Beowulf vocabulary 757 words

Vocabulary from "Beowulf" (translated by by Gummere).
  1. praise
    an expression of approval and commendation
    LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
    of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
    we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
  2. prowess
    a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation
    LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
    of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
    we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
  3. spear
    a long pointed rod used as a tool or weapon
    LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
    of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
    we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
  4. speed
    a rate (usually rapid) at which something happens
    LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
    of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
    we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
  5. honor
    a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction
    LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
    of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
    we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
  6. foe
    an armed adversary (especially a member of an opposing military force)
    Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,
    from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,
    awing the earls.
  7. awe
    an overwhelming feeling of wonder or admiration
    Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,
    from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,
    awing the earls.
  8. fate
    the ultimate agency regarded as predetermining the course of events (often personified as a woman)
    Since erst he lay
    friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:
    for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve,
    till before him the folk, both far and near,
    who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate,
    gave him gifts: a good king he!
  9. thrive
    make steady progress; be at the high point in one's career or reach a high point in historical significance or importance
    Since erst he lay
    friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:
    for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve,
    till before him the folk, both far and near,
    who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate,
    gave him gifts: a good king he!
  10. mandate
    a document giving an official instruction or command
    Since erst he lay
    friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:
    for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve,
    till before him the folk, both far and near,
    who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate,
    gave him gifts: a good king he!
  11. heir
    a person who is entitled by law or by the terms of a will to inherit the estate of another
    To him an heir was afterward born,
    a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
    to favor the folk, feeling their woe
    that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
    so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
    the Wielder of Wonder, with world’s renown.
  12. favor
    an act of gracious kindness
    To him an heir was afterward born,
    a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
    to favor the folk, feeling their woe
    that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
    so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
    the Wielder of Wonder, with world’s renown.
  13. woe
    misery resulting from affliction
    To him an heir was afterward born,
    a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
    to favor the folk, feeling their woe
    that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
    so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
    the Wielder of Wonder, with world’s renown.
  14. leader
    a person who rules or guides or inspires others
    To him an heir was afterward born,
    a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
    to favor the folk, feeling their woe
    that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
    so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
    the Wielder of Wonder, with world’s renown.
  15. endowed
    provided or supplied or equipped with (especially as by inheritance or nature)
    To him an heir was afterward born,
    a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
    to favor the folk, feeling their woe
    that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
    so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
    the Wielder of Wonder, with world’s renown.
  16. renown
    the state or quality of being widely honored and acclaimed
    To him an heir was afterward born,
    a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
    to favor the folk, feeling their woe
    that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
    so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
    the Wielder of Wonder, with world’s renown.
  17. boast
    show off
    Famed was this Beowulf: {0a} far flew the boast of him,
    son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands.
  18. aid
    the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose
    So becomes it a youth to quit him well
    with his father’s friends, by fee and gift,
    that to aid him, aged, in after days,
    come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,
    liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds
    shall an earl have honor in every clan.
  19. warrior
    someone engaged in or experienced in warfare
    So becomes it a youth to quit him well
    with his father’s friends, by fee and gift,
    that to aid him, aged, in after days,
    come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,
    liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds
    shall an earl have honor in every clan.
  20. loyal
    steadfast in allegiance or duty
    So becomes it a youth to quit him well
    with his father’s friends, by fee and gift,
    that to aid him, aged, in after days,
    come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,
    liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds
    shall an earl have honor in every clan.
  21. laud
    praise, glorify, or honor
    So becomes it a youth to quit him well
    with his father’s friends, by fee and gift,
    that to aid him, aged, in after days,
    come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,
    liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds
    shall an earl have honor in every clan.
  22. deed
    a legal document signed and sealed and delivered to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it
    So becomes it a youth to quit him well
    with his father’s friends, by fee and gift,
    that to aid him, aged, in after days,
    come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,
    liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds
    shall an earl have honor in every clan.
  23. fare
    the sum charged for riding in a public conveyance
    Forth he fared at the fated moment,
    sturdy Scyld to the shelter of God.
  24. sturdy
    having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
    Forth he fared at the fated moment,
    sturdy Scyld to the shelter of God.
  25. shelter
    protective covering that provides protection from the weather
    Forth he fared at the fated moment,
    sturdy Scyld to the shelter of God.
  26. bore
    make a hole, especially with a pointed power or hand tool
    Then they bore him over to ocean’s billow,
    loving clansmen, as late he charged them,
    while wielded words the winsome Scyld,
    the leader beloved who long had ruled....
  27. billow
    a large sea wave
    Then they bore him over to ocean’s billow,
    loving clansmen, as late he charged them,
    while wielded words the winsome Scyld,
    the leader beloved who long had ruled....
  28. wield
    handle effectively
    Then they bore him over to ocean’s billow,
    loving clansmen, as late he charged them,
    while wielded words the winsome Scyld,
    the leader beloved who long had ruled....
  29. winsome
    charming in a childlike or naive way
    Then they bore him over to ocean’s billow,
    loving clansmen, as late he charged them,
    while wielded words the winsome Scyld,
    the leader beloved who long had ruled....
  30. beloved
    dearly loved
    Then they bore him over to ocean’s billow,
    loving clansmen, as late he charged them,
    while wielded words the winsome Scyld,
    the leader beloved who long had ruled....
  31. vessel
    an object used as a container (especially for liquids)
    In the roadstead rocked a ring-dight vessel,
    ice-flecked, outbound, atheling’s barge:
    there laid they down their darling lord
    on the breast of the boat, the breaker-of-rings, {0b}
    by the mast the mighty one.
  32. fleck
    a small contrasting part of something
    In the roadstead rocked a ring-dight vessel,
    ice- flecked, outbound, atheling’s barge:
    there laid they down their darling lord
    on the breast of the boat, the breaker-of-rings, {0b}
    by the mast the mighty one.
  33. treasure
    any possession that is highly valued by its owner
    Many a treasure
    fetched from far was freighted with him.
  34. fetch
    go or come after and bring or take back
    Many a treasure
    fetched from far was freighted with him.
  35. freight
    goods carried by a large vehicle
    Many a treasure
    fetched from far was freighted with him.
  36. battle
    a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war
    No ship have I known so nobly dight
    with weapons of war and weeds of battle,
    with breastplate and blade: on his bosom lay
    a heaped hoard that hence should go
    far o’er the flood with him floating away.
  37. hoard
    a secret store of valuables or money
    No ship have I known so nobly dight
    with weapons of war and weeds of battle,
    with breastplate and blade: on his bosom lay
    a heaped hoard that hence should go
    far o’er the flood with him floating away.
  38. flood
    the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land
    No ship have I known so nobly dight
    with weapons of war and weeds of battle,
    with breastplate and blade: on his bosom lay
    a heaped hoard that hence should go
    far o’er the flood with him floating away.
  39. float
    be afloat either on or below a liquid surface and not sink to the bottom
    No ship have I known so nobly dight
    with weapons of war and weeds of battle,
    with breastplate and blade: on his bosom lay
    a heaped hoard that hence should go
    far o’er the flood with him floating away.
  40. hoist
    raise or haul up with or as if with mechanical help
    High o’er his head they hoist the standard,
    a gold-wove banner; let billows take him,
    gave him to ocean.
  41. standard
    a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated
    High o’er his head they hoist the standard,
    a gold-wove banner; let billows take him,
    gave him to ocean.
  42. banner
    long strip of cloth or paper used for decoration or advertising
    High o’er his head they hoist the standard,
    a gold-wove banner; let billows take him,
    gave him to ocean.
  43. grave
    a place for the burial of a corpse (especially beneath the ground and marked by a tombstone)
    Grave were their spirits,
    mournful their mood.
  44. mournful
    expressing sorrow
    Grave were their spirits,
    mournful their mood.
  45. mood
    a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling
    Grave were their spirits,
    mournful their mood.
  46. hero
    someone who fights for a cause
    No man is able
    to say in sooth, no son of the halls,
    no hero ’neath heaven, -- who harbored that freight!
  47. harbor
    a sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo
    No man is able
    to say in sooth, no son of the halls,
    no hero ’neath heaven, -- who harbored that freight!
  48. bode
    indicate by signs
    Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings,
    leader beloved, and long he ruled
    in fame with all folk, since his father had gone
    away from the world, till awoke an heir,
    haughty Healfdene, who held through life,
    sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad.
  49. haughty
    having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy
    Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings,
    leader beloved, and long he ruled
    in fame with all folk, since his father had gone
    away from the world, till awoke an heir,
    haughty Healfdene, who held through life,
    sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad.
  50. sage
    a mentor in spiritual and philosophical topics who is renowned for profound wisdom
    Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings,
    leader beloved, and long he ruled
    in fame with all folk, since his father had gone
    away from the world, till awoke an heir,
    haughty Healfdene, who held through life,
    sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad.
  51. wake
    stop sleeping
    Then, one after one, there woke to him,
    to the chieftain of clansmen, children four:
  52. brave
    possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching
    Heorogar, then Hrothgar, then Halga brave;
    and I heard that -- was -- ’s queen,
    the Heathoscylfing’s helpmate dear.
  53. glory
    a state of high honor
    To Hrothgar was given such glory of war,
    such honor of combat, that all his kin
    obeyed him gladly till great grew his band
    of youthful comrades.
  54. combat
    the act of fighting; any contest or struggle
    To Hrothgar was given such glory of war,
    such honor of combat, that all his kin
    obeyed him gladly till great grew his band
    of youthful comrades.
  55. kin
    a person having kinship with another or others
    To Hrothgar was given such glory of war,
    such honor of combat, that all his kin
    obeyed him gladly till great grew his band
    of youthful comrades.
  56. comrade
    a friend who is frequently in the company of another
    To Hrothgar was given such glory of war,
    such honor of combat, that all his kin
    obeyed him gladly till great grew his band
    of youthful comrades.
  57. allot
    give out
    It came in his mind
    to bid his henchmen a hall uprear,
    a master mead-house, mightier far
    than ever was seen by the sons of earth,
    and within it, then, to old and young
    he would all allot that the Lord had sent him,
    save only the land and the lives of his men.
  58. fashion
    the latest and most admired style in clothes and cosmetics and behavior
    Wide, I heard, was the work commanded,
    for many a tribe this mid-earth round,
    to fashion the folkstead.
  59. rapid
    characterized by speed; moving with or capable of moving with high speed
    It fell, as he ordered,
    in rapid achievement that ready it stood there,
    of halls the noblest: Heorot {1a} he named it
    whose message had might in many a land.
  60. achievement
    the action of accomplishing something
    It fell, as he ordered,
    in rapid achievement that ready it stood there,
    of halls the noblest: Heorot {1a} he named it
    whose message had might in many a land.
  61. noble
    of or belonging to or constituting the hereditary aristocracy especially as derived from feudal times
    It fell, as he ordered,
    in rapid achievement that ready it stood there,
    of halls the noblest: Heorot {1a} he named it
    whose message had might in many a land.
  62. message
    a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled
    It fell, as he ordered,
    in rapid achievement that ready it stood there,
    of halls the noblest: Heorot {1a} he named it
    whose message had might in many a land.
  63. reckless
    marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  64. promise
    a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do (or not to do) something in the future
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  65. banquet
    a ceremonial dinner party for many people
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  66. tower
    a structure taller than its diameter; can stand alone or be attached to a larger building
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  67. surge
    rise and move, as in waves or billows
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  68. furious
    marked by extreme anger
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  69. flame
    the process of combustion of inflammable materials producing heat and light and (often) smoke
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  70. feud
    a bitter quarrel between two parties
    Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
    treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
    high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
    of furious flame. {1b} Nor far was that day
    when father and son-in-law stood in feud
    for warfare and hatred that woke again. {1c}
  71. envy
    a feeling of grudging admiration and desire to have something that is possessed by another
    With envy and anger an evil spirit
    endured the dole in his dark abode,
    that he heard each day the din of revel
    high in the hall: there harps rang out,
    clear song of the singer.
  72. endure
    undergo or be subjected to
    With envy and anger an evil spirit
    endured the dole in his dark abode,
    that he heard each day the din of revel
    high in the hall: there harps rang out,
    clear song of the singer.
  73. abode
    any address at which you dwell more than temporarily
    With envy and anger an evil spirit
    endured the dole in his dark abode,
    that he heard each day the din of revel
    high in the hall: there harps rang out,
    clear song of the singer.
  74. din
    a loud harsh or strident noise
    With envy and anger an evil spirit
    endured the dole in his dark abode,
    that he heard each day the din of revel
    high in the hall: there harps rang out,
    clear song of the singer.
  75. revel
    take delight in
    With envy and anger an evil spirit
    endured the dole in his dark abode,
    that he heard each day the din of revel
    high in the hall: there harps rang out,
    clear song of the singer.
  76. triumphant
    experiencing triumph
    He sang who knew {1d}
    tales of the early time of man,
    how the Almighty made the earth,
    fairest fields enfolded by water,
    set, triumphant, sun and moon
    for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
    and braided bright the breast of earth
    with limbs and leaves, made life for all
    of mortal beings that breathe and move.
  77. limb
    one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper
    He sang who knew {1d}
    tales of the early time of man,
    how the Almighty made the earth,
    fairest fields enfolded by water,
    set, triumphant, sun and moon
    for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
    and braided bright the breast of earth
    with limbs and leaves, made life for all
    of mortal beings that breathe and move.
