George Orwell's "Animal Farm" 363 words

Vocabulary study list for George Orwell's "Animal Farm."
  1. inscribe
    carve, cut, or etch into a material or surface
    These Seven Commandments would now be inscribed on the wall; they would form an unalterable law by which all the animals on Animal Farm must live for ever after.
  2. ration
    a fixed portion that is allotted (especially in times of scarcity)
    In return for your four confinements and all your labour in the fields, what have you ever had except your bare rations and a stall?
  3. harvest
    the gathering of a ripened crop
    Today we begin the hay harvest.
  4. ensconce
    fix firmly
    At one end of the big barn, on a sort of raised platform, Major was already ensconced on his bed of straw, under a lantern which hung from a beam.
  5. pasture
    a field covered with grass or herbage and suitable for grazing by livestock
    But they woke at dawn as usual, and suddenly remembering the glorious thing that had happened, they all raced out into the pasture together.
  6. knoll
    a small natural hill
    A little way down the pasture there was a knoll that commanded a view of most of the farm.
  7. orchard
    garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth
    Nevertheless, without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; the two of them usually spent their Sundays together in the small paddock beyond the orchard, grazing side by side and never speaking.
  8. straw
    plant fiber used e.g. for making baskets and hats or as fodder
    At one end of the big barn, on a sort of raised platform, Major was already ensconced on his bed of straw, under a lantern which hung from a beam.
  9. announce
    make known; make an announcement
    He announced that from now on the Sunday-morning Meetings would come to an end.
  10. labour
    productive work (especially physical work done for wages)
    Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labour is stolen from us by human beings.
  11. quarry
    animal hunted or caught for food
    There was a good quarry of limestone on the farm, and plenty of sand and cement had been found in one of the outhouses, so that all the materials for building were at hand.
  12. shed
    cause or allow (a solid substance) to flow or run out or over
    One of the cows broke in the door of the store-shed with her horn and all the animals began to help themselves from the bins.
  13. complicate
    make more complicated
    He talked learnedly about field drains, silage, and basic slag, and had worked out a complicated scheme for all the animals to drop their dung directly in the fields, at a different spot every day, to save the labour of cartage.
  14. boar
    an uncastrated male hog
    Word had gone round during the day that old Major, the prize Middle White boar, had had a strange dream on the previous night and wished to communicate it to the other animals.
  15. huddle
    a disorganized and densely packed crowd
    They had made their way on to the little knoll where the half-finished windmill stood, and with one accord they all lay down as though huddling together for warmth--Clover, Muriel, Benjamin, the cows, the sheep, and a whole flock of geese and hens-
  16. chaff
    material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds
    They met with many difficulties--for instance, later in the year, when they harvested the corn, they had to tread it out in the ancient style and blow away the chaff with their breath, since the farm possessed no threshing machine--but the pigs wit
  17. gambol
    play boisterously
    In the ecstasy of that thought they gambolled round and round, they hurled themselves into the air in great leaps of excitement.
  18. whinny
    the characteristic sounds made by a horse
    The cows lowed it, the dogs whined it, the sheep bleated it, the horses whinnied it, the ducks quacked it.
  19. windfall
    a sudden happening that brings good fortune (as a sudden opportunity to make money)
    The early apples were now ripening, and the grass of the orchard was littered with windfalls.
  20. assemble
    create by putting components or members together
    When the animals had assembled in the big barn, Snowball stood up and, though occasionally interrupted by bleating from the sheep, set forth his reasons for advocating the building of the windmill.
  21. starve
    die of food deprivation
    He sets them to work, he gives back to them the bare minimum that will prevent them from starving, and the rest he keeps for himself.
  22. superannuated
    too old to be useful
    Now that the small field beyond the orchard had been set aside for barley, it was rumoured that a corner of the large pasture was to be fenced off and turned into a grazing-ground for superannuated animals.
  23. cryptic
    having a secret or hidden meaning
    None of you has ever seen a dead donkey," and the others had to be content with this cryptic answer.
  24. boulder
    a large smooth mass of rock detached from its place of origin
    Huge boulders, far too big to be used as they were, were lying all over the bed of the quarry.
  25. timber
    the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material
    It happened that there was in the yard a pile of timber which had been stacked there ten years earlier when a beech spinney was cleared.
  26. maxim
    a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits
    After much thought Snowball declared that the Seven Commandments could in effect be reduced to a single maxim, namely: "Four legs good, two legs bad."
  27. sniff
    perceive by inhaling through the nose
    He would put his snout to the ground, give several deep sniffs, ad exclaim in a terrible voice, "Snowball!
  28. readjustment
    the act of adjusting again (to changed circumstances)
    For the time being, certainly, it had been found necessary to make a readjustment of rations (Squealer always spoke of it as a "readjustment," never as a "reduction"), but in comparison with the days of Jones, the improvement was enormous.
  29. flag
    emblem usually consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design
    First came the hoisting of the flag.
  30. accumulate
    get or gather together
    By late summer a sufficient store of stone had accumulated, and then the building began, under the superintendence of the pigs.
  31. reduce
    make smaller
    They explained that by their studies of the past three months the pigs had succeeded in reducing the principles of Animalism to Seven Commandments.
  32. graze
    feed as in a meadow or pasture
    Nevertheless, without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; the two of them usually spent their Sundays together in the small paddock beyond the orchard, grazing side by side and never speaking.
  33. utilise
    put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose
    Only after weeks of vain effort did the right idea occur to somebody-namely, to utilise the force of gravity.
  34. unalterable
    not capable of being changed or altered
    These Seven Commandments would now be inscribed on the wall; they would form an unalterable law by which all the animals on Animal Farm must live for ever after.
  35. retire
    withdraw from active participation
    Even when it was resolved--a thing no one could object to in itself--to set aside the small paddock behind the orchard as a home of rest for animals who were past work, there was a stormy debate over the correct retiring age for each class of anima
  36. formulate
    prepare according to a formula
    He lay down, tucked his fore hoofs beneath him, shut his eyes, and with a hard effort managed to formulate his thoughts.
  37. utter
    without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers
    With his books held open by a stone, and with a piece of chalk gripped between the knuckles of his trotter, he would move rapidly to and fro, drawing in line after line and uttering little whimpers of excitement.
  38. pile
    a collection of objects laid on top of each other
    Jones was hurled into a pile of dung and his gun flew out of his hands.
  39. supervise
    watch and direct
    The pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the others.
  40. compose
    form the substance of
    Napoleon, with Squealer and another pig named Minimus, who had a remarkable gift for composing songs and poems, sat on the front of the raised platform, with the nine young dogs forming a semicircle round them, and the other pigs sitting behind.
  41. piebald
    having sections or patches colored differently and usually brightly
    The young pigs were piebald, and as Napoleon was the only boar on the farm, it was possible to guess at their parentage.
  42. spring
    move forward by leaps and bounds
    "Is it not crystal clear, then, comrades, that all the evils of this life of ours spring from the tyranny of human beings?
  43. amaze
    affect with wonder
    Too amazed and frightened to speak, all the animals crowded through the door to watch the chase.
  44. resolution
    finding a solution to a problem
    "And remember, comrades, your resolution must never falter.
