results showed a
    significant congruency effect: Participants were more efficient with congruent
    stimuli, in other words, the word-learning group was faster in translating in
    L2, whereas the picture-learning group was faster in naming pictures in L2.
    However, a main effect of learning method was not found.
  189. analyze
    break down into components or essential features
    Analyzing a subset of learners’ errors, we
    found that when a cognate was wrongly reported, it conformed more often to
    the strategy of maximizing the similarities, wherease when a noncognate was
    wrongly reported, it conformed more often to the strategy of maximizing the
    differences (see Table 8).
  190. familiar
    a friend who is frequently in the company of another
    On the one hand,
    cognates were found to facilitate the acquisition of L2 words, but when the language was
    familiar (i.e.,
  191. funnel
    a conically shaped utensil having a narrow tube at the small end; used to channel the flow of substances into a container with a small mouth
    Imbuto Funnel Der Trichter 1.20 1.15 1.15 6 6 8 100 0.00
  192. substitute
    a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another
    The shift from one form of representation to the other is assumed
    to be gradual and to be composed of changes in the relative weight given to
    the lexical and conceptual links: As fluency increases, the existing L2-to-L1
    lexical links are complemented, rather than substituted, by stronger additional
    links between the L2 lexicon and the conceptual system.
  193. comprise
    be composed of
    Because our aim was mainly to investigate the participants’ quantitative
    performance when asked to learn a vocabulary set comprising cognate and
    noncognate words under two teaching/learning methods, we will not present a
    detailed analysis of learners’ errors.
  194. dolphin
    any of various small toothed whales with a beaklike snout; larger than porpoises
    Delfino Dolphin Der Delphin 5.45 5.65 5.40 7 7 7 100 22.51
  195. variable
    something that is likely to vary; something that is subject to variation
    In spite of the fact
    that a between-subjects design makes it more difficult to control for all relevant
    learner variables, we preferred it to a within-subjects design for reasons of time
    and because it can be compared to many of the studies done in the educational
    field.
  196. utensil
    an implement for practical use (especially in a household)
    Objects belonging to 12 semantic categories
    (buildings, vehicles, weapons,musical instruments, animals, plants, fish,
    kitchen utensils, fruits, tools, clothes and vegetables) were depicted.
  197. context
    the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
    In addition, we should reiterate that
    such superiority is context-sensitive.
  198. recall
    call to mind
    This shows that when noncognates
    have been learned to some degree (after the first immediate test session),
    the picture-word association is a good cue for recall.
  199. theoretical
    concerned primarily with theories or hypotheses rather than practical considerations
    From a theoretical standpoint, this study provides evidence on the differential
    role played by the links between the conceptual system and the L1 and L2
    Table 8 Proportion of wrongly reported words for cognates and noncognates as a
    function of the two strategies
    Maximizing similarities Maximizing differences
    Cognate Transform L2 into Adapt L2 to Insert peculiar Adapt L1 to
    status “canonical” L1 L1 word forms L2 letters L2 word forms
    Cognates 27.3 12.5 0.9 3.03
  200. novice
    someone new to a field or activity
    Lexical memory in novice bilinguals: The role of
    concepts in retrieving second language words.
  201. undergraduate
    a university student who has not yet received a first degree
    The same two learning methods were contrasted by Lotto and De Groot
    (1998), who instructed two groups of Dutch undergraduates to learn words in
    a novel language (Italian).
  202. research
    a search for knowledge
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 623
    C 
    2009 Language Learning Research Club, University of Michigan
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Introduction
    Several factors affect the learning of a second language (L2).
  203. cite
    make reference to
    The more often cited study on this issue was
    conducted by Potter, So, von Eckhart, and Feldman (1984), who tested two
    models of word processing and representation of the corresponding linguistic
    knowledge in memory: the word association model and the concept mediation
    model.
  204. experiment
    the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation
    The Study
    Phase 1: Collecting Ratings for Name Agreement and Cognate Status
    Prior to the main learning experiment, we performed two pretests.
  205. transform
    change or alter in form, appearance, or nature
    In a rendition
    of an English or a German word, two (possible) ways to maximize similarities
    between the two languages are the following:
    1. transforming L2 phonemes into “canonical” L1 graphemes (e.g., writing
    “Carafe” for “Karaffe,” because in Italian the sound /k/ is spelled as /c/);
    2. adapting L2 words to L1 word forms (e.g., adding a vowel in last position:
    “Polipe” instead of “Polyp,” because nouns in Italian tend to end with a
    vowel).
  206. access
    the right to enter
    However, although the concept mediation model also
    assumes a direct link between the lexicon of the L2 and the conceptual system,
    the word association model does not and it assumes that L2 words gain access
    to concepts indirectly through L1 mediation.
  207. error
    a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention
    Because our aim was mainly to investigate the participants’ quantitative
    performance when asked to learn a vocabulary set comprising cognate and
    noncognate words under two teaching/learning methods, we will not present a
    detailed analysis of learners’ errors.
  208. object
    a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow
    After a learning phase during which L2
    words were presented either together with the corresponding translation in L1 (wordlearning
    method) or with the picture of the object to which the word refers (picturelearning
    method), children were tested at different points in time.