  78. mortal
    subject to death
    He sang who knew {1d}
    tales of the early time of man,
    how the Almighty made the earth,
    fairest fields enfolded by water,
    set, triumphant, sun and moon
    for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
    and braided bright the breast of earth
    with limbs and leaves, made life for all
    of mortal beings that breathe and move.
  79. cheer
    a cry or shout of approval
    So lived the clansmen in cheer and revel
    a winsome life, till one began
    to fashion evils, that field of hell.
  80. monster
    an imaginary creature usually having various human and animal parts
    Grendel this monster grim was called,
    march-riever {1e} mighty, in moorland living,
    in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
    the hapless wight a while had kept
    since the Creator his exile doomed.
  81. grim
    harshly uninviting or formidable in manner or appearance
    Grendel this monster grim was called,
    march-riever {1e} mighty, in moorland living,
    in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
    the hapless wight a while had kept
    since the Creator his exile doomed.
  82. fief
    a piece of land held under the feudal system
    Grendel this monster grim was called,
    march-riever {1e} mighty, in moorland living,
    in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
    the hapless wight a while had kept
    since the Creator his exile doomed.
  83. hapless
    deserving or inciting pity
    Grendel this monster grim was called,
    march-riever {1e} mighty, in moorland living,
    in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
    the hapless wight a while had kept
    since the Creator his exile doomed.
  84. creator
    a person who grows or makes or invents things
    Grendel this monster grim was called,
    march-riever {1e} mighty, in moorland living,
    in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
    the hapless wight a while had kept
    since the Creator his exile doomed.
  85. exile
    the act of expelling a person from their native land
    Grendel this monster grim was called,
    march-riever {1e} mighty, in moorland living,
    in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
    the hapless wight a while had kept
    since the Creator his exile doomed.
  86. avenge
    take revenge for a perceived wrong
    On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
    by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
  87. slaughter
    the killing of animals (as for food)
    On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
    by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
  88. weary
    physically and mentally fatigued
    Etins {1g} and elves and evil-spirits,
    as well as the giants that warred with God
    weary while: but their wage was paid them!
  89. sorrow
    an emotion of great sadness associated with loss or bereavement
    Found within it the atheling band
    asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow,
    of human hardship.
  90. hardship
    something hard to endure
    Found within it the atheling band
    asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow,
    of human hardship.
  91. greedy
    immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth
    Unhallowed wight,
    grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
    wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
    thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
    fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
    laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
  92. grasp
    hold firmly
    Unhallowed wight,
    grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
    wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
    thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
    fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
    laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
  93. spoil
    make a mess of, destroy or ruin
    Unhallowed wight,
    grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
    wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
    thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
    fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
    laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
  94. laden
    filled with a great quantity
    Unhallowed wight,
    grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
    wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
    thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
    fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
    laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
  95. lair
    the habitation of wild animals
    Unhallowed wight,
    grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
    wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
    thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
    fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
    laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
  96. dawn
    the first light of day
    Then at the dawning, as day was breaking,
    the might of Grendel to men was known;
    then after wassail was wail uplifted,
    loud moan in the morn.
  97. wail
    a cry of sorrow and grief
    Then at the dawning, as day was breaking,
    the might of Grendel to men was known;
    then after wassail was wail uplifted,
    loud moan in the morn.
  98. excellent
    very good;of the highest quality
    The mighty chief,
    atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
    labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
    when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
    spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
    too long, too loathsome.
  99. labor
    any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
    The mighty chief,
    atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
    labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
    when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
    spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
    too long, too loathsome.
  100. trace
    an indication that something has been present
    The mighty chief,
    atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
    labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
    when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
    spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
    too long, too loathsome.
  101. fiend
    an evil supernatural being
    The mighty chief,
    atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
    labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
    when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
    spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
    too long, too loathsome.
  102. loathsome
    highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust
    The mighty chief,
    atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
    labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
    when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
    spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
    too long, too loathsome.
  103. respite
    a pause from doing something (as work)
    Not late the respite;
    with night returning, anew began
    ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
    firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
  104. ruthless
    without mercy or pity
    Not late the respite;
    with night returning, anew began
    ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
    firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
  105. murder
    unlawful premeditated killing of a human being by a human being
    Not late the respite;
    with night returning, anew began
    ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
    firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
  106. whit
    a tiny or scarcely detectable amount
    Not late the respite;
    with night returning, anew began
    ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
    firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
  107. guilt
    the state of having committed an offense
    Not late the respite;
    with night returning, anew began
    ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
    firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
  108. remote
    located far away spatially
    They were easy to find who elsewhere sought
    in room remote their rest at night,
    bed in the bowers, {2a} when that bale was shown,
    was seen in sooth, with surest token, --
    the hall-thane’s {2b} hate.
  109. rage
    a feeling of intense anger
    Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fill
    one against all; until empty stood
    that lordly building, and long it bode so.
  110. empty
    holding or containing nothing
    Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fill
    one against all; until empty stood
    that lordly building, and long it bode so.
  111. tide
    the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon
    Twelve years’ tide the trouble he bore,
    sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty,
    boundless cares.
  112. plenty
    a full supply
    Twelve years’ tide the trouble he bore,
    sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty,
    boundless cares.
  113. harass
    annoy continually or chronically
    There came unhidden
    tidings true to the tribes of men,
    in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
    harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
    what murder and massacre, many a year,
    feud unfading, -- refused consent
    to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
    make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
    still less did the wise men ween to get
    great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
  114. massacre
    the savage and excessive killing of many people
    There came unhidden
    tidings true to the tribes of men,
    in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
    harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
    what murder and massacre, many a year,
    feud unfading, -- refused consent
    to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
    make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
    still less did the wise men ween to get
    great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
  115. refuse
    show unwillingness towards
    There came unhidden
    tidings true to the tribes of men,
    in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
    harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
    what murder and massacre, many a year,
    feud unfading, -- refused consent
    to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
    make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
    still less did the wise men ween to get
    great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
  116. consent
    give an affirmative reply to; respond favorably to
    There came unhidden
    tidings true to the tribes of men,
    in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
    harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
    what murder and massacre, many a year,
    feud unfading, -- refused consent
    to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
    make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
    still less did the wise men ween to get
    great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
  117. pact
    a written agreement between two states or sovereigns
    There came unhidden
    tidings true to the tribes of men,
    in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
    harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
    what murder and massacre, many a year,
    feud unfading, -- refused consent
    to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
    make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
    still less did the wise men ween to get
    great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
  118. compound
    a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
    There came unhidden
    tidings true to the tribes of men,
    in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
    harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
    what murder and massacre, many a year,
    feud unfading, -- refused consent
    to deal with any of Daneland’s earls,
    make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
    still less did the wise men ween to get
    great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
  119. ambush
    the act of concealing yourself and lying in wait to attack by surprise
    But the evil one ambushed old and young
    death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
    lured, or lurked in the livelong night
    of misty moorlands: men may say not
    where the haunts of these Hell-Runes {2c} be.
  120. dogged
    stubbornly unyielding
    But the evil one ambushed old and young
    death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
    lured, or lurked in the livelong night
    of misty moorlands: men may say not
    where the haunts of these Hell-Runes {2c} be.
  121. lure
    provoke someone to do something through (often false or exaggerated) promises or persuasion
    But the evil one ambushed old and young
    death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
    lured, or lurked in the livelong night
    of misty moorlands: men may say not
    where the haunts of these Hell-Runes {2c} be.
  122. lurk
    lie in wait, lie in ambush, behave in a sneaky and secretive manner
    But the evil one ambushed old and young
    death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
    lured, or lurked in the livelong night
    of misty moorlands: men may say not
    where the haunts of these Hell-Runes {2c} be.
  123. misty
    filled or abounding with fog or mist
    But the evil one ambushed old and young
    death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
    lured, or lurked in the livelong night
    of misty moorlands: men may say not
    where the haunts of these Hell-Runes {2c} be.
  124. haunt
    follow stealthily or recur constantly and spontaneously to
    But the evil one ambushed old and young
    death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
    lured, or lurked in the livelong night
    of misty moorlands: men may say not
    where the haunts of these Hell-Runes {2c} be.
  125. wrought
    shaped to fit by or as if by altering the contours of a pliable mass (as by work or effort)
    Such heaping of horrors the hater of men,
    lonely roamer, wrought unceasing,
    harassings heavy.
  126. gloomy
    depressingly dark
    O’er Heorot he lorded,
    gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;
    and ne’er could the prince {2d} approach his throne,
    -- ’twas judgment of God, -- or have joy in his hall.
  127. approach
    move towards
    O’er Heorot he lorded,
    gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;
    and ne’er could the prince {2d} approach his throne,
    -- ’twas judgment of God, -- or have joy in his hall.
  128. judgment
    the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event
    O’er Heorot he lorded,
    gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;
    and ne’er could the prince {2d} approach his throne,
    -- ’twas judgment of God, -- or have joy in his hall.
  129. rend
    tear or be torn violently
    Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings’-friend,
    heart- rending misery.
  130. misery
    a state of ill-being due to affliction or misfortune
    Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings’-friend,
    heart-rending misery.
  131. assemble
    create by putting components or members together
    Many nobles
    sat assembled, and searched out counsel
    how it were best for bold-hearted men
    against harassing terror to try their hand.
  132. search
    search or seek
    Many nobles
    sat assembled, and searched out counsel
    how it were best for bold-hearted men
    against harassing terror to try their hand.
  133. counsel
    something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
    Many nobles
    sat assembled, and searched out counsel
    how it were best for bold-hearted men
    against harassing terror to try their hand.
  134. bold
    fearless and daring
    Many nobles
    sat assembled, and searched out counsel
    how it were best for bold-hearted men
    against harassing terror to try their hand.
  135. terror
    an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety
    Many nobles
    sat assembled, and searched out counsel
    how it were best for bold-hearted men
    against harassing terror to try their hand.
  136. vow
    a solemn pledge (to oneself or to another or to a deity) to do something or to behave in a certain manner
    Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
    altar-offerings, asked with words {2e}
    that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
    for the pain of their people.
  137. heathen
    a person who does not acknowledge your god
    Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
    altar-offerings, asked with words {2e}
    that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
    for the pain of their people.
  138. altar
    a raised structure on which gifts or sacrifices to a god are made
    Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
    altar-offerings, asked with words {2e}
    that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
    for the pain of their people.
  139. succor
    assistance in time of difficulty
    Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
    altar-offerings, asked with words {2e}
    that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
    for the pain of their people.
  140. practice
    a customary way of operation or behavior
    Their practice this,
    their heathen hope; ’twas Hell they thought of
    in mood of their mind.
  141. dreadful
    exceptionally bad or displeasing
    Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord,
    nor Heaven’s-Helmet heeded they ever,
  142. hale
    exhibiting or restored to vigorous good health
    -- Woe for that man
    who in harm and hatred hales his soul
    to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor change
    awaits he ever.
  143. fiery
    like or suggestive of fire
    -- Woe for that man
    who in harm and hatred hales his soul
    to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor change
    awaits he ever.
  144. embrace
    squeeze (someone) tightly in your arms, usually with fondness
    -- Woe for that man
    who in harm and hatred hales his soul
    to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor change
    awaits he ever.
  145. friendship
    the state of being friends (or friendly)
    But well for him
    that after death-day may draw to his Lord,
    and friendship find in the Father’s arms!
  146. seethe
    foam as if boiling
    THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdene
    with the woe of these days; not wisest men
    assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,
    loathly and long, that lay on his folk,
    most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.
  147. assuage
    provide physical relief, as from pain
    THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdene
    with the woe of these days; not wisest men
    assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,
    loathly and long, that lay on his folk,
    most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.
  148. anguish
    extreme distress of body or mind
    THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdene
    with the woe of these days; not wisest men
    assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,
    loathly and long, that lay on his folk,
    most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.
  149. burden
    weight to be borne or conveyed
    THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdene
    with the woe of these days; not wisest men
    assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,
    loathly and long, that lay on his folk,
    most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.
  150. valor
    the qualities of a hero or heroine; exceptional or heroic courage when facing danger (especially in battle)
    He was the mightiest man of valor
    in that same day of this our life,
    stalwart and stately.
  151. stalwart
    having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
    He was the mightiest man of valor
    in that same day of this our life,
    stalwart and stately.
  152. stout
    having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
    A stout wave-walker
    he bade make ready.
  153. monarch
    a nation's ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right
    Yon battle-king, said he,
    far o’er the swan-road he fain would seek,
    the noble monarch who needed men!
  154. journey
    the act of traveling from one place to another
    The prince’s journey by prudent folk
    was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
    they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
  155. prudent
    careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment
    The prince’s journey by prudent folk
    was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
    they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
  156. blame
    an accusation that you are responsible for some lapse or misdeed
    The prince’s journey by prudent folk
    was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
    they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
  157. whet
    sharpen by rubbing, as on a whetstone
    The prince’s journey by prudent folk
    was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
    they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
  158. hail
    precipitation of ice pellets when there are strong rising air currents
    The prince’s journey by prudent folk
    was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
    they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
  159. omen
    a sign of something about to happen
    The prince’s journey by prudent folk
    was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
    they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
  160. keen
    intense or sharp
    And now the bold one from bands of Geats
    comrades chose, the keenest of warriors
    e’er he could find; with fourteen men
    the sea-wood {3a} he sought, and, sailor proved,
    led them on to the land’s confines.