  45. emerge
    come out into view, as from concealment
    As soon as they were well inside the yard, the three horses, the three cows, and the rest of the pigs, who had been lying in ambush in the cowshed, suddenly emerged in their rear, cutting them off.
  46. retiring
    of a person who has held and relinquished a position or office
    Even when it was resolved--a thing no one could object to in itself--to set aside the small paddock behind the orchard as a home of rest for animals who were past work, there was a stormy debate over the correct retiring age for each class of anima
  47. ignominious
    (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame
    And so within five minutes of their invasion they were in ignominious retreat by the same way as they had come, with a flock of geese hissing after them and pecking at their calves all the way.
  48. disinter
    dig up for reburial or for medical investigation; of dead bodies
    The skull of old Major, now clean of flesh, had been disinterred from the orchard and set up on a stump at the foot of the flagstaff, beside the gun.
  49. abolish
    do away with
    Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever.
  50. destroy
    do away with, cause the destruction or undoing of
    In a very little while the animals had destroyed everything that reminded them of Mr. Jones.
  51. convince
    make (someone) agree, understand, or realize the truth or validity of something
    Mollie agreed, but she did not sound very convinced.
  52. creep
    move slowly; in the case of people or animals with the body near the ground
    While Major was speaking four large rats had crept out of their holes and were sitting on their hindquarters, listening to him.
  53. declare
    state emphatically and authoritatively
    After much thought Snowball declared that the Seven Commandments could in effect be reduced to a single maxim, namely: "Four legs good, two legs bad."
  54. collaborate
    work together on a common enterprise of project
    Without any further prompting they confessed that they had been secretly in touch with Snowball ever since his expulsion, that they had collaborated with him in destroying the windmill, and that they had entered into an agreement with him to hand o
  55. tureen
    large deep serving dish with a cover; for serving soups and stews
    And the news soon leaked out that every pig was now receiving a ration of a pint of beer daily, with half a gallon for Napoleon himself, which was always served to him in the Crown Derby soup tureen.
  56. laborious
    characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort
    Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short.
  57. engage
    consume all of one's attention or time
    No animal must ever live in a house, or sleep in a bed, or wear clothes, or drink alcohol, or smoke tobacco, or touch money, or engage in trade.
  58. evening
    the latter part of the day (the period of decreasing daylight from late afternoon until nightfall)
    When Mr. Jones got back he immediately went to sleep on the drawing-room sofa with the News of the World over his face, so that when evening came, the animals were still unfed.
  59. shirk
    avoid (one's assigned duties)
    Nobody shirked--or almost nobody.
  60. swill
    drink large quantities of (liquid, especially alcoholic drink)
    Lord of the swill-bucket!
  61. debate
    a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
    Here the work of the coming week was planned out and resolutions were put forward and debated.
  62. hoist
    raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help
    First came the hoisting of the flag.
  63. confess
    admit (to a wrongdoing)
    Napoleon now called upon them to confess their crimes.
  64. lump
    a compact mass
    At the last moment Mollie, the foolish, pretty white mare who drew Mr. Jones's trap, came mincing daintily in, chewing at a lump of sugar.
  65. devote
    dedicate
    Nevertheless, without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; the two of them usually spent their Sundays together in the small paddock beyond the orchard, grazing side by side and never speaking.
  66. exaggerate
    to enlarge beyond bounds or the truth
    And as to the Battle of the Cowshed, I believe the time will come when we shall find that Snowball's part in it was much exaggerated.
  67. congratulate
    say something to someone that expresses praise
    Napoleon himself, attended by his dogs and his cockerel, came down to inspect the completed work; he personally congratulated the animals on their achievement, and announced that the mill would be named Napoleon Mill.
  68. tame
    brought from wildness into a domesticated state
    All the animals were now present except Moses, the tame raven, who slept on a perch behind the back door.
  69. prepare
    make ready or suitable or equip in advance for a particular purpose or for some use, event, etc
    They did not know when the Rebellion predicted by Major would take place, they had no reason for thinking that it would be within their own lifetime, but they saw clearly that it was their duty to prepare for it.
  70. toil
    work hard
    For that day we all must labour, Though we die before it break; Cows and horses, geese and turkeys, All must toil for freedom's sake.
  71. decree
    a legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)
    He ordered the hens' rations to be stopped, and decreed that any animal giving so much as a grain of corn to a hen should be punished by death.
  72. clever
    mentally quick and resourceful
    Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers.
  73. unassisted
    unsupported by other people
    And in his spare moments, of which there were not many nowadays, he would go alone to the quarry, collect a load of broken stone, and drag it down to the site of the windmill unassisted.
  74. accumulated
    periodically accumulated over time
    By late summer a sufficient store of stone had accumulated, and then the building began, under the superintendence of the pigs.
  75. slag
    the scum formed by oxidation at the surface of molten metals
    He talked learnedly about field drains, silage, and basic slag, and had worked out a complicated scheme for all the animals to drop their dung directly in the fields, at a different spot every day, to save the labour of cartage.
  76. procure
    get by special effort
    (How these were to be procured, Snowball did not say.)
  77. clime
    the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
    The words ran:

    Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland, Beasts of every land and clime, Hearken to my joyful tidings Of the golden future time.
  78. store
    a mercantile establishment for the retail sale of goods or services
    One of the cows broke in the door of the store-shed with her horn and all the animals began to help themselves from the bins.
  79. browse
    feed as in a meadow or pasture
    The sheep spent the whole day there browsing at the leaves under Squealer's supervision.
  80. capitulate
    surrender under agreed conditions
    For five days the hens held out, then they capitulated and went back to their nesting boxes.
  81. flutter
    flap the wings rapidly or fly with flapping movements
    As soon as the light in the bedroom went out there was a stirring and a fluttering all through the farm buildings.
  82. overthrow
    rule against
    Why, work night and day, body and soul, for the overthrow of the human race!
  83. limp
    walk impeded by some physical limitation or injury
    Slowly they began to limp back towards the farm.
  84. operate
    perform as expected when applied
    After surveying the ground, Snowball declared that this was just the place for a windmill, which could be made to operate a dynamo and supply the farm with electrical power.
  85. gaze
    a long fixed look
    The animals rushed to the top of it and gazed round them in the clear morning light.
  86. mincing
    affectedly dainty or refined
    At the last moment Mollie, the foolish, pretty white mare who drew Mr. Jones's trap, came mincing daintily in, chewing at a lump of sugar.
  87. whelp
    young of any of various canines such as a dog or wolf
    It happened that Jessie and Bluebell had both whelped soon after the hay harvest, giving birth between them to nine sturdy puppies.
  88. uproarious
    uncontrollably noisy
    That night there was the sound of uproarious singing, which was followed by what sounded like a violent quarrel and ended at about eleven o'clock with a tremendous crash of glass.
  89. enormously
    extremely
    The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it.
  90. found
    food and lodging provided in addition to money
    Jones and his men suddenly found themselves being butted and kicked from all sides.
  91. receive
    get something; come into possession of
    The animals would still assemble on Sunday mornings to salute the flag, sing 'Beasts of England', and receive their orders for the week; but there would be no more debates.
  92. surveying
    the practice of measuring angles and distances on the ground so that they can be accurately plotted on a map
    After surveying the ground, Snowball declared that this was just the place for a windmill, which could be made to operate a dynamo and supply the farm with electrical power.
