Physics Words

For those of us who read economics books for fun in our free time. rnrnReally.
definitions & notes only words
  1. Adam Smith
    Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
  2. agency
    the state of being in action or exerting power
  3. agent
    a representative who acts on behalf of others
  4. amortisation
    the reduction of the value of an asset by prorating its cost over a period of years
  5. appreciation
    understanding of the nature or meaning of something
  6. buyer's market
    a market in which more people want to sell than want to buy
  7. capacity
    capability to perform or produce
  8. Capital
    the federal government of the United States
  9. capital gain
    the amount by which the selling price of an asset exceeds the purchase price; the gain is realized when the asset is sold
  10. capitalism
    an economic system based on private ownership of assets
  11. central bank
    a government monetary authority that issues currency and regulates the supply of credit and holds the reserves of other banks and sells new issues of securities for the government
  12. commodity
    articles of commerce
  13. competition
    the act of contending as for profit or a prize
  14. compound interest
    interest calculated on both the principal and the accrued interest
  15. consumption
    the act of using something up
  16. cost of capital
    the opportunity cost of the funds employed as the result of an investment decision; the rate of return that a business could earn if it chose another investment with equivalent risk
  17. credit
    an estimate of ability to fulfill financial commitments
  18. debt
    the state of owing something, especially money
  19. deficit
    the property of being less than expected or required
  20. deflation
    the act of letting the air out of something
  21. demand
    request urgently and forcefully
  22. depreciation
    a decrease in price or value
  23. Depression
    a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
  24. deregulation
    the act of freeing from rules
  25. derivative
    a compound obtained from another compound
  26. devaluation
    the reduction of something's value or worth
  27. discount rate
    interest on an annual basis deducted in advance on a loan
  28. disinflation
    a reduction of prices intended to improve the balance of payments
  29. diversification
    the condition of being varied
  30. dividend
    a number to be divided by another number
  31. econometrics
    the application of mathematics and statistics to the study of economic and financial data
  32. econometrics
    the application of mathematics and statistics to the study of economic and financial data
  33. efficiency
    skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort
  34. elasticity
    the tendency of a body to return to its original shape
  35. equity
    conformity with rules or standards
  36. fiscal policy
    a government policy for dealing with the budget
  37. free lunch
    something acquired without effort or payment or obligation
  38. free trade
    international trade free of government interference
  39. full employment
    the economic condition when everyone who wishes to work at the going wage rate for their type of labor is employed
  40. game theory
    (economics) a theory of competition stated in terms of gains and losses among opposing players
  41. GDP
    the measure of an economy adopted by the United States in 1991; the total market values of goods and services produced by workers and capital within a nation's borders during a given period (usually 1 year)
  42. globalisation
    growth to a global or worldwide scale
  43. gold standard
    a monetary standard based on gold
  44. hedge
    a fence formed by a row of closely planted shrubs or bushes
  45. incentive
    a positive motivational influence
  46. income
    the financial gain accruing over a given period of time
  47. inelastic
    not elastic
  48. inflation
    the act of filling something with air
  49. inflation
    the act of filling something with air
  50. interest
    a sense of concern with and curiosity about something
  51. interest rate
    the percentage of a sum of money charged for its use
  52. Karl Marx
    founder of modern communism
  53. leverage
    the mechanical advantage gained by a machine on a fulcrum
  54. liquidity
    the state in which a substance exhibits a readiness to flow
  55. long run
    a period of time sufficient for factors to work themselves out
  56. long run
    a period of time sufficient for factors to work themselves out
  57. macroeconomics
    the branch of economics that studies the overall working of a national economy
  58. marginal
    at or constituting a border or edge
  59. market capitalisation
    an estimation of the value of a business that is obtained by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the current price of a share
  60. market forces
    the interaction of supply and demand that shapes a market economy
  61. market forces
    the interaction of supply and demand that shapes a market economy
  62. mercantilism
    system increasing a nation's wealth by government regulation
  63. microeconomics
    the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers or households or individual firms
  64. Milton Friedman
    United States economist noted as a proponent of monetarism and for his opposition to government intervention in the economy (born in 1912)
  65. minimum wage
    the lowest wage that an employer is allowed to pay
  66. modelling
    a preliminary sculpture in wax or clay from which a finished work can be copied
  67. money
    the most common medium of exchange
  68. money market
    a market for short-term debt instruments
  69. money supply
    the total stock of money in the economy
  70. Monopoly
    a board game in which players try to gain a monopoly on real estate as pieces advance around the board according to the throw of a die
  71. monopoly
    a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
  72. monopsony
    (economics) a market in which goods or services are offered by several sellers but there is only one buyer
  73. moral hazard
    (economics) the lack of any incentive to guard against a risk when you are protected against it (as by insurance)
  74. motivator
    a positive motivational influence
  75. national debt
    the debt of the national government
  76. nominal value
    the value of a security that is set by the company issuing it; unrelated to market value
  77. nudge
    to push against gently
  78. oligopoly
    a market in which a few producers control a commodity
  79. opportunity cost
    cost in terms of foregoing alternatives
  80. poverty
    the state of having little or no money and possessions
  81. poverty trap
    a situation in which an increase in income results in a loss of benefits so that you are no better off
  82. price
    the amount of money needed to purchase something
  83. principal
    most important element
  84. profit margin
    the ratio gross profits divided by net sales
  85. public utility
    a company that performs a public service
  86. quota
    a prescribed number
  87. recession
    the act of returning control
  88. regression analysis
    the use of regression to make quantitative predictions of one variable from the values of another
  89. regulation
    the act of bringing to uniformity; making regular
  90. replacement cost
    current cost of replacing a fixed asset with a new one of equal effectiveness
  91. risk
    a source of danger
  92. scalability
    the quality of being scalable
  93. scarcity
    a small and inadequate amount
  94. seller's market
    a market in which more people want to buy than want to sell
  95. short-run
    relating to or extending over a limited period
  96. simple interest
    interest paid on the principal alone
  97. socialism
    a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
  98. spread
    distribute or disperse widely
  99. stagflation
    a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
  100. stagnation
    a state of inactivity
  101. stakeholder
    someone entrusted to hold the stakes for betting
  102. standard deviation
    the square root of the variance
  103. subsidy
    a grant paid by a government to an enterprise
  104. supply
    circulate or distribute or equip with
  105. tariff
    a government tax on imports or exports
  106. tax base
    collective value of taxable assets
  107. time value
    (music) the relative duration of a musical note
  108. trade
    the commercial exchange of goods and services
  109. transparency
    the quality of being clear
  110. Treasury bill
    a short-term obligation that is not interest-bearing
  111. unemployment
    the state of not having a job
  112. unemployment
    the state of not having a job
  113. use
    put into service
  114. utility
    the quality of being of practical use
  115. value-added
  116. vertical integration
    absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
  117. volatility
    being easily excited
  118. welfare
    something that aids or promotes well-being
  119. enthalpy
    (thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume and pressure