  161. prove
    establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
    And now the bold one from bands of Geats
    comrades chose, the keenest of warriors
    e’er he could find; with fourteen men
    the sea-wood {3a} he sought, and, sailor proved,
    led them on to the land’s confines.
  162. confines
    a bounded scope
    And now the bold one from bands of Geats
    comrades chose, the keenest of warriors
    e’er he could find; with fourteen men
    the sea-wood {3a} he sought, and, sailor proved,
    led them on to the land’s confines.
  163. bluff
    a high steep bank (usually formed by river erosion)
    Time had now flown; {3b} afloat was the ship,
    boat under bluff.
  164. array
    an impressive display
    On board they climbed,
    warriors ready; waves were churning
    sea with sand; the sailors bore
    on the breast of the bark their bright array,
    their mail and weapons: the men pushed off,
    on its willing way, the well-braced craft.
  165. brace
    a support that steadies or strengthens something else
    On board they climbed,
    warriors ready; waves were churning
    sea with sand; the sailors bore
    on the breast of the bark their bright array,
    their mail and weapons: the men pushed off,
    on its willing way, the well- braced craft.
  166. prow
    front part of a vessel or aircraft
    Then moved o’er the waters by might of the wind
    that bark like a bird with breast of foam,
    till in season due, on the second day,
    the curved prow such course had run
    that sailors now could see the land,
    sea-cliffs shining, steep high hills,
    headlands broad.
  167. cliff
    a steep high face of rock
    Then moved o’er the waters by might of the wind
    that bark like a bird with breast of foam,
    till in season due, on the second day,
    the curved prow such course had run
    that sailors now could see the land,
    sea- cliffs shining, steep high hills,
    headlands broad.
  168. steep
    having a sharp inclination
    Then moved o’er the waters by might of the wind
    that bark like a bird with breast of foam,
    till in season due, on the second day,
    the curved prow such course had run
    that sailors now could see the land,
    sea-cliffs shining, steep high hills,
    headlands broad.
  169. broad
    having great (or a certain) extent from one side to the other
    Then moved o’er the waters by might of the wind
    that bark like a bird with breast of foam,
    till in season due, on the second day,
    the curved prow such course had run
    that sailors now could see the land,
    sea-cliffs shining, steep high hills,
    headlands broad.
  170. anchor
    a mechanical device that prevents a vessel from moving
    Up then quickly
    the Weders’ {3c} clansmen climbed ashore,
    anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashing
    and gear of battle: God they thanked
    or passing in peace o’er the paths of the sea.
  171. gear
    a toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion
    Up then quickly
    the Weders’ {3c} clansmen climbed ashore,
    anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashing
    and gear of battle: God they thanked
    or passing in peace o’er the paths of the sea.
  172. shield
    armor carried on the arm to intercept blows
    Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman,
    a warden that watched the water-side,
    how they bore o’er the gangway glittering shields,
    war-gear in readiness; wonder seized him
    to know what manner of men they were.
  173. seize
    take hold of; grab
    Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman,
    a warden that watched the water-side,
    how they bore o’er the gangway glittering shields,
    war-gear in readiness; wonder seized him
    to know what manner of men they were.
  174. straight
    having no deviations
    Straight to the strand his steed he rode,
  175. parley
    a negotiation between enemies
    Hrothgar’s henchman; with hand of might
    he shook his spear, and spake in parley.
  176. urge
    force or impel in an indicated direction
    “Who are ye, then, ye armed men,
    mailed folk, that yon mighty vessel
    have urged thus over the ocean ways,
    here o’er the waters?
  177. sentinel
    a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event
    A warden I,
    sentinel set o’er the sea-march here,
    lest any foe to the folk of Danes
    with harrying fleet should harm the land.
  178. harry
    make a pillaging or destructive raid on (a place), as in wartimes
    A warden I,
    sentinel set o’er the sea-march here,
    lest any foe to the folk of Danes
    with harrying fleet should harm the land.
  179. alien
    being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world
    No aliens ever at ease thus bore them,
    linden-wielders: {3d} yet word-of-leave
    clearly ye lack from clansmen here,
    my folk’s agreement.
  180. ease
    freedom from difficulty or hardship or effort
    No aliens ever at ease thus bore them,
    linden-wielders: {3d} yet word-of-leave
    clearly ye lack from clansmen here,
    my folk’s agreement.
  181. harness
    stable gear consisting of an arrangement of leather straps fitted to a draft animal so that it can be attached to and pull a cart
    -- A greater ne’er saw I
    of warriors in world than is one of you, --
    yon hero in harness!
  182. feature
    a prominent attribute or aspect of something
    No henchman he
    worthied by weapons, if witness his features,
    his peerless presence!
  183. peerless
    eminent beyond or above comparison
    No henchman he
    worthied by weapons, if witness his features,
    his peerless presence!
  184. presence
    the state of being present; current existence
    No henchman he
    worthied by weapons, if witness his features,
    his peerless presence!
  185. suspect
    regard as untrustworthy; regard with suspicion; have no faith or confidence in
    I pray you, though, tell
    your folk and home, lest hence ye fare
    suspect to wander your way as spies
    in Danish land.
  186. wander
    to move or cause to move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course
    I pray you, though, tell
    your folk and home, lest hence ye fare
    suspect to wander your way as spies
    in Danish land.
  187. simple
    having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved
    Now, dwellers afar,
    ocean-travellers, take from me
    simple advice: the sooner the better
  188. advice
    a proposal for an appropriate course of action
    Now, dwellers afar,
    ocean-travellers, take from me
    simple advice: the sooner the better
  189. liege
    a feudal lord entitled to allegiance and service
    To thy lord and liege in loyal mood
    we hasten hither, to Healfdene’s son,
    people-protector: be pleased to advise us!
  190. hasten
    move fast
    To thy lord and liege in loyal mood
    we hasten hither, to Healfdene’s son,
    people-protector: be pleased to advise us!
  191. advise
    give advice to
    To thy lord and liege in loyal mood
    we hasten hither, to Healfdene’s son,
    people-protector: be pleased to advise us!
  192. errand
    a short trip that is taken in the performance of a necessary task or mission
    To that mighty-one come we on mickle errand,
    to the lord of the Danes; nor deem I right
    that aught be hidden.
  193. deem
    keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view
    To that mighty-one come we on mickle errand,
    to the lord of the Danes; nor deem I right
    that aught be hidden.
  194. scathing
    marked by harshly abusive criticism
    We hear -- thou knowest
    if sooth it is -- the saying of men,
    that amid the Scyldings a scathing monster,
    dark ill-doer, in dusky nights
    shows terrific his rage unmatched,
    hatred and murder.
  195. contest
    a struggle between rivals
    To Hrothgar I
    in greatness of soul would succor bring,
    so the Wise-and-Brave {4a} may worst his foes, --
    if ever the end of ills is fated,
    of cruel contest, if cure shall follow,
    and the boiling care-waves cooler grow;
    else ever afterward anguish-days
    he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in place
    high on its hill that house unpeered!”
  196. boil
    come to the boiling point and change from a liquid to vapor
    To Hrothgar I
    in greatness of soul would succor bring,
    so the Wise-and-Brave {4a} may worst his foes, --
    if ever the end of ills is fated,
    of cruel contest, if cure shall follow,
    and the boiling care-waves cooler grow;
    else ever afterward anguish-days
    he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in place
    high on its hill that house unpeered!”
  197. suffer
    undergo or be subjected to
    To Hrothgar I
    in greatness of soul would succor bring,
    so the Wise-and-Brave {4a} may worst his foes, --
    if ever the end of ills is fated,
    of cruel contest, if cure shall follow,
    and the boiling care-waves cooler grow;
    else ever afterward anguish-days
    he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in place
    high on its hill that house unpeered!”
  198. sever
    set or keep apart
    Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered,
    clansman unquailing: “The keen-souled thane
    must be skilled to sever and sunder duly
    words and works, if he well intends.
  199. sunder
    break apart or in two, using violence
    Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered,
    clansman unquailing: “The keen-souled thane
    must be skilled to sever and sunder duly
    words and works, if he well intends.
  200. duly
    at the proper time
    Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered,
    clansman unquailing: “The keen-souled thane
    must be skilled to sever and sunder duly
    words and works, if he well intends.
  201. intend
    have in mind as a purpose
    Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered,
    clansman unquailing: “The keen-souled thane
    must be skilled to sever and sunder duly
    words and works, if he well intends.
  202. gather
    assemble or get together
    I gather, this band is graciously bent
    to the Scyldings’ master.
  203. bearing
    characteristic way of bearing one's body
    March, then, bearing
    weapons and weeds the way I show you.
  204. guard
    watch over or shield from danger or harm; protect
    I will bid my men your boat meanwhile
    to guard for fear lest foemen come, --
    your new-tarred ship by shore of ocean
    faithfully watching till once again
    it waft o’er the waters those well-loved thanes,
    -- winding-neck’d wood, -- to Weders’ bounds,
    heroes such as the hest of fate
    shall succor and save from the shock of war.”
  205. bound
    confined by bonds
    I will bid my men your boat meanwhile
    to guard for fear lest foemen come, --
    your new-tarred ship by shore of ocean
    faithfully watching till once again
    it waft o’er the waters those well-loved thanes,
    -- winding-neck’d wood, -- to Weders’ bounds,
    heroes such as the hest of fate
    shall succor and save from the shock of war.”
  206. fetter
    a shackle for the ankles or feet
    They bent them to march, -- the boat lay still,
    fettered by cable and fast at anchor,
    broad-bosomed ship.
  207. cable
    a very strong thick rope made of twisted hemp or steel wire
    They bent them to march, -- the boat lay still,
    fettered by cable and fast at anchor,
    broad-bosomed ship.
  208. gleaming
    bright with a steady but subdued shining
    -- Then shone the boars {4b}
    over the cheek-guard; chased with gold,
    keen and gleaming, guard it kept
    o’er the man of war, as marched along
    heroes in haste, till the hall they saw,
    broad of gable and bright with gold:
    that was the fairest, ’mid folk of earth,
    of houses ’neath heaven, where Hrothgar lived,
    and the gleam of it lightened o’er lands afar.
  209. haste
    overly eager speed (and possible carelessness)
    -- Then shone the boars {4b}
    over the cheek-guard; chased with gold,
    keen and gleaming, guard it kept
    o’er the man of war, as marched along
    heroes in haste, till the hall they saw,
    broad of gable and bright with gold:
    that was the fairest, ’mid folk of earth,
    of houses ’neath heaven, where Hrothgar lived,
    and the gleam of it lightened o’er lands afar.
  210. gleam
    a flash of light (especially reflected light)
    -- Then shone the boars {4b}
    over the cheek-guard; chased with gold,
    keen and gleaming, guard it kept
    o’er the man of war, as marched along
    heroes in haste, till the hall they saw,
    broad of gable and bright with gold:
    that was the fairest, ’mid folk of earth,
    of houses ’neath heaven, where Hrothgar lived,
    and the gleam of it lightened o’er lands afar.
  211. hardy
    having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships
    The sturdy shieldsman showed that bright
    burg-of-the-boldest; bade them go
    straightway thither; his steed then turned,
    hardy hero, and hailed them thus: --
  212. grace
    elegance and beauty of movement or expression
    Father Almighty
    in grace and mercy guard you well,
    safe in your seekings.
  213. mercy
    a disposition to be kind and forgiving
    Father Almighty
    in grace and mercy guard you well,
    safe in your seekings.
  214. hostile
    characterized by enmity or ill will
    Seaward I go,
    ’gainst hostile warriors hold my watch.”
  215. crowd
    a large number of things or people considered together
    STONE-BRIGHT the street: {5a} it showed the way
    to the crowd of clansmen.
  216. glisten
    be shiny, as if wet
    Corselets glistened
    hand-forged, hard; on their harness bright
    the steel ring sang, as they strode along
    in mail of battle, and marched to the hall.
  217. stride
    walk with long steps
    Corselets glistened
    hand-forged, hard; on their harness bright
    the steel ring sang, as they strode along
    in mail of battle, and marched to the hall.
  218. burnish
    polish and make shiny
    “Whence, now, bear ye burnished shields,
    harness gray and helmets grim,
    spears in multitude?
  219. multitude
    a large indefinite number
    “Whence, now, bear ye burnished shields,
    harness gray and helmets grim,
    spears in multitude?
  220. plunge
    dash violently or with great speed or impetuosity
    ’Tis plain that for prowess, not plunged into exile,
    for high-hearted valor, Hrothgar ye seek!”
  221. mission
    an operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters
    I am seeking to say to the son of Healfdene
    this mission of mine, to thy master-lord,
    the doughty prince, if he deign at all
    grace that we greet him, the good one, now.”
  222. deign
    do something that one considers to be below one's dignity
    I am seeking to say to the son of Healfdene
    this mission of mine, to thy master-lord,
    the doughty prince, if he deign at all
    grace that we greet him, the good one, now.”
  223. courage
    a quality of spirit that enables you to face danger or pain without showing fear
    Wulfgar spake, the Wendles’ chieftain,
    whose might of mind to many was known,
    his courage and counsel: “The king of Danes,
    the Scyldings’ friend, I fain will tell,
    the Breaker-of-Rings, as the boon thou askest,
    the famed prince, of thy faring hither,
    and, swiftly after, such answer bring
    as the doughty monarch may deign to give.”