  93. laboured
    requiring or showing effort
    And when they thought of how they had laboured, what discouragements they had overcome, and the enormous difference that would be made in their lives when the sails were turning and the dynamos running--when they thought of all this, their tirednes
  94. nevertheless
    despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)
    Nevertheless, without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; the two of them usually spent their Sundays together in the small paddock beyond the orchard, grazing side by side and never speaking.
  95. tractable
    easily managed (controlled or taught or molded)
    Bulls which had always been tractable suddenly turned savage, sheep broke down hedges and devoured the clover, cows kicked the pail over, hunters refused their fences and shot their riders on to the other side.
  96. cog
    tooth on the rim of gear wheel
    Gradually the plans grew into a complicated mass of cranks and cog-wheels, covering more than half the floor, which the other animals found completely unintelligible but very impressive.
  97. witticism
    a message whose ingenuity or verbal skill or incongruity has the power to evoke laughter
    Here it became apparent that Mr. Pilkington was about to spring some carefully prepared witticism on the company, but for a moment he was too overcome by amusement to be able to utter it.
  98. muted
    in a softened tone
    All the pigeons, to the number of thirty-five, flew to and fro over the men's heads and muted upon them from mid-air; and while the men were dealing with this, the geese, who had been hiding behind the hedge, rushed out and pecked viciously at the
  99. nestle
    move or arrange oneself in a comfortable and cozy position
    Clover made a sort of wall round them with her great foreleg, and the ducklings nestled down inside it and promptly fell asleep.
  100. intend
    have in mind as a purpose
    However, this was only a light skirmishing manoeuvre, intended to create a little disorder, and the men easily drove the geese off with their sticks.
  101. stump
    the base part of a tree that remains standing after the tree has been felled
    The skull of old Major, now clean of flesh, had been disinterred from the orchard and set up on a stump at the foot of the flagstaff, beside the gun.
  102. beak
    horny projecting mouth of a bird
    Even the ducks and hens toiled to and fro all day in the sun, carrying tiny wisps of hay in their beaks.
  103. settle
    become resolved, fixed, established, or quiet
    First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher, and then the pigs, who settled down in the straw immediately in front of the platform.
  104. minute
    a unit of time equal to 60 seconds or 1/60th of an hour
    Even the stupidest of them had already picked up the tune and a few of the words, and as for the clever ones, such as the pigs and dogs, they had the entire song by heart within a few minutes.
  105. inspect
    look over carefully
    Napoleon himself, attended by his dogs and his cockerel, came down to inspect the completed work; he personally congratulated the animals on their achievement, and announced that the mill would be named Napoleon Mill.
  106. complete
    perfect and complete in every respect; having all necessary qualities
    These three had elaborated old Major's teachings into a complete system of thought, to which they gave the name of Animalism.
  107. grain
    a cereal grass
    The hens and ducks, for instance, saved five bushels of corn at the harvest by gathering up the stray grains.
  108. miserable
    very unhappy; full of misery
    Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short.
  109. calf
    young of domestic cattle
    And what has happened to that milk which should have been breeding up sturdy calves?
  110. grudging
    petty or reluctant in giving or spending
    Every mouthful of food was an acute positive pleasure, now that it was truly their own food, produced by themselves and for themselves, not doled out to them by a grudging master.
  111. enormous
    extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree
    Boxer was an enormous beast, nearly eighteen hands high, and as strong as any two ordinary horses put together.
  112. equal
    having the same quantity, value, or measure as another
    All animals are equal.
  113. unscathed
    not injured
    But the men did not go unscathed either.
  114. install
    set up for use
    The machinery had still to be installed, and Whymper was negotiating the purchase of it, but the structure was completed.
  115. poultice
    a medical dressing consisting of a soft heated mass of meal or clay that is spread on a cloth and applied to the skin to treat inflamed areas or improve circulation etc.
    Clover treated the hoof with poultices of herbs which she prepared by chewing them, and both she and Benjamin urged Boxer to work less hard.
  116. flee
    run away quickly
    Everyone fled to his own sleeping-place.
  117. grudge
    a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation
    Every mouthful of food was an acute positive pleasure, now that it was truly their own food, produced by themselves and for themselves, not doled out to them by a grudging master.
  118. topple
    fall down, as if collapsing
    The animals lashed ropes round these, and then all together, cows, horses, sheep, any animal that could lay hold of the rope--even the pigs sometimes joined in at critical moments--they dragged them with desperate slowness up the slope to the top of the q
  119. stout
    having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
    He was twelve years old and had lately grown rather stout, but he was still a majestic-looking pig, with a wise and benevolent appearance in spite of the fact that his tushes had never been cut.
  120. inspection
    a formal or official examination
    Then they made a tour of inspection of the whole farm and surveyed with speechless admiration the ploughland, the hayfield, the orchard, the pool, the spinney.
  121. achieve
    to gain with effort
    Now, as it turned out, the Rebellion was achieved much earlier and more easily than anyone had expected.
  122. twinkling
    shining intermittently with a sparkling light
    The best known among them was a small fat pig named Squealer, with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements, and a shrill voice.
  123. terror
    an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety
    The hens woke up squawking with terror because they had all dreamed simultaneously of hearing a gun go off in the distance.
  124. traceable
    capable of being traced or tracked
    It was pure imagination, probably traceable in the beginning to lies circulated by Snowball.
  125. tread
    put down or press the foot, place the foot
    The two horses had just lain down when a brood of ducklings, which had lost their mother, filed into the barn, cheeping feebly and wandering from side to side to find some place where they would not be trodden on.
  126. rigid
    incapable of or resistant to bending
    His tail had grown rigid and twitched sharply from side to side, a sign in him of intense mental activity.
  127. reaper
    someone who helps to gather the harvest
    Electricity, he said, could operate threshing machines, ploughs, harrows, rollers, and reapers and binders, besides supplying every stall with its own electric light, hot and cold water, and an electric heater.
  128. snout
    a long projecting or anterior elongation of an animal's head; especially the nose
    He would put his snout to the ground, give several deep sniffs, ad exclaim in a terrible voice, "Snowball!
  129. prosperity
    the condition of prospering; having good fortune
    Never listen when they tell you that Man and the animals have a common interest, that the prosperity of the one is the prosperity of the others.
  130. recreation
    an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates
    The Meeting always ended with the singing of 'Beasts of England', and the afternoon was given up to recreation.
  131. muscle
    animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells
    You, Boxer, the very day that those great muscles of yours lose their power, Jones will sell you to the knacker, who will cut your throat and boil you down for the foxhounds.
  132. arrange
    put into a proper or systematic order
    Every Monday Mr. Whymper visited the farm as had been arranged.
  133. trace
    an indication that something has been present
    Their first act was to gallop in a body right round the boundaries of the farm, as though to make quite sure that no human being was hiding anywhere upon it; then they raced back to the farm buildings to wipe out the last traces of Jones's hated re
  134. contrary
    exact opposition
    Others asked such questions as "Why should we care what happens after we are dead?" or "If this Rebellion is to happen anyway, what difference does it make whether we work for it or not?", and the pigs had great difficulty in making them see that this was
  135. spontaneous
    said or done without having been planned or written in advance
    Napoleon had commanded that once a week there should be held something called a Spontaneous Demonstration, the object of which was to celebrate the struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm.