  209. peacock
    male peafowl; having a crested head and very large fanlike tail marked with iridescent eyes or spots
    Pavone Peacock Der Pfau 2.25 1.70 1.45 6 7 4 95 12.16
  210. represent
    be a delegate or spokesperson for; represent somebody's interest or be a proxy or substitute for, as of politicians and office holders representing their constituents, or of a tenant representing other tenants in a housing dispute
    Several explanations may be offered for these results,
    some emphasizing the way in which cognates and noncognates are represented
    in memory and some relating to the differences between the two set of words
    with regard to retrieval processes.
  211. precede
    be earlier in time; go back further
    For half of the participants, English preceded German, and for the
    other half, the order was reversed.
  212. coupled
    joined together especially in a pair or pairs
    Thus, similarity in form,
    when coupled with dissimilarity in meaning, may not always be helpful for
    learners.
    639 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Specifically, we propose that in the acquisition of L2, when competence
    is limited and participants have difficulties in recalling the correct items, two
    strategies are employed with reference to the L1: either maximizing the similarities
    ormaximizing the differ...
  213. emphasize
    to stress, single out as important
    Several explanations may be offered for these results,
    some emphasizing the way in which cognates and noncognates are represented
    in memory and some relating to the differences between the two set of words
    with regard to retrieval processes.
  214. detect
    discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
    In our study, the cognate stimuli were cognates in all three languages, and this
    would maximize the possibility of detecting a difference between cognates and
    noncognate stimuli.
  215. covert
    secret or hidden; not openly practiced or engaged in or shown or avowed
    For noncognates, this covert translation
    would not result in a facilitating effect.
  216. focused
    being in focus or brought into focus
    Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646 624
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    The results of the few studies that have focused on the role of these two
    different methods of vocabulary acquisition challenge current models of lexical
    representation in bilinguals.
  217. select
    pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives
    The first
    consisted of a picture-naming-in-L1 task and was used to make sure that the
    pictures we selected were consistently named with a single name.
  218. rate
    a quantity or amount or measure considered as a proportion of another quantity or amount or measure
    In the cognate- rating study, we presented 63 Italian-English, Italian-
    German, and English-German word pairs corresponding to the names of the
    pictures used in the first pretest and asked 20 third-year middle school Italian
    children (13 years old) to evaluate the orthographic similarity within each word
    pair on a 7-point scale.
    627 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    Table 1 Mean cognate ratings and mean leng...
  219. provide
    give something useful or necessary to
    Furthermore, it is relevant from a social point of view, as many
    curricula provide the opportunity (or, sometimes, requirement) to learn two
    languages at school, and yet no firm evidence exists on how this may affect the
    outcome of the learning process.
  220. novel
    an extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story
    Chen (1990) compared two groups of Cantonese-speaking college
    students who were instructed to learn words in a novel language (French) using
    two different learning methods.
  221. consistently
    in a systematic or consistent manner
    The first
    consisted of a picture-naming-in-L1 task and was used to make sure that the
    pictures we selected were consistently named with a single name.
  222. plausible
    apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful
    As a consequence, it may
    be plausible to hypothesize that in learning a new language, setting up a new
    entry in memory is more demanding than modifying a preexisting similar
    entry, and this would facilitate the learning of L2 cognates over noncognates.
  223. instruct
    impart skills or knowledge to
    Chen (1990) compared two groups of Cantonese-speaking college
    students who were instructed to learn words in a novel language (French) using
    two different learning methods.
  224. participate
    become a participant; be involved in
    Each child participated in four English sessions and four German
    sessions.
  225. reliance
    the state of relying on something
    From an educational perspective,
    the results suggest that reliance on, and strengthening of, the link between
    the concepts presented as pictures or real objects and their names may help in
    vocabulary learning.
  226. robust
    sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction
    This pattern of results appeared to be very robust (for reviews, see Chen,
    1992; De Groot, 1993; Kroll, 1993; Kroll & De Groot, 1997; Kroll, Michael,
    & Sankaranarayanan, 1998; Kroll & Tokowicz, 2001) and led Kroll and Stewart
    (1994) to propose the revised hierarchical model (RHM), which assumes
    that less fluent bilinguals process words in the L2 by relying on their lexical
    knowledge in the L1, whereas more proficient bilinguals use the concept-to-L2
    link to process words without activ...
  227. found
    food and lodging provided in addition to money
    On the one hand,
    cognates were found to facilitate the acquisition of L2 words, but when the language was
    familiar (i.e.,
  228. intermediate
    lying between two extremes in time or space or state
    Mean .29 .43 .27 .25 .31
    and performance levels on the test following the first learning session and on the
    test following the 1-week session were intermediate (.34 and .32, respectively).
  229. design
    the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan)
    The second
    pretest was designed to assess the cognate relationship between Italian words
    and their translations, both in English and in German.
  230. reversed
    turned about in order or relation
    For half of the participants, English preceded German, and for the
    other half, the order was reversed.