  224. boon
    a desirable state
    Wulfgar spake, the Wendles’ chieftain,
    whose might of mind to many was known,
    his courage and counsel: “The king of Danes,
    the Scyldings’ friend, I fain will tell,
    the Breaker-of-Rings, as the boon thou askest,
    the famed prince, of thy faring hither,
    and, swiftly after, such answer bring
    as the doughty monarch may deign to give.”
  225. spurn
    reject with contempt
    This boon they seek,
    that they, my master, may with thee
    have speech at will: nor spurn their prayer
    to give them hearing, gracious Hrothgar!
  226. gracious
    characterized by kindness and warm courtesy especially of a king to his subjects
    This boon they seek,
    that they, my master, may with thee
    have speech at will: nor spurn their prayer
    to give them hearing, gracious Hrothgar!
  227. yore
    time long past
    “I knew him of yore in his youthful days;
    his aged father was Ecgtheow named,
    to whom, at home, gave Hrethel the Geat
    his only daughter.
  228. offspring
    the immediate descendants of a person
    Their offspring bold
    fares hither to seek the steadfast friend.
  229. steadfast
    marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable
    Their offspring bold
    fares hither to seek the steadfast friend.
  230. court
    an assembly (including one or more judges) to conduct judicial business
    And seamen, too, have said me this, --
    who carried my gifts to the Geatish court,
    thither for thanks, -- he has thirty men’s
    heft of grasp in the gripe of his hand,
    the bold-in-battle.
  231. gripe
    complain
    And seamen, too, have said me this, --
    who carried my gifts to the Geatish court,
    thither for thanks, -- he has thirty men’s
    heft of grasp in the gripe of his hand,
    the bold-in-battle.
  232. gallant
    having or displaying great dignity or nobility
    I hope to give
    the good youth gold for his gallant thought.
  233. declare
    state emphatically and authoritatively
    Wulfgar went] and the word declared: --
  234. wend
    direct one's course or way
    Ye may wend your way in war-attire,
    and under helmets Hrothgar greet;
    but let here the battle-shields bide your parley,
    and wooden war-shafts wait its end.”
  235. attire
    clothing of a distinctive style or for a particular occasion
    Ye may wend your way in war- attire,
    and under helmets Hrothgar greet;
    but let here the battle-shields bide your parley,
    and wooden war-shafts wait its end.”
  236. shaft
    a long rod or pole (especially the handle of an implement or the body of a weapon like a spear or arrow)
    Ye may wend your way in war-attire,
    and under helmets Hrothgar greet;
    but let here the battle-shields bide your parley,
    and wooden war- shafts wait its end.”
  237. helm
    steering mechanism for a vessel; a mechanical device by which a vessel is steered
    Then hied that troop where the herald led them,
    under Heorot’s roof: [the hero strode,]
    hardy ’neath helm, till the hearth he neared.
  238. wit
    mental ability
    Beowulf spake, -- his breastplate gleamed,
    war-net woven by wit of the smith: --
  239. gain
    obtain
    Fame a plenty
    have I gained in youth!
  240. idle
    not in action or at work
    Seafarers say how stands this hall,
    of buildings best, for your band of thanes
    empty and idle, when evening sun
    in the harbor of heaven is hidden away.
  241. vassal
    a person holding a fief; a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord
    So my vassals advised me well, --
    brave and wise, the best of men, --
  242. slew
    (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent
    I’ the waves I slew
    nicors {6a} by night, in need and peril
    avenging the Weders, {6b} whose woe they sought, --
    crushing the grim ones.
  243. peril
    a state of danger involving risk
    I’ the waves I slew
    nicors {6a} by night, in need and peril
    avenging the Weders, {6b} whose woe they sought, --
    crushing the grim ones.
  244. crush
    to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition
    I’ the waves I slew
    nicors {6a} by night, in need and peril
    avenging the Weders, {6b} whose woe they sought, --
    crushing the grim ones.
  245. quell
    suppress or crush completely
    Grendel now,
    monster cruel, be mine to quell
    in single battle!
  246. bulwark
    an embankment built around a space for defensive purposes
    Scyldings’- bulwark, a boon I seek, --
    and, Friend-of-the-folk, refuse it not,
  247. purge
    rid of impurities
    O Warriors’-shield, now I’ve wandered far, --
    that I alone with my liegemen here,
    this hardy band, may Heorot purge!
  248. dire
    fraught with extreme danger; nearly hopeless
    More I hear, that the monster dire,
    in his wanton mood, of weapons recks not;
    hence shall I scorn -- so Hygelac stay,
    king of my kindred, kind to me! --
    brand or buckler to bear in the fight,
    gold-colored targe: but with gripe alone
    must I front the fiend and fight for life,
    foe against foe.
  249. scorn
    lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike
    More I hear, that the monster dire,
    in his wanton mood, of weapons recks not;
    hence shall I scorn -- so Hygelac stay,
    king of my kindred, kind to me! --
    brand or buckler to bear in the fight,
    gold-colored targe: but with gripe alone
    must I front the fiend and fight for life,
    foe against foe.
  250. kindred
    group of people related by blood or marriage
    More I hear, that the monster dire,
    in his wanton mood, of weapons recks not;
    hence shall I scorn -- so Hygelac stay,
    king of my kindred, kind to me! --
    brand or buckler to bear in the fight,
    gold-colored targe: but with gripe alone
    must I front the fiend and fight for life,
    foe against foe.
  251. faith
    complete confidence in a person or plan etc
    Then faith be his
    in the doom of the Lord whom death shall take.
  252. prey
    animal hunted or caught for food
    Nor need’st thou then
    to hide my head; {6c} for his shall I be,
    dyed in gore, if death must take me;
    and my blood-covered body he’ll bear as prey,
    ruthless devour it, the roamer-lonely,
    with my life-blood redden his lair in the fen:
    no further for me need’st food prepare!
  253. devour
    eat immoderately
    Nor need’st thou then
    to hide my head; {6c} for his shall I be,
    dyed in gore, if death must take me;
    and my blood-covered body he’ll bear as prey,
    ruthless devour it, the roamer-lonely,
    with my life-blood redden his lair in the fen:
    no further for me need’st food prepare!
  254. prepare
    make ready or suitable or equip in advance for a particular purpose or for some use, event, etc
    Nor need’st thou then
    to hide my head; {6c} for his shall I be,
    dyed in gore, if death must take me;
    and my blood-covered body he’ll bear as prey,
    ruthless devour it, the roamer-lonely,
    with my life-blood redden his lair in the fen:
    no further for me need’st food prepare!
  255. flee
    run away quickly
    Fleeing, he sought our South-Dane folk,
    over surge of ocean the Honor-Scyldings,
    when first I was ruling the folk of Danes,
    wielded, youthful, this widespread realm,
    this hoard-hold of heroes.
  256. realm
    a domain in which something is dominant
    Fleeing, he sought our South-Dane folk,
    over surge of ocean the Honor-Scyldings,
    when first I was ruling the folk of Danes,
    wielded, youthful, this widespread realm,
    this hoard-hold of heroes.
  257. elder
    a person who is older than you are
    Heorogar was dead,
    my elder brother, had breathed his last,
  258. settle
    become resolved, fixed, established, or quiet
    Straightway the feud with fee {7b} I settled,
    to the Wylfings sent, o’er watery ridges,
    treasures olden: oaths he {7c} swore me.
  259. ridge
    a long narrow natural elevation or striation
    Straightway the feud with fee {7b} I settled,
    to the Wylfings sent, o’er watery ridges,
    treasures olden: oaths he {7c} swore me.
  260. gory
    covered with blood
    Then was this mead-house at morning tide
    dyed with gore, when the daylight broke,
    all the boards of the benches blood-besprinkled,
    gory the hall: I had heroes the less,
    doughty dear-ones that death had reft.
  261. prompt
    according to schedule or without delay; on time
    -- But sit to the banquet, unbind thy words,
    hardy hero, as heart shall prompt thee.”
  262. assign
    select something or someone for a specific purpose
    Gathered together, the Geatish men
    in the banquet-hall on bench assigned,
    sturdy-spirited, sat them down,
    hardy-hearted.
  263. attend
    be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.
    A henchman attended,
    carried the carven cup in hand,
    served the clear mead.
  264. blithe
    carefree and happy and lighthearted
    Oft minstrels sang
    blithe in Heorot.
  265. dearth
    an insufficient quantity or number
    Heroes revelled,
    no dearth of warriors, Weder and Dane.
  266. quest
    the act of searching for something
    UNFERTH spake, the son of Ecglaf,
    who sat at the feet of the Scyldings’ lord,
    unbound the battle-runes. {8a} -- Beowulf’s quest,
    sturdy seafarer’s, sorely galled him;
    ever he envied that other men
    should more achieve in middle-earth
    of fame under heaven than he himself.
  267. gall
    a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats
    UNFERTH spake, the son of Ecglaf,
    who sat at the feet of the Scyldings’ lord,
    unbound the battle-runes. {8a} -- Beowulf’s quest,
    sturdy seafarer’s, sorely galled him;
    ever he envied that other men
    should more achieve in middle-earth
    of fame under heaven than he himself.
  268. achieve
    to gain with effort
    UNFERTH spake, the son of Ecglaf,
    who sat at the feet of the Scyldings’ lord,
    unbound the battle-runes. {8a} -- Beowulf’s quest,
    sturdy seafarer’s, sorely galled him;
    ever he envied that other men
    should more achieve in middle-earth
    of fame under heaven than he himself.
  269. rival
    the contestant you hope to defeat
    “Art thou that Beowulf, Breca’s rival,
    who emulous swam on the open sea,
    when for pride the pair of you proved the floods,
    and wantonly dared in waters deep
    to risk your lives?
  270. risk
    a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune
    “Art thou that Beowulf, Breca’s rival,
    who emulous swam on the open sea,
    when for pride the pair of you proved the floods,
    and wantonly dared in waters deep
    to risk your lives?
  271. loath
    (usually followed by `to') strongly opposed
    No living man,
    or lief or loath, from your labor dire
    could you dissuade, from swimming the main.
  272. dissuade
    turn away from by persuasion
    No living man,
    or lief or loath, from your labor dire
    could you dissuade, from swimming the main.
  273. strenuous
    taxing to the utmost; testing powers of endurance
    Ocean-tides with your arms ye covered,
    with strenuous hands the sea-streets measured,
    swam o’er the waters.
  274. measure
    determine the measurements of something or somebody, take measurements of
    Ocean-tides with your arms ye covered,
    with strenuous hands the sea-streets measured,
    swam o’er the waters.
  275. strive
    attempt by employing effort
    In realm of sea
    a sennight strove ye.
  276. triumph
    a successful ending of a struggle or contest
    In triumph o’er thee
  277. adventure
    a wild and exciting undertaking (not necessarily lawful)
    So ween I for thee a worse adventure
    -- though in buffet of battle thou brave hast been,
    in struggle grim, -- if Grendel’s approach
    thou darst await through the watch of night!”
  278. buffet
    a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room; has shelves and drawers
    So ween I for thee a worse adventure
    -- though in buffet of battle thou brave hast been,
    in struggle grim, -- if Grendel’s approach
    thou darst await through the watch of night!”
  279. struggle
    strenuous effort
    So ween I for thee a worse adventure
    -- though in buffet of battle thou brave hast been,
    in struggle grim, -- if Grendel’s approach
    thou darst await through the watch of night!”
  280. utter
    without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers
    “What a deal hast uttered, dear my Unferth,
    drunken with beer, of Breca now,
    told of his triumph!
  281. claim
    assert or affirm strongly; state to be true or existing
    Truth I claim it,
    that I had more of might in the sea
    than any man else, more ocean-endurance.
  282. endurance
    a state of surviving; remaining alive
    Truth I claim it,
    that I had more of might in the sea
    than any man else, more ocean- endurance.
  283. merely
    and nothing more
    We twain had talked, in time of youth,
    and made our boast, -- we were merely boys,
    striplings still, -- to stake our lives
    far at sea: and so we performed it.
  284. perform
    get (something) done
    We twain had talked, in time of youth,
    and made our boast, -- we were merely boys,
    striplings still, -- to stake our lives
    far at sea: and so we performed it.
  285. abandoned
    forsaken by owner or inhabitants
    Not a whit from me
    could he float afar o’er the flood of waves,
    haste o’er the billows; nor him I abandoned.
  286. divide
    a serious disagreement between two groups of people (typically producing tension or hostility)
    Together we twain on the tides abode
    five nights full till the flood divided us,
    churning waves and chillest weather,
    darkling night, and the northern wind
    ruthless rushed on us: rough was the surge.
  287. weather
    the atmospheric conditions that comprise the state of the atmosphere in terms of temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation
    Together we twain on the tides abode
    five nights full till the flood divided us,
    churning waves and chillest weather,
    darkling night, and the northern wind
    ruthless rushed on us: rough was the surge.
  288. wrath
    intense anger (usually on an epic scale)
    Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;
    yet me ’gainst the monsters my mailed coat,
    hard and hand-linked, help afforded, --
    battle-sark braided my breast to ward,
    garnished with gold.
  289. linked
    connected by a link, as railway cars or trailer trucks
    Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;
    yet me ’gainst the monsters my mailed coat,
    hard and hand- linked, help afforded, --
    battle-sark braided my breast to ward,
    garnished with gold.
  290. afford
    have the financial means to do something or buy something
    Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;
    yet me ’gainst the monsters my mailed coat,
    hard and hand-linked, help afforded, --
    battle-sark braided my breast to ward,
    garnished with gold.