  136. impending
    close in time; about to occur
    As the summer wore on, and the windmill neared completion, the rumours of an impending treacherous attack grew stronger and stronger.
  137. incite
    provoke or stir up
    The three hens who had been the ringleaders in the attempted rebellion over the eggs now came forward and stated that Snowball had appeared to them in a dream and incited them to disobey Napoleon's orders.
  138. attack
    (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)
    As the human beings approached the farm buildings, Snowball launched his first attack.
  139. uneasy
    causing or fraught with or showing anxiety
    But at this moment the three cows, who had seemed uneasy for some time past, set up a loud lowing.
  140. burst
    come open suddenly and violently, as if from internal pressure
    And then, after a few preliminary tries, the whole farm burst out into 'Beasts of England' in tremendous unison.
  141. stroll
    a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)
    One day, as Mollie strolled blithely into the yard, flirting her long tail and chewing at a stalk of hay, Clover took her aside.
  142. assume
    take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
    With their superior knowledge it was natural that they should assume the leadership.
  143. oppose
    be against; express opposition to
    But it was noticed that these two were never in agreement: whatever suggestion either of them made, the other could be counted on to oppose it.
  144. struggle
    strenuous effort
    And above all, pass on this message of mine to those who come after you, so that future generations shall carry on the struggle until it is victorious.
  145. implement
    instrumentation (a piece of equipment or tool) used to effect an end
    Sometimes the work was hard; the implements had been designed for human beings and not for animals, and it was a great drawback that no animal was able to use any tool that involved standing on his hind legs.
  146. complicity
    guilt as an accomplice in a crime or offense
    On the same day it was given out that fresh documents had been discovered which revealed further details about Snowball's complicity with Jones.
  147. dregs
    sediment that has settled at the bottom of a liquid
    There was the same hearty cheering as before, and the mugs were emptied to the dregs.
  148. contemplate
    think intently and at length, as for spiritual purposes
    He walked heavily round the shed, looked closely at every detail of the plans and snuffed at them once or twice, then stood for a little while contemplating them out of the corner of his eye; then suddenly he lifted his leg, urinated over the plans
  149. edible
    suitable for use as food
    The potatoes had become soft and discoloured, and only a few were edible.
  150. remove
    remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, or taking off, or remove something abstract
    Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever.
  151. dozen
    the cardinal number that is the sum of eleven and one
    This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep--and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining.
  152. divide
    a serious disagreement between two groups of people (typically producing tension or hostility)
    This morning I saw you looking over the hedge that divides Animal Farm from Foxwood.
  153. purchase
    obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction
    The machinery had still to be installed, and Whymper was negotiating the purchase of it, but the structure was completed.
  154. slaughter
    the killing of animals (as for food)
    We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaughtered
  155. taciturn
    habitually reserved and uncommunicative
    Only old Benjamin was much the same as ever, except for being a little greyer about the muzzle, and, since Boxer's death, more morose and taciturn than ever.
  156. restive
    being in a tense state
    They had all the more reason for doing so because the news of their defeat had spread across the countryside and made the animals on the neighbouring farms more restive than ever.
  157. corner
    the point where three areas or surfaces meet or intersect
    He seized the gun which always stood in a corner of his bedroom, and let fly a charge of number 6 shot into the darkness.
  158. skulk
    avoid responsibilities and duties, e.g., by pretending to be ill
    Snowball was known to be still skulking on Pinchfield Farm.
  159. admire
    feel admiration for
    She had taken a piece of blue ribbon from Mrs. Jones's dressing-table, and was holding it against her shoulder and admiring herself in the glass in a very foolish manner.
  160. weather
    the atmospheric conditions that comprise the state of the atmosphere in terms of temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation
    In January there came bitterly hard weather.
  161. triumph
    a successful ending of a struggle or contest
    A minute later all five of them were in full flight down the cart-track that led to the main road, with the animals pursuing them in triumph.
  162. leisure
    time available for ease and relaxation
    No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old.
  163. accord
    concurrence of opinion
    With one accord, though nothing of the kind had been planned beforehand, they flung themselves upon their tormentors.
  164. ecstasy
    a state of elated bliss
    In the ecstasy of that thought they gambolled round and round, they hurled themselves into the air in great leaps of excitement.
  165. machination
    a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends
    In the late summer yet another of Snowball's machinations was laid bare.
  166. treacherous
    dangerously unstable and unpredictable
    As the summer wore on, and the windmill neared completion, the rumours of an impending treacherous attack grew stronger and stronger.
  167. morose
    showing a brooding ill humor
    Only old Benjamin was much the same as ever, except for being a little greyer about the muzzle, and, since Boxer's death, more morose and taciturn than ever.
  168. subversive
    in opposition to a civil authority or government
    For a long time there had been rumours--circulated, he had reason to think, by some malignant enemy--that there was something subversive and even revolutionary in the outlook of himself and his colleagues.
  169. decorate
    make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.
    She would form these very neatly out of pieces of twig, and would then decorate them with a flower or two and walk round them admiring them.
  170. increase
    a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important
    Napoleon, on the other hand, argued that the great need of the moment was to increase food production, and that if they wasted time on the windmill they would all starve to death.
  171. vivacious
    vigorous and animated
    Snowball was a more vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive, but was not considered to have the same depth of character.
  172. vanish
    become invisible or unnoticeable
    It was a dream of the earth as it will be when Man has vanished.
  173. gather
    assemble or get together
    And every animal down to the humblest worked at turning the hay and gathering it.
  174. impromptu
    with little or no preparation or forethought
    An impromptu celebration of the victory was held immediately.
  175. remain
    continue in a place, position, or situation
    Going back, the others found that she had remained behind in the best bedroom.
  176. sapling
    young tree
    One day in early summer Squealer ordered the sheep to follow him, and led them out to a piece of waste ground at the other end of the farm, which had become overgrown with birch saplings.
  177. gallon
    United States liquid unit equal to 4 quarts or 3.785 liters
    You cows that I see before me, how many thousands of gallons of milk have you given during this last year?
  178. pause
    cease an action temporarily
    They all remembered, or thought they remembered, how they had seen Snowball charging ahead of them at the Battle of the Cowshed, how he had rallied and encouraged them at every turn, and how he had not paused for an instant even when the pellets fr
  179. warn
    notify of danger, potential harm, or risk
    He did not give any reason for having changed his mind, but merely warned the animals that this extra task would mean very hard work, it might even be necessary to reduce their rations.
  180. league
    an association of states or organizations or individuals for common action
    He formed the Egg Production Committee for the hens, the Clean Tails League for the cows, the Wild Comrades' Re-education Committee (the object of this was to tame the rats and rabbits), the Whiter Wool Movement for the sheep, and various others, b
  181. empty
    holding or containing nothing
    In addition, Napoleon ordered the almost empty bins in the store-shed to be filled nearly to the brim with sand, which was then covered up with what remained of the grain and meal.
  182. pretext
    something serving to conceal plans; a fictitious reason that is concocted in order to conceal the real reason
    On every kind of pretext she would run away from work and go to the drinking pool, where she would stand foolishly gazing at her own reflection in the water.