  231. restricted
    subject to restriction or subjected to restriction
    Students in neither grade
    had been systematically exposed to German, although eighth graders had been
    taught English in the previous 2 years, albeit on a very restricted schedule.
  232. underlie
    lie underneath
    Thus, on this interpretation, the
    interlexical relationship underlies the facilitating effect of the verbal method
    for cognates.
  233. compose
    form the substance of
    The shift from one form of representation to the other is assumed
    to be gradual and to be composed of changes in the relative weight given to
    the lexical and conceptual links: As fluency increases, the existing L2-to-L1
    lexical links are complemented, rather than substituted, by stronger additional
    links between the L2 lexicon and the conceptual system.
  234. version
    something a little different from others of the same type
    The picture-naming pretest involved 142 pictures, some of which were
    different versions of the same object.
  235. transformation
    the act of changing in form or shape or appearance
    The analyses of
    variance (ANOVA) on proportion of correct responses were performed after a
    2 arcsin transformation.
  236. automatic
    operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control
    The automatic cognate form assumption: Evidence for the parasitic
    model of vocabulary development.
  237. mechanism
    device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function
    The issue
    of learning two L2s at a time is a theoretically interesting matter because
    it touches on the constraints of the acquisition mechanism involved in L2
    learning.
  238. scanty
    lacking in amplitude or quantity
    Up to now, most of the studies cited in the
    debate focus on the acquisition of L2 from birth, although empirical evidence
    on how learning two languages may affect the overall outcome is scanty.
  239. debate
    a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
    Up to now, most of the studies cited in the
    debate focus on the acquisition of L2 from birth, although empirical evidence
    on how learning two languages may affect the overall outcome is scanty.
  240. function
    what something is used for
    Results
    In Figure 1, the percentages of correct responses are plotted as a function of
    learning method, cognate status, language, and grade.
  241. increase
    a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important
    The shift from one form of representation to the other is assumed
    to be gradual and to be composed of changes in the relative weight given to
    the lexical and conceptual links: As fluency increases, the existing L2-to-L1
    lexical links are complemented, rather than substituted, by stronger additional
    links between the L2 lexicon and the conceptual system.
  242. affected
    acted upon; influenced
    In this article, we present a study aimed
    at investigating how some of these factors affected vocabulary acquisition in a
    school environment in which two foreign languages are acquired in close temporal
    contiguity.
  243. internet
    a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange
    Internet: claudio.tonzar@
    uniurb.it
  244. derive
    come from
    Two measures were derived from the two pretests: an index of name agreement
    and the mean similarity ratings.We used these indexes to select the experimental
    material.
  245. distinction
    a discrimination between things as different and distinct
    Our aim was to try to
    single out the effect of learning method in relation to the linguistic distinction
    between cognate and noncognate words and to the real-world situation in which
    two L2s are learned at the same time.
  246. matter of fact
    a matter that is an actual fact or is demonstrable as a fact
    As a matter of fact, a superiority of
    the picture method is also registered in the noncognates conditions, supporting
    the effectiveness of the picture method.
  247. gradual
    proceeding in small stages
    The shift from one form of representation to the other is assumed
    to be gradual and to be composed of changes in the relative weight given to
    the lexical and conceptual links: As fluency increases, the existing L2-to-L1
    lexical links are complemented, rather than substituted, by stronger additional
    links between the L2 lexicon and the conceptual system.
  248. appreciated
    fully understood or grasped
    This pattern
    of a stronger superiority of the picture-learning method in the latter sessions
    shows that the effects of the picture-mediated learning method may be fully
    appreciated when the learning sessions are spaced in time.
  249. strategic
    relating to or concerned with strategy
    First,
    let us rule out a possible strategic base.
  250. schedule
    an ordered list of times at which things are planned to occur
    Students in neither grade
    had been systematically exposed to German, although eighth graders had been
    taught English in the previous 2 years, albeit on a very restricted schedule.
  251. similarly
    in like or similar manner
    Similarly, the superiority of cognate words is in line with
    previous studies showing that cognates are translated faster than non-cognates
    637 Language Learning 59:3, September 2009, pp. 623–646
    Tonzar, Lotto, and Job L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children
    (e.g.,
  252. consistent
    the same throughout in structure or composition
    As can be seen, the learning
    method showed a consistent effect, with the picture-learning method being
    more effective than the word-learning method.
  253. include
    have as a part, be made up out of
    For both methods, the learning phase included two learning sessions for
    English and two learning sessions for German held 1 week apart.
  254. domain
    a particular environment or walk of life
    In regard to the learning method, in the
    educational domain the between-subjects design is quite common for studies of
    this kind.
  255. devote
    dedicate
    From an educational standpoint, this suggests that more time and effort should
    be devoted to noncognates in vocabulary acquisition, even though cognates
    may themselves present (different) problems (see below).
  256. restrict
    place under restrictions; limit access to
    Students in neither grade
    had been systematically exposed to German, although eighth graders had been
    taught English in the previous 2 years, albeit on a very restricted schedule.
  257. observe
    watch attentively
    In particular, a
    marked decrease was observed for noncognates in the delayed tests.