  291. garnish
    decorate (food), as with parsley or other ornamental foods
    Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;
    yet me ’gainst the monsters my mailed coat,
    hard and hand-linked, help afforded, --
    battle-sark braided my breast to ward,
    garnished with gold.
  292. grant
    let have
    ’Twas granted me, though,
    to pierce the monster with point of sword,
    with blade of battle: huge beast of the sea
    was whelmed by the hurly through hand of mine.
  293. pierce
    penetrate or cut through with a sharp instrument
    ’Twas granted me, though,
    to pierce the monster with point of sword,
    with blade of battle: huge beast of the sea
    was whelmed by the hurly through hand of mine.
  294. throng
    a large gathering of people
    ME thus often the evil monsters
    thronging threatened.
  295. threaten
    to utter intentions of injury or punishment against:"He threatened me when I tried to call the police"
    ME thus often the evil monsters
    thronging threatened.
  296. thrust
    push forcefully
    With thrust of my sword,
    the darling, I dealt them due return!
  297. bliss
    a state of extreme happiness
    Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
    to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
    seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
    but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
    on the edge of ocean up they lay,
    put to sleep by the sword.
  298. booty
    goods or money obtained illegally
    Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
    to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
    seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
    but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
    on the edge of ocean up they lay,
    put to sleep by the sword.
  299. victim
    an unfortunate person who suffers from some adverse circumstance
    Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
    to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
    seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
    but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
    on the edge of ocean up they lay,
    put to sleep by the sword.
  300. vengeful
    disposed to seek revenge or intended for revenge
    Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
    to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
    seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
    but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
    on the edge of ocean up they lay,
    put to sleep by the sword.
  301. creature
    a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
    Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
    to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
    seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
    but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
    on the edge of ocean up they lay,
    put to sleep by the sword.
  302. edge
    a line determining the limits of an area
    Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
    to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
    seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
    but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
    on the edge of ocean up they lay,
    put to sleep by the sword.
  303. dome
    a concave shape whose distinguishing characteristic is that the concavity faces downward
    Of night-fought battles
    ne’er heard I a harder ’neath heaven’s dome,
    nor adrift on the deep a more desolate man!
  304. desolate
    providing no shelter or sustenance
    Of night-fought battles
    ne’er heard I a harder ’neath heaven’s dome,
    nor adrift on the deep a more desolate man!
  305. clutch
    take hold of; grab
    Yet I came unharmed from that hostile clutch,
    though spent with swimming.
  306. bitter
    causing a sharp and acrid taste experience;"quinine is bitter"
    No wise of thee
    have I heard men tell such terror of falchions,
    bitter battle.
  307. bane
    something causing misery or death
    Breca ne’er yet,
    not one of you pair, in the play of war
    such daring deed has done at all
    with bloody brand, -- I boast not of it! --
    though thou wast the bane {9a} of thy brethren dear,
    thy closest kin, whence curse of hell
    awaits thee, well as thy wit may serve!
  308. brethren
    (plural) the lay members of a male religious order
    Breca ne’er yet,
    not one of you pair, in the play of war
    such daring deed has done at all
    with bloody brand, -- I boast not of it! --
    though thou wast the bane {9a} of thy brethren dear,
    thy closest kin, whence curse of hell
    awaits thee, well as thy wit may serve!
  309. curse
    an appeal to some supernatural power to inflict evil on someone or some group
    Breca ne’er yet,
    not one of you pair, in the play of war
    such daring deed has done at all
    with bloody brand, -- I boast not of it! --
    though thou wast the bane {9a} of thy brethren dear,
    thy closest kin, whence curse of hell
    awaits thee, well as thy wit may serve!
  310. havoc
    violent and needless disturbance
    For I say in sooth, thou son of Ecglaf,
    never had Grendel these grim deeds wrought,
    monster dire, on thy master dear,
    in Heorot such havoc, if heart of thine
    were as battle-bold as thy boast is loud!
  311. dread
    fearful expectation or anticipation
    But he has found no feud will happen;
    from sword-clash dread of your Danish clan
    he vaunts him safe, from the Victor-Scyldings.
  312. vaunt
    show off
    But he has found no feud will happen;
    from sword-clash dread of your Danish clan
    he vaunts him safe, from the Victor-Scyldings.
  313. victor
    a combatant who is able to defeat rivals
    But he has found no feud will happen;
    from sword-clash dread of your Danish clan
    he vaunts him safe, from the Victor-Scyldings.
  314. pledge
    a binding commitment to do or give or refrain from something
    He forces pledges, favors none
    of the land of Danes, but lustily murders,
    fights and feasts, nor feud he dreads
    from Spear-Dane men.
  315. shepherd
    a herder of sheep (on an open range); someone who keeps the sheep together in a flock
    Joyous then was the Jewel-giver,
    hoar-haired, war-brave; help awaited
    the Bright-Danes’ prince, from Beowulf hearing,
    folk’s good shepherd, such firm resolve.
  316. courtesy
    a courteous manner
    Came Wealhtheow forth,
    queen of Hrothgar, heedful of courtesy,
    gold-decked, greeting the guests in hall;
    and the high-born lady handed the cup
    first to the East-Danes’ heir and warden,
    bade him be blithe at the beer-carouse,
    the land’s beloved one.
  317. carouse
    engage in boisterous, drunken merrymaking
    Came Wealhtheow forth,
    queen of Hrothgar, heedful of courtesy,
    gold-decked, greeting the guests in hall;
    and the high-born lady handed the cup
    first to the East-Danes’ heir and warden,
    bade him be blithe at the beer- carouse,
    the land’s beloved one.
  318. wisdom
    accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment
    She greeted the Geats’ lord, God she thanked,
    in wisdom’s words, that her will was granted,
    that at last on a hero her hope could lean
    for comfort in terrors.
  319. comfort
    a state of being relaxed and feeling no pain
    She greeted the Geats’ lord, God she thanked,
    in wisdom’s words, that her will was granted,
    that at last on a hero her hope could lean
    for comfort in terrors.
  320. eager
    having or showing keen interest or intense desire or impatient expectancy
    The cup he took,
    hardy-in-war, from Wealhtheow’s hand,
    and answer uttered the eager-for-combat.
  321. spouse
    a person's partner in marriage
    -- Bright with gold
    the stately dame by her spouse sat down.
  322. dusk
    the time of day immediately following sunset
    Again, as erst, began in hall
    warriors’ wassail and words of power,
    the proud-band’s revel, till presently
    the son of Healfdene hastened to seek
    rest for the night; he knew there waited
    fight for the fiend in that festal hall,
    when the sheen of the sun they saw no more,
    and dusk of night sank darkling nigh,
    and shadowy shapes came striding on,
    wan under welkin.
  323. shape
    a perceptual structure
    Again, as erst, began in hall
    warriors’ wassail and words of power,
    the proud-band’s revel, till presently
    the son of Healfdene hastened to seek
    rest for the night; he knew there waited
    fight for the fiend in that festal hall,
    when the sheen of the sun they saw no more,
    and dusk of night sank darkling nigh,
    and shadowy shapes came striding on,
    wan under welkin.
  324. harangue
    a loud bombastic declamation expressed with strong emotion
    Man to man, he made harangue,
  325. trust
    the trait of believing in the honesty and reliability of others
    “Never to any man erst I trusted,
    since I could heave up hand and shield,
    this noble Dane-Hall, till now to thee.
  326. mettle
    the courage to carry on
    In truth, the Geats’ prince gladly trusted
    his mettle, his might, the mercy of God!
  327. valiant
    having or showing valor
    Spake then his Vaunt the valiant man,
  328. feeble
    pathetically lacking in force or effectiveness
    “Of force in fight no feebler I count me,
    in grim war-deeds, than Grendel deems him.
  329. skill
    an ability that has been acquired by training
    No skill is his to strike against me,
    my shield to hew though he hardy be,
    bold in battle; we both, this night,
    shall spurn the sword, if he seek me here,
    unweaponed, for war.
  330. hew
    make or shape as with an axe
    No skill is his to strike against me,
    my shield to hew though he hardy be,
    bold in battle; we both, this night,
    shall spurn the sword, if he seek me here,
    unweaponed, for war.
  331. sacred
    made or declared or believed to be holy; devoted to a deity or some religious ceremony or use
    Let wisest God,
    sacred Lord, on which side soever
    doom decree as he deemeth right.”
  332. decree
    a legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)
    Let wisest God,
    sacred Lord, on which side soever
    doom decree as he deemeth right.”
  333. prevail
    be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance
    But comfort and help,
    war-weal weaving, to Weder folk
    the Master gave, that, by might of one,
    over their enemy all prevailed,
    by single strength.
  334. issue
    some situation or event that is thought about
    ’Twas widely known
    that against God’s will the ghostly ravager
    him {10a} could not hurl to haunts of darkness;
    wakeful, ready, with warrior’s wrath,
    bold he bided the battle’s issue.
  335. sundry
    consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds
    The monster was minded of mankind now
    sundry to seize in the stately house.
  336. discern
    detect with the senses
    Under welkin he walked, till the wine-palace there,
    gold-hall of men, he gladly discerned,
    flashing with fretwork.
  337. portal
    a grand and imposing entrance (often extended metaphorically)
    To the house the warrior walked apace,
    parted from peace; {11a} the portal opended,
    though with forged bolts fast, when his fists had
    struck it,
    and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,
    the house’s mouth.
  338. baleful
    threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments
    To the house the warrior walked apace,
    parted from peace; {11a} the portal opended,
    though with forged bolts fast, when his fists had
    struck it,
    and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,
    the house’s mouth.
  339. burst
    come open suddenly and violently, as if from internal pressure
    To the house the warrior walked apace,
    parted from peace; {11a} the portal opended,
    though with forged bolts fast, when his fists had
    struck it,
    and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,
    the house’s mouth.
  340. blatant
    without any attempt at concealment; completely obvious
    To the house the warrior walked apace,
    parted from peace; {11a} the portal opended,
    though with forged bolts fast, when his fists had
    struck it,
    and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,
    the house’s mouth.
  341. tread
    put down or press the foot, place the foot
    All hastily, then,
    o’er fair-paved floor the fiend trod on,
    ireful he strode; there streamed from his eyes
    fearful flashes, like flame to see.
  342. stream
    a natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth
    All hastily, then,
    o’er fair-paved floor the fiend trod on,
    ireful he strode; there streamed from his eyes
    fearful flashes, like flame to see.
  343. cluster
    a grouping of a number of similar things
    He spied in hall the hero-band,
    kin and clansmen clustered asleep,
    hardy liegemen.
  344. savage
    without civilizing influences
    Then laughed his heart;
    for the monster was minded, ere morn should dawn,
    savage, to sever the soul of each,
    life from body, since lusty banquet
    waited his will!
  345. forbid
    command against
    But Wyrd forbade him
    to seize any more of men on earth
    after that evening.
  346. pause
    cease an action temporarily
    Not that the monster was minded to pause!
  347. asunder
    into parts or pieces
    Straightway he seized a sleeping warrior
    for the first, and tore him fiercely asunder,
    the bone-frame bit, drank blood in streams,
    swallowed him piecemeal: swiftly thus
    the lifeless corse was clear devoured,
    e’en feet and hands.
  348. piecemeal
    one thing at a time
    Straightway he seized a sleeping warrior
    for the first, and tore him fiercely asunder,
    the bone-frame bit, drank blood in streams,
    swallowed him piecemeal: swiftly thus
    the lifeless corse was clear devoured,
    e’en feet and hands.
  349. claw
    sharp curved horny process on the toe of a bird or some mammals or reptiles
    Then farther he hied;
    for the hardy hero with hand he grasped,
    felt for the foe with fiendish claw,
    for the hero reclining, -- who clutched it boldly,
    prompt to answer, propped on his arm.
  350. escape
    run away from confinement
    Soon then saw that shepherd-of-evils
    that never he met in this middle-world,
    in the ways of earth, another wight
    with heavier hand-gripe; at heart he feared,
    sorrowed in soul, -- none the sooner escaped!
  351. den
    the habitation of wild animals
    Fain would he flee, his fastness seek,
    the den of devils: no doings now
    such as oft he had done in days of old!
  352. fling
    throw with force or recklessness
    The monster meant -- if he might at all --
    to fling himself free, and far away
    fly to the fens, -- knew his fingers’ power
    in the gripe of the grim one.
  353. gruesome
    shockingly repellent; inspiring horror
    Gruesome march
    to Heorot this monster of harm had made!
  354. bereft
    sorrowful through loss or deprivation
    Din filled the room; the Danes were bereft,
    castle-dwellers and clansmen all,
    earls, of their ale.
  355. strain
    to exert much effort or energy
    Wonder it was the wine-hall firm
    in the strain of their struggle stood, to earth
    the fair house fell not; too fast it was
    within and without by its iron bands
    craftily clamped; though there crashed from sill
    many a mead-bench -- men have told me --
    gay with gold, where the grim foes wrestled.
  356. crash
    break violently or noisily; smash;
    Wonder it was the wine-hall firm
    in the strain of their struggle stood, to earth
    the fair house fell not; too fast it was
    within and without by its iron bands
    craftily clamped; though there crashed from sill
    many a mead-bench -- men have told me --
    gay with gold, where the grim foes wrestled.
  357. clasp
    hold firmly and tightly
    So well had weened the wisest Scyldings
    that not ever at all might any man
    that bone-decked, brave house break asunder,
    crush by craft, -- unless clasp of fire
    in smoke engulfed it.