  183. compensated
    receiving or eligible for compensation
    They had had a hard year, and after the sale of part of the hay and corn, the stores of food for the winter were none too plentiful, but the windmill compensated for everything.
  184. flap
    move in a wavy pattern or with a rising and falling motion
    Moses sprang off his perch and flapped after her, croaking loudly.
  185. degrade
    reduce in worth or character, usually verbally
    The reins, the halters, the blinkers, the degrading nosebags, were thrown on to the rubbish fire which was burning in the yard.
  186. agent
    a representative who acts on behalf of other persons or organizations
    He was Jones's secret agent all the time.
  187. execute
    put in effect
    It was surmounted by a portrait of Napoleon, in profile, executed by Squealer in white paint.
  188. leak
    enter or escape as through a hole or crack or fissure
    Moreover, terrible stories were leaking out from Pinchfield about the cruelties that Frederick practised upon his animals.
  189. stroke
    a single complete movement
    And--I was a long way away, but I am almost certain I saw this--he was talking to you and you were allowing him to stroke your nose.
  190. flimsy
    a thin strong lightweight translucent paper used especially for making carbon copies
    And Boxer put out his nose to sniff at the bank-notes, and the flimsy white things stirred and rustled in his breath.
  191. celebrate
    have a celebration
    "To celebrate our victory!" cried Squealer.
  192. stormy
    (especially of weather) affected or characterized by storms or commotion
    Even when it was resolved--a thing no one could object to in itself--to set aside the small paddock behind the orchard as a home of rest for animals who were past work, there was a stormy debate over the correct retiring age for each class of anima
  193. chapter
    a subdivision of a written work; usually numbered and titled
    Chapter II



    Three nights later old Major died peacefully in his sleep.
  194. survey
    consider in a comprehensive way
    Then they made a tour of inspection of the whole farm and surveyed with speechless admiration the ploughland, the hayfield, the orchard, the pool, the spinney.
  195. confer
    present
    The animals decided unanimously to create a military decoration, "Animal Hero, First Class," which was conferred there and then on Snowball and Boxer.
  196. several
    (used with count nouns) of an indefinite number more than 2 or 3 but not many
    Several nights a week, after Mr. Jones was asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn and expounded the principles of Animalism to the others.
  197. fierce
    marked by extreme and violent energy
    Napoleon was a large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way.
  198. arable
    (of farmland) capable of being farmed productively
    And again, since no animal now stole, it was unnecessary to fence off pasture from arable land, which saved a lot of labour on the upkeep of hedges and gates.
  199. menace
    something that is a source of danger
    But suddenly the dogs sitting round Napoleon let out deep, menacing growls, and the pigs fell silent and sat down again.
  200. thick
    not thin; of a specific thickness or of relatively great extent from one surface to the opposite usually in the smallest of the three solid dimensions
    Still, it had been decided to build the walls three feet thick this time instead of eighteen inches as before, which meant collecting much larger quantities of stone.
  201. irrepressible
    impossible to repress or control
    And yet the song was irrepressible.
  202. clear
    readily apparent to the mind
    When Major saw that they had all made themselves comfortable and were waiting attentively, he cleared his throat and began:

    "Comrades, you have heard already about the strange dream that I had last night.
  203. wean
    gradually deprive (infants and young mammals) of mother's milk
    As soon as they were weaned, Napoleon took them away from their mothers, saying that he would make himself responsible for their education.
  204. suitable
    meant or adapted for an occasion or use
    Snowball used as his study a shed which had once been used for incubators and had a smooth wooden floor, suitable for drawing on.
  205. formulated
    devised; developed according to an orderly plan
    At the beginning, when the laws of Animal Farm were first formulated, the retiring age had been fixed for horses and pigs at twelve, for cows at fourteen, for dogs at nine, for sheep at seven, and for hens and geese at five.
  206. gruff
    brusque and surly and forbidding
    Napoleon read out the orders for the week in a gruff soldierly style, and after a single singing of 'Beasts of England', all the animals dispersed.
  207. settled
    established in a desired position or place; not moving about
    First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher, and then the pigs, who settled down in the straw immediately in front of the platform.
  208. attend
    be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.
    But there is another matter that must be attended to first."
  209. reverent
    feeling or showing profound respect or veneration
    After the hoisting of the flag, the animals were required to file past the skull in a reverent manner before entering the barn.
  210. claw
    sharp curved horny process on the toe of a bird or some mammals or reptiles
    Even the cat suddenly leapt off a roof onto a cowman's shoulders and sank her claws in his neck, at which he yelled horribly.
  211. memory
    the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered
    And what is more, the words of the song also came back-words, I am certain, which were sung by the animals of long ago and have been lost to memory for generations.
  212. somewhat
    to a small degree or extent
    A white stripe down his nose gave him a somewhat stupid appearance, and in fact he was not of first-rate intelligence, but he was universally respected for his steadiness of character and tremendous powers of work.
  213. instruct
    impart skills or knowledge to
    Hitherto the animals had had little or no contact with Whymper on his weekly visits: now, however, a few selected animals, mostly sheep, were instructed to remark casually in his hearing that rations had been increased.
  214. manipulation
    exerting shrewd or devious influence especially for one's own advantage
    "A bird's wing, comrades," he said, "is an organ of propulsion and not of manipulation.
  215. expel
    eliminate (a substance)
    And so, almost before they knew what was happening, the Rebellion had been successfully carried through: Jones was expelled, and the Manor Farm was theirs.
  216. task
    any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
    After a little thought, the pigs sent for buckets and milked the cows fairly successfully, their trotters being well adapted to this task.
  217. forbid
    command against
    From now onwards it was forbidden to sing it.
  218. caption
    brief description accompanying an illustration
    Boxer and Clover always carried between them a green banner marked with the hoof and the horn and the caption, "Long live Comrade Napoleon!"
  219. future
    the time yet to come
    And above all, pass on this message of mine to those who come after you, so that future generations shall carry on the struggle until it is victorious.
  220. stretch
    extend one's limbs or muscles, or the entire body
    His very first blow took a stable-lad from Foxwood on the skull and stretched him lifeless in the mud.
  221. luxury
    something that is an indulgence rather than a necessity
    They tiptoed from room to room, afraid to speak above a whisper and gazing with a kind of awe at the unbelievable luxury, at the beds with their feather mattresses, the looking-glasses, the horsehair sofa, the Brussels carpet, the lithograph of Que
  222. sight
    the ability to see; the visual faculty
    The dogs had suddenly caught sight of them, and it was only by a swift dash for their holes that the rats saved their lives.
  223. hatch
    a movable barrier covering a hatchway
    And you hens, how many eggs have you laid in this last year, and how many of those eggs ever hatched into chickens?
  224. observe
    watch attentively
    Breakfast was an hour later than usual, and after breakfast there was a ceremony which was observed every week without fail.
  225. machine
    any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks
    They met with many difficulties--for instance, later in the year, when they harvested the corn, they had to tread it out in the ancient style and blow away the chaff with their breath, since the farm possessed no threshing machine--but the pigs wit
  226. foundation
    the basis on which something is grounded
    Finally there came a night when the gale was so violent that the farm buildings rocked on their foundations and several tiles were blown off the roof of the barn.