  358. engulf
    flow over or cover completely
    So well had weened the wisest Scyldings
    that not ever at all might any man
    that bone-decked, brave house break asunder,
    crush by craft, -- unless clasp of fire
    in smoke engulfed it.
  359. frenzy
    state of violent mental agitation
    Danes of the North
    with fear and frenzy were filled, each one,
    who from the wall that wailing heard,
  360. grisly
    shockingly repellent; inspiring horror
    God’s foe sounding his grisly song,
    cry of the conquered, clamorous pain
    from captive of hell.
  361. conquer
    take possession of by force, as after an invasion
    God’s foe sounding his grisly song,
    cry of the conquered, clamorous pain
    from captive of hell.
  362. clamorous
    conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry
    God’s foe sounding his grisly song,
    cry of the conquered, clamorous pain
    from captive of hell.
  363. captive
    a person who is confined; especially a prisoner of war
    God’s foe sounding his grisly song,
    cry of the conquered, clamorous pain
    from captive of hell.
  364. useless
    having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully
    NOT in any wise would the earls’-defence {12a}
    suffer that slaughterous stranger to live,
    useless deeming his days and years
    to men on earth.
  365. brandish
    move or swing back and forth
    Now many an earl
    of Beowulf brandished blade ancestral,
    fain the life of their lord to shield,
    their praised prince, if power were theirs;
    never they knew, -- as they neared the foe,
    hardy-hearted heroes of war,
    aiming their swords on every side
    the accursed to kill, -- no keenest blade,
    no farest of falchions fashioned on earth,
    could harm or hurt that hideous fiend!
  366. hideous
    grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror
    Now many an earl
    of Beowulf brandished blade ancestral,
    fain the life of their lord to shield,
    their praised prince, if power were theirs;
    never they knew, -- as they neared the foe,
    hardy-hearted heroes of war,
    aiming their swords on every side
    the accursed to kill, -- no keenest blade,
    no farest of falchions fashioned on earth,
    could harm or hurt that hideous fiend!
  367. flit
    move along rapidly and lightly; skim or dart
    Yet his end and parting
    on that same day of this our life
    woful should be, and his wandering soul
    far off flit to the fiends’ domain.
  368. domain
    a particular environment or walk of life
    Yet his end and parting
    on that same day of this our life
    woful should be, and his wandering soul
    far off flit to the fiends’ domain.
  369. wound
    an injury to living tissue (especially an injury involving a cut or break in the skin)
    The outlaw dire
    took mortal hurt; a mighty wound
    showed on his shoulder, and sinews cracked,
    and the bone-frame burst.
  370. sinew
    a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment
    The outlaw dire
    took mortal hurt; a mighty wound
    showed on his shoulder, and sinews cracked,
    and the bone-frame burst.
  371. moor
    come into or dock at a wharf
    To Beowulf now
    the glory was given, and Grendel thence
    death-sick his den in the dark moor sought,
    noisome abode: he knew too well
    that here was the last of life, an end
    of his days on earth.
  372. noisome
    causing or able to cause nausea
    To Beowulf now
    the glory was given, and Grendel thence
    death-sick his den in the dark moor sought,
    noisome abode: he knew too well
    that here was the last of life, an end
    of his days on earth.
  373. ravage
    cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly
    From ravage had rescued the roving stranger
  374. rescue
    free from harm or evil
    From ravage had rescued the roving stranger
  375. stretch
    extend one's limbs or muscles, or the entire body
    MANY at morning, as men have told me,
    warriors gathered the gift-hall round,
    folk-leaders faring from far and near,
    o’er wide- stretched ways, the wonder to view,
    trace of the traitor.
  376. traitor
    a person who says one thing and does another
    MANY at morning, as men have told me,
    warriors gathered the gift-hall round,
    folk-leaders faring from far and near,
    o’er wide-stretched ways, the wonder to view,
    trace of the traitor.
  377. gait
    a horse's manner of moving
    Not troublous seemed
    the enemy’s end to any man
    who saw by the gait of the graceless foe
    how the weary-hearted, away from thence,
    baffled in battle and banned, his steps
    death-marked dragged to the devils’ mere.
  378. baffled
    perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment
    Not troublous seemed
    the enemy’s end to any man
    who saw by the gait of the graceless foe
    how the weary-hearted, away from thence,
    baffled in battle and banned, his steps
    death-marked dragged to the devils’ mere.
  379. ban
    prohibit especially by legal means or social pressure
    Not troublous seemed
    the enemy’s end to any man
    who saw by the gait of the graceless foe
    how the weary-hearted, away from thence,
    baffled in battle and banned, his steps
    death-marked dragged to the devils’ mere.
  380. marked
    strongly marked; easily noticeable
    Not troublous seemed
    the enemy’s end to any man
    who saw by the gait of the graceless foe
    how the weary-hearted, away from thence,
    baffled in battle and banned, his steps
    death- marked dragged to the devils’ mere.
  381. turbid
    (of liquids) clouded as with sediment
    Bloody the billows were boiling there,
    turbid the tide of tumbling waves
    horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,
    by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the moor
    laid forlorn his life adown,
    his heathen soul, and hell received it.
  382. seething
    in constant agitation
    Bloody the billows were boiling there,
    turbid the tide of tumbling waves
    horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,
    by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the moor
    laid forlorn his life adown,
    his heathen soul, and hell received it.
  383. forlorn
    marked by or showing hopelessness
    Bloody the billows were boiling there,
    turbid the tide of tumbling waves
    horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,
    by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the moor
    laid forlorn his life adown,
    his heathen soul, and hell received it.
  384. receive
    get something; come into possession of
    Bloody the billows were boiling there,
    turbid the tide of tumbling waves
    horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,
    by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the moor
    laid forlorn his life adown,
    his heathen soul, and hell received it.
  385. hoary
    showing characteristics of age, especially having grey or white hair
    Home then rode the hoary clansmen
    from that merry journey, and many a youth,
    on horses white, the hardy warriors,
    back from the mere.
  386. aver
    to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true
    Then Beowulf’s glory
    eager they echoed, and all averred
    that from sea to sea, or south or north,
    there was no other in earth’s domain,
    under vault of heaven, more valiant found,
    of warriors none more worthy to rule!
  387. slight
    (quantifier used with mass nouns) small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or (with `a') at least some
    (On their lord beloved they laid no slight,
    gracious Hrothgar: a good king he!)
  388. store
    a mercantile establishment for the retail sale of goods or services
    From time to time, a thane of the king,
    who had made many vaunts, and was mindful of verses,
    stored with sagas and songs of old,
    bound word to word in well-knit rime,
    welded his lay; this warrior soon
    of Beowulf’s quest right cleverly sang,
    and artfully added an excellent tale,
    in well-ranged words, of the warlike deeds
    he had heard in saga of Sigemund.
  389. saga
    a narrative telling the adventures of a hero or a family; originally (12th to 14th centuries) a story of the families that settled Iceland and their descendants but now any prose narrative that resembles such an account
    From time to time, a thane of the king,
    who had made many vaunts, and was mindful of verses,
    stored with sagas and songs of old,
    bound word to word in well-knit rime,
    welded his lay; this warrior soon
    of Beowulf’s quest right cleverly sang,
    and artfully added an excellent tale,
    in well-ranged words, of the warlike deeds
    he had heard in saga of Sigemund.
  390. knit
    make (textiles) by knitting
    From time to time, a thane of the king,
    who had made many vaunts, and was mindful of verses,
    stored with sagas and songs of old,
    bound word to word in well- knit rime,
    welded his lay; this warrior soon
    of Beowulf’s quest right cleverly sang,
    and artfully added an excellent tale,
    in well-ranged words, of the warlike deeds
    he had heard in saga of Sigemund.
  391. range
    a variety of different things or activities
    From time to time, a thane of the king,
    who had made many vaunts, and was mindful of verses,
    stored with sagas and songs of old,
    bound word to word in well-knit rime,
    welded his lay; this warrior soon
    of Beowulf’s quest right cleverly sang,
    and artfully added an excellent tale,
    in well- ranged words, of the warlike deeds
    he had heard in saga of Sigemund.
  392. fraud
    intentional deception resulting in injury to another person
    Strange the story: he said it all, --
    the Waelsing’s wanderings wide, his struggles,
    which never were told to tribes of men,
    the feuds and the frauds, save to Fitela only,
    when of these doings he deigned to speak,
    uncle to nephew; as ever the twain
    stood side by side in stress of war,
    and multitude of the monster kind
    they had felled with their swords.
  393. stress
    special emphasis attached to something
    Strange the story: he said it all, --
    the Waelsing’s wanderings wide, his struggles,
    which never were told to tribes of men,
    the feuds and the frauds, save to Fitela only,
    when of these doings he deigned to speak,
    uncle to nephew; as ever the twain
    stood side by side in stress of war,
    and multitude of the monster kind
    they had felled with their swords.
  394. herd
    a group of cattle or sheep or other domestic mammals all of the same kind that are herded by humans
    Of Sigemund grew,
    when he passed from life, no little praise;
    for the doughty-in-combat a dragon killed
    that herded the hoard: {13a} under hoary rock
    the atheling dared the deed alone
    fearful quest, nor was Fitela there.
  395. wondrous
    extraordinarily good or great ; used especially as intensifiers
    Yet so it befell, his falchion pierced
    that wondrous worm, -- on the wall it struck,
    best blade; the dragon died in its blood.
  396. consume
    serve oneself to, or consume regularly
    Thus had the dread-one by daring achieved
    over the ring-hoard to rule at will,
    himself to pleasure; a sea-boat he loaded,
    and bore on its bosom the beaming gold,
    son of Waels; the worm was consumed.
  397. refuge
    something or someone turned to for assistance or security
    He had of all heroes the highest renown
    among races of men, this refuge-of-warriors,
    for deeds of daring that decked his name
    since the hand and heart of Heremod
    grew slack in battle.
  398. slack
    not tense or taut
    He had of all heroes the highest renown
    among races of men, this refuge-of-warriors,
    for deeds of daring that decked his name
    since the hand and heart of Heremod
    grew slack in battle.
  399. banish
    expel, as if by official decree
    He, swiftly banished
    to mingle with monsters at mercy of foes,
    to death was betrayed; for torrents of sorrow
    had lamed him too long; a load of care
    to earls and athelings all he proved.
  400. mingle
    to bring or combine together or with something else
    He, swiftly banished
    to mingle with monsters at mercy of foes,
    to death was betrayed; for torrents of sorrow
    had lamed him too long; a load of care
    to earls and athelings all he proved.
  401. betray
    deliver to an enemy by treachery
    He, swiftly banished
    to mingle with monsters at mercy of foes,
    to death was betrayed; for torrents of sorrow
    had lamed him too long; a load of care
    to earls and athelings all he proved.
  402. torrent
    an overwhelming number or amount
    He, swiftly banished
    to mingle with monsters at mercy of foes,
    to death was betrayed; for torrents of sorrow
    had lamed him too long; a load of care
    to earls and athelings all he proved.
  403. mourn
    feel sadness
    Oft indeed, in earlier days,
    for the warrior’s wayfaring wise men mourned,
    who had hoped of him help from harm and bale,
    and had thought their sovran’s son would thrive,
    follow his father, his folk protect,
    the hoard and the stronghold, heroes’ land,
    home of Scyldings.
  404. protect
    shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage
    Oft indeed, in earlier days,
    for the warrior’s wayfaring wise men mourned,
    who had hoped of him help from harm and bale,
    and had thought their sovran’s son would thrive,
    follow his father, his folk protect,
    the hoard and the stronghold, heroes’ land,
    home of Scyldings.
  405. fallow
    left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season
    And afresh to the race, {13c} the fallow roads
    by swift steeds measured!
  406. swift
    moving very fast
    And afresh to the race, {13c} the fallow roads
    by swift steeds measured!
  407. weigh
    have a certain weight
    It was but now that I never more
    for woes that weighed on me waited help
    long as I lived, when, laved in blood,
    stood sword-gore-stained this stateliest house, --
    widespread woe for wise men all,
    who had no hope to hinder ever
    foes infernal and fiendish sprites
    from havoc in hall.
  408. hinder
    be a hindrance or obstacle to
    It was but now that I never more
    for woes that weighed on me waited help
    long as I lived, when, laved in blood,
    stood sword-gore-stained this stateliest house, --
    widespread woe for wise men all,
    who had no hope to hinder ever
    foes infernal and fiendish sprites
    from havoc in hall.
  409. infernal
    characteristic of or resembling Hell
    It was but now that I never more
    for woes that weighed on me waited help
    long as I lived, when, laved in blood,
    stood sword-gore-stained this stateliest house, --
    widespread woe for wise men all,
    who had no hope to hinder ever
    foes infernal and fiendish sprites
    from havoc in hall.
  410. preserve
    keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction
    Now, Beowulf, thee,
    of heroes best, I shall heartily love
    as mine own, my son; preserve thou ever
    this kinship new: thou shalt never lack
    wealth of the world that I wield as mine!
  411. kinship
    (anthropology) relatedness or connection by blood or marriage or adoption
    Now, Beowulf, thee,
    of heroes best, I shall heartily love
    as mine own, my son; preserve thou ever
    this kinship new: thou shalt never lack
    wealth of the world that I wield as mine!