  227. unison
    corresponding exactly
    And then, after a few preliminary tries, the whole farm burst out into 'Beasts of England' in tremendous unison.
  228. falter
    move hesitatingly, as if about to give way
    "And remember, comrades, your resolution must never falter.
  229. conciliatory
    making or willing to make concessions
    In addition, four pigeons were sent to Foxwood with a conciliatory message, which it was hoped might re-establish good relations with Pilkington.
  230. dismay
    the feeling of despair in the face of obstacles
    In spite of the shock that Snowball's expulsion had given them, the animals were dismayed by this announcement.
  231. pervade
    spread or diffuse through
    It seemed to them as though Snowball were some kind of invisible influence, pervading the air about them and menacing them with all kinds of dangers.
  232. conjure
    summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic
    The animals had never heard of anything of this kind before (for the farm was an old-fashioned one and had only the most primitive machinery), and they listened in astonishment while Snowball conjured up pictures of fantastic machines which would d
  233. besides
    in addition
    Besides, you do not need sugar.
  234. filial
    designating the generation or the sequence of generations following the parental generation
    None of them proved able to learn the alphabet beyond the letter B. They accepted everything that they were told about the Rebellion and the principles of Animalism, especially from Clover, for whom they had an almost filial respect; but it was dou
  235. signal
    any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message
    But once again the men, with their sticks and their hobnailed boots, were too strong for them; and suddenly, at a squeal from Snowball, which was the signal for retreat, all the animals turned and fled through the gateway into the yard.
  236. complain
    express complaints, discontent, displeasure, or unhappiness
    Most of this time Mr. Jones had spent sitting in the taproom of the Red Lion at Willingdon, complaining to anyone who would listen of the monstrous injustice he had suffered in being turned out of his property by a pack of good-for-nothing animals.
  237. cower
    crouch or curl up
    They all cowered silently in their places, seeming to know in advance that some terrible thing was about to happen.
  238. amazed
    filled with the emotional impact of overwhelming surprise or shock
    Too amazed and frightened to speak, all the animals crowded through the door to watch the chase.
  239. nocturnal
    belonging to or active during the night
    The wheat crop was full of weeds, and it was discovered that on one of his nocturnal visits Snowball had mixed weed seeds with the seed corn.
  240. stupefy
    make dull or stupid or muddle with drunkenness or infatuation
    The animals were stupefied.
  241. quack
    the harsh sound of a duck
    The cows lowed it, the dogs whined it, the sheep bleated it, the horses whinnied it, the ducks quacked it.
  242. reassure
    cause to feel sure; give reassurance to
    The animals reassured him on this point immediately, and no more was said about the pigs sleeping in the farmhouse beds.
  243. retinue
    the group following and attending to some important person
    When he did appear, he was attended not only by his retinue of dogs but by a black cockerel who marched in front of him and acted as a kind of trumpeter, letting out a loud "cock-a-doodle-doo" before Napoleon spoke.
  244. canter
    a smooth three-beat gait; between a trot and a gallop
    Clover tried to stir her stout limbs to a gallop, and achieved a canter.
  245. licence
    a legal document giving official permission to do something
    Too many farmers had assumed, without due enquiry, that on such a farm a spirit of licence and indiscipline would prevail.
  246. surprise
    come upon or take unawares
    On the third Sunday after Snowball's expulsion, the animals were somewhat surprised to hear Napoleon announce that the windmill was to be built after all.
  247. dim
    lacking in light; not bright or harsh
    Many animals had been born to whom the Rebellion was only a dim tradition, passed on by word of mouth, and others had been bought who had never heard mention of such a thing before their arrival.
  248. sole
    the underside of the foot
    Our sole object in taking these things is to preserve our health.
  249. plait
    a hairdo formed by braiding or twisting the hair
    She took a place near the front and began flirting her white mane, hoping to draw attention to the red ribbons it was plaited with.
  250. principle
    a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct
    Several nights a week, after Mr. Jones was asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn and expounded the principles of Animalism to the others.
  251. disperse
    move away from each other
    Napoleon read out the orders for the week in a gruff soldierly style, and after a single singing of 'Beasts of England', all the animals dispersed.
  252. attempt
    make an effort or attempt
    The attempt to tame the wild creatures, for instance, broke down almost immediately.
  253. cease
    put an end to a state or an activity
    One symptom of this was that they had begun to call Animal Farm by its proper name and ceased to pretend that it was called the Manor Farm.
  254. retribution
    the act of correcting for your wrongdoing
    They did not know which was more shocking--the treachery of the animals who had leagued themselves with Snowball, or the cruel retribution they had just witnessed.
  255. communicate
    transfer to another
    Word had gone round during the day that old Major, the prize Middle White boar, had had a strange dream on the previous night and wished to communicate it to the other animals.
  256. prod
    to push against gently
    Muriel, Benjamin, and all the sheep, with Snowball at the head of them, rushed forward and prodded and butted the men from every side, while Benjamin turned around and lashed at them with his small hoofs.
  257. banquet
    a ceremonial dinner party for many people
    And in a few days' time the pigs intended to hold a memorial banquet in Boxer's honour.
  258. remark
    make or write a comment on
    He seldom talked, and when he did, it was usually to make some cynical remark--for instance, he would say that God had given him a tail to keep the flies off, but that he would sooner have had no tail and no flies.
  259. direction
    a line leading to a place or point
    The next moment he and his four men were in the store-shed with whips in their hands, lashing out in all directions.
  260. speculate
    reflect deeply on a subject
    The animals found the problem insoluble; in any case, they had little time for speculating on such things now.
  261. faction
    a dissenting clique
    The animals formed themselves into two factions under the slogan, "Vote for Snowball and the three-day week" and "Vote for Napoleon and the full manger."
  262. arrive
    reach a destination; arrive by movement or progress
    Before long the other animals began to arrive and make themselves comfortable after their different fashions.
  263. devotee
    an ardent follower and admirer
    The sheep were the greatest devotees of the Spontaneous Demonstration, and if anyone complained (as a few animals sometimes did, when no pigs or dogs were near) that they wasted time and meant a lot of standing about in the cold, the sheep were sur
  264. apathy
    an absence of emotion or enthusiasm
    At the beginning they met with much stupidity and apathy.
  265. dishearten
    take away the enthusiasm of
    He had become much disheartened after losing money in a lawsuit, and had taken to drinking more than was good for him.
  266. contact
    the act of touching physically
    There would be no need for any of the animals to come in contact with human beings, which would clearly be most undesirable.
  267. sacrifice
    the act of killing (an animal or person) in order to propitiate a deity
    "Comrades," he said, "I trust that every animal here appreciates the sacrifice that Comrade Napoleon has made in taking this extra labour upon himself.
  268. stalk
    material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds
    There was no wastage whatever; the hens and ducks with their sharp eyes had gathered up the very last stalk.
  269. alter
    cause to change; make different; cause a transformation
    The pigeons had been told to avoid Pinchfield Farm and to alter their slogan from "Death to Frederick" to "Death to Pilkington."
  270. wild
    in a natural state; not tamed or domesticated or cultivated
    The wild creatures, such as rats and rabbits--are they our friends or our enemies?
  271. create
    bring into existence
    However, this was only a light skirmishing manoeuvre, intended to create a little disorder, and the men easily drove the geese off with their sticks.
  272. instance
    an item of information that is typical of a class or group
    He seldom talked, and when he did, it was usually to make some cynical remark--for instance, he would say that God had given him a tail to keep the flies off, but that he would sooner have had no tail and no flies.
  273. soil
    material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use)
    The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it.
  274. approach
    move towards
    Clover was a stout motherly mare approaching middle life, who had never quite got her figure back after her fourth foal.
  275. compensate
    make amends for; pay compensation for
    They had had a hard year, and after the sale of part of the hay and corn, the stores of food for the winter were none too plentiful, but the windmill compensated for everything.
  276. brush
    an implement that has hairs or bristles firmly set into a handle
    Then Snowball (for it was Snowball who was best at writing) took a brush between the two knuckles of his trotter, painted out MANOR FARM from the top bar of the gate and in its place painted ANIMAL FARM.
  277. collect
    gather or collect
    The animals had assumed as a matter of course that these would be shared out equally; one day, however, the order went forth that all the windfalls were to be collected and brought to the harness-room for the use of the pigs.
  278. brace
    a support that steadies or strengthens something else
    He saw ahead of him the heavy labour of rebuilding the windmill from the foundations, and already in imagination he braced himself for the task.
  279. acquire
    come into the possession of something concrete or abstract
    I do not think, comrades, that I shall be with you for many months longer, and before I die, I feel it my duty to pass on to you such wisdom as I have acquired.
  280. exhaust
    wear out completely
    Frequently it took a whole day of exhausting effort to drag a single boulder to the top of the quarry, and sometimes when it was pushed over the edge it failed to break.
  281. rally
    gather
    They all remembered, or thought they remembered, how they had seen Snowball charging ahead of them at the Battle of the Cowshed, how he had rallied and encouraged them at every turn, and how he had not paused for an instant even when the pellets fr
  282. distill
    undergo condensation; change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops
    By the evening of that day Napoleon was back at work, and on the next day it was learned that he had instructed Whymper to purchase in Willingdon some booklets on brewing and distilling.
  283. meddle
    intrude in other people's affairs or business; interfere unwantedly
    Clover asked Benjamin to read her the Sixth Commandment, and when Benjamin, as usual, said that he refused to meddle in such matters, she fetched Muriel.
  284. rustle
    make a dry crackling sound
    And Boxer put out his nose to sniff at the bank-notes, and the flimsy white things stirred and rustled in his breath.
  285. nimble
    moving quickly and lightly
    The best known among them was a small fat pig named Squealer, with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements, and a shrill voice.
  286. document
    anything serving as a representation of a person's thinking by means of symbolic marks
    It has all been proved by documents which he left behind him and which we have only just discovered.
  287. offset
    a compensating equivalent
    But if there were hardships to be borne, they were partly offset by the fact that life nowadays had a greater dignity than it had had before.
  288. indefatigable
    showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality
    He was indefatigable at this.
  289. alarm
    a device that signals the occurrence of some undesirable event
    For a moment there was great alarm; it was feared that the men might have harmed her in some way, or even carried her off with them.
  290. involve
    contain as a part
    Sometimes the work was hard; the implements had been designed for human beings and not for animals, and it was a great drawback that no animal was able to use any tool that involved standing on his hind legs.
  291. adopt
    take into one's family
    Even when you have conquered him, do not adopt his vices.
  292. lead
    take somebody somewhere
    "And even the miserable lives we lead are not allowed to reach their natural span.
  293. remaining
    not used up
    When it was all over, the remaining animals, except for the pigs and dogs, crept away in a body.
  294. slope
    be at an angle
    The animals lashed ropes round these, and then all together, cows, horses, sheep, any animal that could lay hold of the rope--even the pigs sometimes joined in at critical moments--they dragged them with desperate slowness up the slope to the top o
  295. marvel
    be amazed at
    In their spare moments the animals would walk round and round the half-finished mill, admiring the strength and perpendicularity of its walls and marvelling that they should ever have been able to build anything so imposing.
  296. canvass
    get the opinions (of people) by asking specific questions
    At the Meetings Snowball often won over the majority by his brilliant speeches, but Napoleon was better at canvassing support for himself in between times.
  297. urge
    force or impel in an indicated direction
    Then a sheep confessed to having urinated in the drinking pool--urged to do this, so she said, by Snowball--and two other sheep confessed to having murdered an old ram, an especially devoted follower of Napoleon, by chasing him round and round a bo
  298. generate
    bring into existence
    The windmill, however, had not after all been used for generating electrical power.
  299. appreciate
    be fully aware of; realize fully
    "Comrades," he said, "I trust that every animal here appreciates the sacrifice that Comrade Napoleon has made in taking this extra labour upon himself.
  300. articulate
    express or state clearly
    Some of the pigs themselves, however, were more articulate.
  301. privilege
    a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by all
    "You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege?
  302. instant
    a very short time (as the time it takes the eye to blink or the heart to beat)
    We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaught
  303. repose
    freedom from activity (work or strain or responsibility)
    You would not rob us of our repose, would you, comrades?
  304. lurch
    walk as if unable to control one's movements
    With the ring of light from his lantern dancing from side to side, he lurched across the yard, kicked off his boots at the back door, drew himself a last glass of beer from the barrel in the scullery, and made his way up to bed, where Mrs. Jones wa
  305. wing
    a movable organ for flying (one of a pair)
    Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
  306. glaze
    a coating for ceramics, metal, etc.
    His eyes were glazed, his sides matted with sweat.
  307. recovery
    return to an original state
    By the evening, however, Napoleon appeared to be somewhat better, and the following morning Squealer was able to tell them that he was well on the way to recovery.
  308. resemble
    appear like; be similar or bear a likeness to
    And remember also that in fighting against Man, we must not come to resemble him.
  309. altered
    changed in form or character without becoming something else
    It was only his appearance that was a little altered; his hide was less shiny than it had used to be, and his great haunches seemed to have shrunken.
  310. message
    a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled
    That is my message to you, comrades: Rebellion!
  311. cunning
    showing inventiveness and skill
    That, he said, was Comrade Napoleon's cunning.
  312. tour
    a journey or route all the way around a particular place or area
    Then they made a tour of inspection of the whole farm and surveyed with speechless admiration the ploughland, the hayfield, the orchard, the pool, the spinney.
  313. banner
    long strip of cloth or paper used for decoration or advertising
    It was announced that the battle would be called the Battle of the Windmill, and that Napoleon had created a new decoration, the Order of the Green Banner, which he had conferred upon himself.
  314. expound
    add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing
    Several nights a week, after Mr. Jones was asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn and expounded the principles of Animalism to the others.
  315. stratagem
    an elaborate or deceitful scheme contrived to deceive or evade
    It now appeared that Snowball had not, as the animals had previously imagined, merely attempted to lose the Battle of the Cowshed by means of a stratagem, but had been openly fighting on Jones's side.
  316. smelt
    extract (metals) by heating
    One afternoon in late February a warm, rich, appetising scent, such as the animals had never smelt before, wafted itself across the yard from the little brew-house, which had been disused in Jones's time, and which stood beyond the kitchen.
  317. discourage
    try to prevent; show opposition to
    They took their exercise in the garden, and were discouraged from playing with the other young animals.