  412. precious
    of high worth or cost
    Full oft for less have I largess showered,
    my precious hoard, on a punier man,
    less stout in struggle.
  413. puny
    (used especially of persons) of inferior size
    Full oft for less have I largess showered,
    my precious hoard, on a punier man,
    less stout in struggle.
  414. fulfill
    fill or meet a want or need
    Thyself hast now
    fulfilled such deeds, that thy fame shall endure
    through all the ages.
  415. trappings
    (usually plural) accessory wearing apparel
    Fain, too, were I
    hadst thou but seen himself, what time
    the fiend in his trappings tottered to fall!
  416. totter
    move without being stable, as if threatening to fall
    Fain, too, were I
    hadst thou but seen himself, what time
    the fiend in his trappings tottered to fall!
  417. procure
    get by special effort
    For rescue, however,
    he left behind him his hand in pledge,
    arm and shoulder; nor aught of help
    could the cursed one thus procure at all.
  418. bond
    a connection that fastens things together
    None the longer liveth he, loathsome fiend,
    sunk in his sins, but sorrow holds him
    tightly grasped in gripe of anguish,
    in baleful bonds, where bide he must,
    evil outlaw, such awful doom
    as the Mighty Maker shall mete him out.”
  419. gaze
    a long fixed look
    More silent seemed the son of Ecglaf {14a}
    in boastful speech of his battle-deeds,
    since athelings all, through the earl’s great prowess,
    beheld that hand, on the high roof gazing,
    foeman’s fingers, -- the forepart of each
    of the sturdy nails to steel was likest, --
    heathen’s “hand-spear,” hostile warrior’s
    claw uncanny.
  420. uncanny
    surpassing the ordinary or normal
    More silent seemed the son of Ecglaf {14a}
    in boastful speech of his battle-deeds,
    since athelings all, through the earl’s great prowess,
    beheld that hand, on the high roof gazing,
    foeman’s fingers, -- the forepart of each
    of the sturdy nails to steel was likest, --
    heathen’s “hand-spear,” hostile warrior’s
    claw uncanny.
  421. dense
    hard to pass through because of dense growth
    THERE was hurry and hest in Heorot now
    for hands to bedeck it, and dense was the throng
    of men and women the wine-hall to cleanse,
    the guest-room to garnish.
  422. delight
    a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction
    Gold-gay shone the hangings
    that were wove on the wall, and wonders many
    to delight each mortal that looks upon them.
  423. rent
    a payment or series of payments made by the lessee to an owner for use of some property, facility, equipment, or service
    Though braced within by iron bands,
    that building bright was broken sorely; {15a}
    rent were its hinges; the roof alone
    held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,
    the fiendish foe his flight essayed,
    of life despairing.
  424. hinge
    a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other
    Though braced within by iron bands,
    that building bright was broken sorely; {15a}
    rent were its hinges; the roof alone
    held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,
    the fiendish foe his flight essayed,
    of life despairing.
  425. sear
    become superficially burned
    Though braced within by iron bands,
    that building bright was broken sorely; {15a}
    rent were its hinges; the roof alone
    held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,
    the fiendish foe his flight essayed,
    of life despairing.
  426. essay
    an analytic or interpretive literary composition
    Though braced within by iron bands,
    that building bright was broken sorely; {15a}
    rent were its hinges; the roof alone
    held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,
    the fiendish foe his flight essayed,
    of life despairing.
  427. despair
    a state in which all hope is lost or absent
    Though braced within by iron bands,
    that building bright was broken sorely; {15a}
    rent were its hinges; the roof alone
    held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,
    the fiendish foe his flight essayed,
    of life despairing.
  428. arrive
    reach a destination; arrive by movement or progress
    Arrived was the hour
    when to hall proceeded Healfdene’s son:
    the king himself would sit to banquet.
  429. proceed
    move ahead; travel onward in time or space
    Arrived was the hour
    when to hall proceeded Healfdene’s son:
    the king himself would sit to banquet.
  430. host
    a person who invites guests to a social event (such as a party in his or her own home) and who is responsible for them while they are there
    Ne’er heard I of host in haughtier throng
    more graciously gathered round giver-of-rings!
  431. sumptuous
    rich and superior in quality
    Featly received
    many a mead-cup the mighty-in-spirit,
    kinsmen who sat in the sumptuous hall,
  432. guerdon
    a reward or payment
    To Beowulf gave the bairn of Healfdene
    a gold-wove banner, guerdon of triumph,
    broidered battle-flag, breastplate and helmet;
    and a splendid sword was seen of many
    borne to the brave one.
  433. splendid
    characterized by grandeur
    To Beowulf gave the bairn of Healfdene
    a gold-wove banner, guerdon of triumph,
    broidered battle-flag, breastplate and helmet;
    and a splendid sword was seen of many
    borne to the brave one.
  434. soldier
    an enlisted man or woman who serves in an army
    Beowulf took
    cup in hall: {15b} for such costly gifts
    he suffered no shame in that soldier throng.
  435. hearty
    showing warm and heartfelt friendliness
    For I heard of few heroes, in heartier mood,
    with four such gifts, so fashioned with gold,
    on the ale-bench honoring others thus!
  436. fierce
    marked by extreme and violent energy
    O’er the roof of the helmet high, a ridge,
    wound with wires, kept ward o’er the head,
    lest the relict-of-files {15c} should fierce invade,
    sharp in the strife, when that shielded hero
    should go to grapple against his foes.
  437. invade
    march aggressively into another's territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation
    O’er the roof of the helmet high, a ridge,
    wound with wires, kept ward o’er the head,
    lest the relict-of-files {15c} should fierce invade,
    sharp in the strife, when that shielded hero
    should go to grapple against his foes.
  438. strife
    bitter conflict; heated often violent dissension
    O’er the roof of the helmet high, a ridge,
    wound with wires, kept ward o’er the head,
    lest the relict-of-files {15c} should fierce invade,
    sharp in the strife, when that shielded hero
    should go to grapple against his foes.
  439. grapple
    come to terms with
    O’er the roof of the helmet high, a ridge,
    wound with wires, kept ward o’er the head,
    lest the relict-of-files {15c} should fierce invade,
    sharp in the strife, when that shielded hero
    should go to grapple against his foes.
  440. avert
    turn away or aside
    AND the lord of earls, to each that came
    with Beowulf over the briny ways,
    an heirloom there at the ale-bench gave,
    precious gift; and the price {16a} bade pay
    in gold for him whom Grendel erst
    murdered, -- and fain of them more had killed,
    had not wisest God their Wyrd averted,
    and the man’s {16b} brave mood.
  441. insight
    clear or deep perception of a situation
    Therefore is insight always best,
    and forethought of mind.
  442. value
    the quality (positive or negative) that renders something desirable or valuable
    Hildeburh needed not hold in value
    her enemies’ honor! {16f} Innocent both
    were the loved ones she lost at the linden-play,
    bairn and brother, they bowed to fate,
    stricken by spears; ’twas a sorrowful woman!
  443. innocent
    free from sin
    Hildeburh needed not hold in value
    her enemies’ honor! {16f} Innocent both
    were the loved ones she lost at the linden-play,
    bairn and brother, they bowed to fate,
    stricken by spears; ’twas a sorrowful woman!
  444. stricken
    grievously affected especially by disease
    Hildeburh needed not hold in value
    her enemies’ honor! {16f} Innocent both
    were the loved ones she lost at the linden-play,
    bairn and brother, they bowed to fate,
    stricken by spears; ’twas a sorrowful woman!
  445. doubt
    the state of being unsure of something
    None doubted why the daughter of Hoc
    bewailed her doom when dawning came,
    and under the sky she saw them lying,
    kinsmen murdered, where most she had kenned
    of the sweets of the world!
  446. bewail
    regret strongly
    None doubted why the daughter of Hoc
    bewailed her doom when dawning came,
    and under the sky she saw them lying,
    kinsmen murdered, where most she had kenned
    of the sweets of the world!
  447. ken
    range of what one can know or understand
    None doubted why the daughter of Hoc
    bewailed her doom when dawning came,
    and under the sky she saw them lying,
    kinsmen murdered, where most she had kenned
    of the sweets of the world!
  448. ply
    use diligently
    Finn’s own liegemen, and few were left;
    in the parleying-place {16g} he could ply no longer
    weapon, nor war could he wage on Hengest,
    and rescue his remnant by right of arms
    from the prince’s thane.
  449. remnant
    a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists
    Finn’s own liegemen, and few were left;
    in the parleying-place {16g} he could ply no longer
    weapon, nor war could he wage on Hengest,
    and rescue his remnant by right of arms
    from the prince’s thane.
  450. dwelling
    housing that someone is living in
    A pact he offered:
    another dwelling the Danes should have,
    hall and high-seat, and half the power
    should fall to them in Frisian land;
    and at the fee-gifts, Folcwald’s son
    day by day the Danes should honor,
    the folk of Hengest favor with rings,
    even as truly, with treasure and jewels,
    with fretted gold, as his Frisian kin
    he meant to honor in ale-hall there.
  451. fret
    be agitated or irritated
    A pact he offered:
    another dwelling the Danes should have,
    hall and high-seat, and half the power
    should fall to them in Frisian land;
    and at the fee-gifts, Folcwald’s son
    day by day the Danes should honor,
    the folk of Hengest favor with rings,
    even as truly, with treasure and jewels,
    with fretted gold, as his Frisian kin
    he meant to honor in ale-hall there.
  452. plight
    a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one
    Pact of peace they plighted further
    on both sides firmly.
  453. govern
    exercise authority over; as of nations
    Finn to Hengest
    with oath, upon honor, openly promised
    that woful remnant, with wise-men’s aid,
    nobly to govern, so none of the guests
    by word or work should warp the treaty, {16h}
    or with malice of mind bemoan themselves
    as forced to follow their fee-giver’s slayer,
    lordless men, as their lot ordained.
  454. treaty
    a written agreement between two states or sovereigns
    Finn to Hengest
    with oath, upon honor, openly promised
    that woful remnant, with wise-men’s aid,
    nobly to govern, so none of the guests
    by word or work should warp the treaty, {16h}
    or with malice of mind bemoan themselves
    as forced to follow their fee-giver’s slayer,
    lordless men, as their lot ordained.
  455. malice
    feeling a need to see others suffer
    Finn to Hengest
    with oath, upon honor, openly promised
    that woful remnant, with wise-men’s aid,
    nobly to govern, so none of the guests
    by word or work should warp the treaty, {16h}
    or with malice of mind bemoan themselves
    as forced to follow their fee-giver’s slayer,
    lordless men, as their lot ordained.
  456. bemoan
    regret strongly
    Finn to Hengest
    with oath, upon honor, openly promised
    that woful remnant, with wise-men’s aid,
    nobly to govern, so none of the guests
    by word or work should warp the treaty, {16h}
    or with malice of mind bemoan themselves
    as forced to follow their fee-giver’s slayer,
    lordless men, as their lot ordained.
  457. ordained
    fixed or established especially by order or command
    Finn to Hengest
    with oath, upon honor, openly promised
    that woful remnant, with wise-men’s aid,
    nobly to govern, so none of the guests
    by word or work should warp the treaty, {16h}
    or with malice of mind bemoan themselves
    as forced to follow their fee-giver’s slayer,
    lordless men, as their lot ordained.
  458. taunt
    harass with persistent criticism or carping
    Should Frisian, moreover, with foeman’s taunt,
    that murderous hatred to mind recall,
    then edge of the sword must seal his doom.
  459. recall
    call to mind
    Should Frisian, moreover, with foeman’s taunt,
    that murderous hatred to mind recall,
    then edge of the sword must seal his doom.
  460. ancient
    belonging to times long past especially of the historical period before the fall of the Western Roman Empire
    Oaths were given, and ancient gold
    heaped from hoard.
  461. pyre
    wood heaped for burning a dead body as a funeral rite
    All on the pyre were plain to see
    the gory sark, the gilded swine-crest,
    boar of hard iron, and athelings many
    slain by the sword: at the slaughter they fell.
  462. crest
    the top or extreme point of something (usually a mountain or hill)
    All on the pyre were plain to see
    the gory sark, the gilded swine- crest,
    boar of hard iron, and athelings many
    slain by the sword: at the slaughter they fell.
  463. dirge
    a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person
    In sorrowful dirges
    bewept them the woman: great wailing ascended.
  464. ascend
    travel up, "We ascended the mountain"
    In sorrowful dirges
    bewept them the woman: great wailing ascended.
  465. melt
    reduce or cause to be reduced from a solid to a liquid state, usually by heating
    Then wound up to welkin the wildest of death-fires,
    roared o’er the hillock: {16j} heads all were melted,
    gashes burst, and blood gushed out
    from bites {16k} of the body.
  466. gash
    cut open
    Then wound up to welkin the wildest of death-fires,
    roared o’er the hillock: {16j} heads all were melted,
    gashes burst, and blood gushed out
    from bites {16k} of the body.
  467. dwell
    inhabit or live in; be an inhabitant of
    Hengest still
    through the death-dyed winter dwelt with Finn,
    holding pact, yet of home he minded,
    though powerless his ring-decked prow to drive
    over the waters, now waves rolled fierce
    lashed by the winds, or winter locked them
    in icy fetters.
  468. depart
    go away or leave
    Far off winter was driven;
    fair lay earth’s breast; and fain was the rover,
    the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered
    on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,
    and how to hasten the hot encounter
    where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.