  318. eminent
    standing above others in quality or position
    Pre-eminent among the pigs were two young boars named Snowball and Napoleon, whom Mr. Jones was breeding up for sale.
  319. abnormal
    not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm
    It had been felt that the existence of a farm owned and operated by pigs was somehow abnormal and was liable to have an unsettling effect in the neighbourhood.
  320. waft
    a long flag; often tapering
    One afternoon in late February a warm, rich, appetising scent, such as the animals had never smelt before, wafted itself across the yard from the little brew-house, which had been disused in Jones's time, and which stood beyond the kitchen.
  321. seldom
    not often
    He seldom talked, and when he did, it was usually to make some cynical remark--for instance, he would say that God had given him a tail to keep the flies off, but that he would sooner have had no tail and no flies.
  322. inhabit
    inhabit or live in; be an inhabitant of
    The soil of England is fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it.
  323. midday
    the middle of the day
    On Midsummer's Eve, which was a Saturday, Mr. Jones went into Willingdon and got so drunk at the Red Lion that he did not come back till midday on Sunday.
  324. support
    the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening
    This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep--and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining.
  325. glance
    throw a glance at; take a brief look at
    Wistful glances were sent in the direction of Foxwood.
  326. drain
    emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it
    He talked learnedly about field drains, silage, and basic slag, and had worked out a complicated scheme for all the animals to drop their dung directly in the fields, at a different spot every day, to save the labour of cartage.
  327. denounce
    speak out against
    Napoleon had denounced such ideas as contrary to the spirit of Animalism.
  328. volunteer
    a person who performs voluntary work
    He had made an arrangement with one of the cockerels to call him in the mornings half an hour earlier than anyone else, and would put in some volunteer labour at whatever seemed to be most needed, before the regular day's work began.
  329. figure
    alternative names for the body of a human being
    Clover was a stout motherly mare approaching middle life, who had never quite got her figure back after her fourth foal.
  330. introduce
    bring something new to an environment
    A rumour went round that Snowball had after all contrived to introduce poison into Napoleon's food.
  331. title
    the name of a work of art or literary composition etc.
    It was also more suited to the dignity of the Leader (for of late he had taken to speaking of Napoleon under the title of "Leader") to live in a house than in a mere sty.
  332. seasoned
    aged or processed
    It was well seasoned, and Whymper had advised Napoleon to sell it; both Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick were anxious to buy it.
  333. rope
    a strong line
    The animals lashed ropes round these, and then all together, cows, horses, sheep, any animal that could lay hold of the rope--even the pigs sometimes joined in at critical moments--they dragged them with desperate slowness up the slope to the top o
  334. conclude
    bring to a close
    "Gentlemen," concluded Mr. Pilkington, "gentlemen, I give you a toast: To the prosperity of Animal Farm!"
  335. demonstration
    a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view
    Napoleon had commanded that once a week there should be held something called a Spontaneous Demonstration, the object of which was to celebrate the struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm.
  336. convinced
    having a strong belief or conviction
    Mollie agreed, but she did not sound very convinced.
  337. contrive
    make or work out a plan for; devise
    A rumour went round that Snowball had after all contrived to introduce poison into Napoleon's food.
  338. halting
    disabled in the feet or legs
    Without halting for an instant, Snowball flung his fifteen stone against Jones's legs.
  339. fee
    a fixed charge for a privilege or for professional services
    The men had milked the cows in the early morning and then had gone out rabbiting, without bothering to feed the animals.
  340. wistful
    showing pensive sadness
    Wistful glances were sent in the direction of Foxwood.
  341. devoted
    zealous in devotion or affection
    Nevertheless, without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; the two of them usually spent their Sundays together in the small paddock beyond the orchard, grazing side by side and never speaking.
  342. furious
    marked by extreme anger
    At the same time there were renewed rumours that Frederick and his men were plotting to attack Animal Farm and to destroy the windmill, the building of which had aroused furious jealousy in him.
  343. recover
    regain or make up for
    And when the others came back from looking for her, it was to find that the stable-lad, who in fact was only stunned, had already recovered and made off.
  344. shaft
    a long rod or pole (especially the handle of an implement or the body of a weapon like a spear or arrow)
    She was between the shafts of a smart dogcart painted red and black, which was standing outside a public-house.
  345. diagram
    a drawing intended to explain how something works; a drawing showing the relation between the parts
    They would meet in the public-houses and prove to one another by means of diagrams that the windmill was bound to fall down, or that if it did stand up, then that it would never work.
  346. heroic
    having or displaying qualities appropriate for heroes
    And he very nearly succeeded--I will even say, comrades, he WOULD have succeeded if it had not been for our heroic Leader, Comrade Napoleon.
  347. achievement
    the action of accomplishing something
    It had become usual to give Napoleon the credit for every successful achievement and every stroke of good fortune.
  348. bankrupt
    financially ruined
    Every human being held it as an article of faith that the farm would go bankrupt sooner or later, and, above all, that the windmill would be a failure.
  349. earth
    the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on
    I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought as I lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that I understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living.
  350. remind
    put in the mind of someone
    But it reminded me of something that I had long forgotten.
  351. escort
    accompany or escort
    When he did emerge, it was in a ceremonial manner, with an escort of six dogs who closely surrounded him and growled if anyone came too near.
  352. despair
    a state in which all hope is lost or absent
    When the boulder began to slip and the animals cried out in despair at finding themselves dragged down the hill, it was always Boxer who strained himself against the rope and brought the boulder to a stop.
  353. capable
    (usually followed by `of') having capacity or ability
    We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaught
  354. credited
    (usually followed by `to') given credit for
    They had been credited with attempting to stir up rebellion among the animals on neighbouring farms.
  355. seize
    take hold of; grab
    He seized the gun which always stood in a corner of his bedroom, and let fly a charge of number 6 shot into the darkness.
  356. sordid
    foul and run-down and repulsive
    In glowing sentences he painted a picture of Animal Farm as it might be when sordid labour was lifted from the animals' backs.
  357. mischief
    reckless or malicious behavior that causes discomfort or annoyance in others
    The distinguishing mark of man is the HAND, the instrument with which he does all his mischief."
  358. badge
    an emblem (a small piece of plastic or cloth or metal) that signifies your status (rank or membership or affiliation etc.)
    "Comrade," said Snowball, "those ribbons that you are so devoted to are the badge of slavery.
  359. seclusion
    the act of secluding yourself from others
    He took them up into a loft which could only be reached by a ladder from the harness-room, and there kept them in such seclusion that the rest of the farm soon forgot their existence.
  360. deed
    a legal document signed and sealed and delivered to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it
    Frederick, it was said, intended to bring against them twenty men all armed with guns, and he had already bribed the magistrates and police, so that if he could once get hold of the title-deeds of Animal Farm they would ask no questions.
  361. wake
    stop sleeping
    It was just then that Mr. Jones woke up.
  362. boil
    come to the boiling point and change from a liquid to vapor
    You, Boxer, the very day that those great muscles of yours lose their power, Jones will sell you to the knacker, who will cut your throat and boil you down for the foxhounds.
  363. advocate
    a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea
    When the animals had assembled in the big barn, Snowball stood up and, though occasionally interrupted by bleating from the sheep, set forth his reasons for advocating the building of the windmill.