  469. ponder
    reflect deeply on a subject
    Far off winter was driven;
    fair lay earth’s breast; and fain was the rover,
    the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered
    on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,
    and how to hasten the hot encounter
    where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.
  470. wreak
    cause to happen or to occur as a consequence
    Far off winter was driven;
    fair lay earth’s breast; and fain was the rover,
    the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered
    on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,
    and how to hasten the hot encounter
    where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.
  471. vengeance
    the act of taking revenge (harming someone in retaliation for something harmful that they have done) especially in the next life
    Far off winter was driven;
    fair lay earth’s breast; and fain was the rover,
    the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered
    on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,
    and how to hasten the hot encounter
    where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.
  472. encounter
    come together
    Far off winter was driven;
    fair lay earth’s breast; and fain was the rover,
    the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered
    on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,
    and how to hasten the hot encounter
    where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.
  473. mourning
    state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one
    On fierce-heart Finn there fell likewise,
    on himself at home, the horrid sword-death;
    for Guthlaf and Oslaf of grim attack
    had sorrowing told, from sea-ways landed,
    mourning their woes. {17a} Finn’s wavering spirit
    bode not in breast.
  474. waver
    pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness
    On fierce-heart Finn there fell likewise,
    on himself at home, the horrid sword-death;
    for Guthlaf and Oslaf of grim attack
    had sorrowing told, from sea-ways landed,
    mourning their woes. {17a} Finn’s wavering spirit
    bode not in breast.
  475. chattel
    personal as opposed to real property; any tangible movable property (furniture or domestic animals or a car etc)
    To their ship the Scylding warriors bore
    all the chattels the chieftain owned,
    whatever they found in Finn’s domain
    of gems and jewels.
  476. gentle
    soft and mild; not harsh or stern or severe
    The gentle wife
    o’er paths of the deep to the Danes they bore,
    led to her land.
  477. vat
    a large open vessel for holding or storing liquids
    Bearers draw
    from their “wonder- vats” wine.
  478. amity
    a state of friendship and cordiality
    Comes Wealhtheow forth,
    under gold-crown goes where the good pair sit,
    uncle and nephew, true each to the other one,
    kindred in amity.
  479. quaff
    to swallow hurriedly or greedily or in one draught
    Quaff of this cup, my king and lord,
    breaker of rings, and blithe be thou,
    gold-friend of men; to the Geats here speak
    such words of mildness as man should use.
  480. enjoy
    derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in
    Thy Heorot purged,
    jewel-hall brightest, enjoy while thou canst,
    with many a largess; and leave to thy kin
    folk and realm when forth thou goest
    to greet thy doom.
  481. yield
    give or supply
    For gracious I deem
    my Hrothulf, {17b} willing to hold and rule
    nobly our youths, if thou yield up first,
    prince of Scyldings, thy part in the world.
  482. requite
    make repayment for or return something
    I ween with good he will well requite
    offspring of ours, when all he minds
    that for him we did in his helpless days
    of gift and grace to gain him honor!”
  483. jealousy
    a feeling of jealous envy (especially of a rival)
    -- Jealousy fled he,
  484. eternal
    continuing forever or indefinitely
    Eormenric’s hate: chose help eternal.
  485. defend
    protect against a challenge or attack
    Hygelac Geat, grandson of Swerting,
    on the last of his raids this ring bore with him,
    under his banner the booty defending,
    the war-spoil warding; but Wyrd o’erwhelmed him
    what time, in his daring, dangers he sought,
    feud with Frisians.
  486. corpse
    the dead body of a human being
    Fell the corpse of the king into keeping of Franks,
    gear of the breast, and that gorgeous ring;
    weaker warriors won the spoil,
    after gripe of battle, from Geatland’s lord,
    and held the death-field.
  487. frank
    characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion
    Fell the corpse of the king into keeping of Franks,
    gear of the breast, and that gorgeous ring;
    weaker warriors won the spoil,
    after gripe of battle, from Geatland’s lord,
    and held the death-field.
  488. gorgeous
    dazzlingly beautiful
    Fell the corpse of the king into keeping of Franks,
    gear of the breast, and that gorgeous ring;
    weaker warriors won the spoil,
    after gripe of battle, from Geatland’s lord,
    and held the death-field.
  489. jocund
    full of or showing high-spirited merriment
    “This jewel enjoy in thy jocund youth,
  490. prosper
    make steady progress; be at the high point in one's career or reach a high point in historical significance or importance
    Through the ways of life
    prosper, O prince!
  491. possession
    anything owned or possessed
    I pray for thee
    rich possessions.
  492. helpful
    providing assistance or serving a useful function
    To son of mine
    be helpful in deed and uphold his joys!
  493. uphold
    stand up for; stick up for; of causes, principles, or ideals
    To son of mine
    be helpful in deed and uphold his joys!
  494. obedient
    dutifully complying with the commands or instructions of those in authority
    Thanes are friendly, the throng obedient,
    liegemen are revelling: list and obey!”
  495. destiny
    the ultimate agency regarded as predetermining the course of events (often personified as a woman)
    Wyrd they knew not,
    destiny dire, and the doom to be seen
    by many an earl when eve should come,
    and Hrothgar homeward hasten away,
    royal, to rest.
  496. abroad
    to or in a foreign country
    They bared the bench-boards; abroad they spread
    beds and bolsters.
  497. bolster
    support and strengthen
    They bared the bench-boards; abroad they spread
    beds and bolsters.
  498. survive
    continue in existence after (an adversity, etc.)
    ’Twas seen and told
    how an avenger survived the fiend,
    as was learned afar.
  499. learned
    having or showing profound knowledge
    ’Twas seen and told
    how an avenger survived the fiend,
    as was learned afar.
  500. dreary
    lacking in liveliness or charm or surprise
    She was doomed to dwell in the dreary waters,
    cold sea-courses, since Cain cut down
    with edge of the sword his only brother,
    his father’s offspring: outlawed he fled,
    marked with murder, from men’s delights
    warded the wilds.
  501. fray
    wear away by rubbing
    -- There woke from him
    such fate-sent ghosts as Grendel, who,
    war-wolf horrid, at Heorot found
    a warrior watching and waiting the fray,
    with whom the grisly one grappled amain.
  502. glorious
    having or deserving or conferring glory
    But the man remembered his mighty power,
    the glorious gift that God had sent him,
    in his Maker’s mercy put his trust
    for comfort and help: so he conquered the foe,
    felled the fiend, who fled abject,
    reft of joy, to the realms of death,
    mankind’s foe.
  503. abject
    of the most contemptible kind
    But the man remembered his mighty power,
    the glorious gift that God had sent him,
    in his Maker’s mercy put his trust
    for comfort and help: so he conquered the foe,
    felled the fiend, who fled abject,
    reft of joy, to the realms of death,
    mankind’s foe.
  504. renowned
    widely known and esteemed
    -- Nor was Beowulf there;
    another house had been held apart,
    after giving of gold, for the Geat renowned.
  505. dauntless
    invulnerable to fear or intimidation
    To his bower was Beowulf brought in haste,
    dauntless victor.
  506. companion
    a friend who is frequently in the company of another
    Strode o’er floor the famed-in-strife,
    with his hand- companions, -- the hall resounded, --
    wishing to greet the wise old king,
  507. renew
    reestablish on a new, usually improved, basis or make new or like new
    Pain is renewed
    to Danish folk.
  508. adviser
    an expert who gives advice
    Dead is Aeschere,
    of Yrmenlaf the elder brother,
    my sage adviser and stay in council,
    shoulder-comrade in stress of fight
    when warriors clashed and we warded our heads,
    hewed the helm-boars; hero famed
    should be every earl as Aeschere was!
  509. council
    a body serving in an administrative capacity
    Dead is Aeschere,
    of Yrmenlaf the elder brother,
    my sage adviser and stay in council,
    shoulder-comrade in stress of fight
    when warriors clashed and we warded our heads,
    hewed the helm-boars; hero famed
    should be every earl as Aeschere was!
  510. unyielding
    stubbornly unyielding
    The feud she avenged
    that yesternight, unyieldingly,
  511. ruined
    destroyed physically or morally
    Grendel in grimmest grasp thou killedst, --
    seeing how long these liegemen mine
    he ruined and ravaged.
  512. relate
    give an account of
    Land-dwellers here {20b} and liegemen mine,
    who house by those parts, I have heard relate
    that such a pair they have sometimes seen,
    march-stalkers mighty the moorland haunting,
    wandering spirits: one of them seemed,
    so far as my folk could fairly judge,
    of womankind; and one, accursed,
    in man’s guise trod the misery-track
    of exile, though huger than human bulk.
  513. guise
    an artful or simulated semblance
    Land-dwellers here {20b} and liegemen mine,
    who house by those parts, I have heard relate
    that such a pair they have sometimes seen,
    march-stalkers mighty the moorland haunting,
    wandering spirits: one of them seemed,
    so far as my folk could fairly judge,
    of womankind; and one, accursed,
    in man’s guise trod the misery-track
    of exile, though huger than human bulk.
  514. track
    a line or route along which something travels or moves
    Land-dwellers here {20b} and liegemen mine,
    who house by those parts, I have heard relate
    that such a pair they have sometimes seen,
    march-stalkers mighty the moorland haunting,
    wandering spirits: one of them seemed,
    so far as my folk could fairly judge,
    of womankind; and one, accursed,
    in man’s guise trod the misery- track
    of exile, though huger than human bulk.
  515. bulk
    the property possessed by a large mass
    Land-dwellers here {20b} and liegemen mine,
    who house by those parts, I have heard relate
    that such a pair they have sometimes seen,
    march-stalkers mighty the moorland haunting,
    wandering spirits: one of them seemed,
    so far as my folk could fairly judge,
    of womankind; and one, accursed,
    in man’s guise trod the misery-track
    of exile, though huger than human bulk.
  516. treacherous
    dangerously unstable and unpredictable
    Grendel in days long gone they named him,
    folk of the land; his father they knew not,
    nor any brood that was born to him
    of treacherous spirits.
  517. expand
    extend in one or more directions
    Not far is it hence
    in measure of miles that the mere expands,
    and o’er it the frost-bound forest hanging,
    sturdily rooted, shadows the wave.
  518. weird
    strikingly odd or unusual
    By night is a wonder weird to see,
    fire on the waters.
  519. depth
    the extent downward or backward or inward
    So wise lived none
    of the sons of men, to search those depths!
  520. harried
    troubled persistently especially with petty annoyances
    Nay, though the heath-rover, harried by dogs,
    the horn-proud hart, this holt should seek,
    long distance driven, his dear life first
    on the brink he yields ere he brave the plunge
    to hide his head: ’tis no happy place!
  521. brink
    the edge of a steep place
    Nay, though the heath-rover, harried by dogs,
    the horn-proud hart, this holt should seek,
    long distance driven, his dear life first
    on the brink he yields ere he brave the plunge
    to hide his head: ’tis no happy place!
  522. welter
    a confused multitude of things
    Thence the welter of waters washes up
    wan to welkin when winds bestir
    evil storms, and air grows dusk,
    and the heavens weep.
  523. abide
    dwell
    Each of us all must his end abide
    in the ways of the world; so win who may
    glory ere death!
  524. patience
    good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence
    But thou this day endure in patience,
    as I ween thou wilt, thy woes each one.”
  525. leap
    move forward by leaps and bounds
    Leaped up the graybeard: God he thanked,
    mighty Lord, for the man’s brave words.
  526. murky
    (of liquids) clouded as with sediment
    The footprints led
    along the woodland, widely seen,
    a path o’er the plain, where she passed, and trod
    the murky moor; of men-at-arms
    she bore the bravest and best one, dead,
    him who with Hrothgar the homestead ruled.
  527. strait
    a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water
    On then went the atheling-born
    o’er stone-cliffs steep and strait defiles,
    narrow passes and unknown ways,
    headlands sheer, and the haunts of the Nicors.
  528. defile
    make dirty or spotty, as by exposure to air; also used metaphorically
    On then went the atheling-born
    o’er stone-cliffs steep and strait defiles,
    narrow passes and unknown ways,
    headlands sheer, and the haunts of the Nicors.
  529. narrow
    not wide
    On then went the atheling-born
    o’er stone-cliffs steep and strait defiles,
    narrow passes and unknown ways,
    headlands sheer, and the haunts of the Nicors.
  530. sheer
    so thin as to transmit light
    On then went the atheling-born
    o’er stone-cliffs steep and strait defiles,
    narrow passes and unknown ways,
    headlands sheer, and the haunts of the Nicors.
  531. foremost
    ranking above all others
    Foremost he {21a} fared, a few at his side
    of the wiser men, the ways to scan,
    till he found in a flash the forested hill
    hanging over the hoary rock,
    a woful wood: the waves below
    were dyed in blood.
  532. swollen
    characteristic of false pride; having an exaggerated sense of self-importance
    These started away,
    swollen and savage that song to hear,
    that war-horn’s blast.
  533. blast
    a sudden very loud noise
    These started away,
    swollen and savage that song to hear,
    that war-horn’s blast.
  534. balk
    refuse to comply
    The warden of Geats,
    with bolt from bow, then balked of life,
    of wave-work, one monster, amid its heart
    went the keen war-shaft; in water it seemed
    less doughty in swimming whom death had seized.
  535. beset
    assail or attack on all sides: "The zebra was beset by leopards"
    Swift on the billows, with boar-spears well
    hooked and barbed, it was hard beset,
    done to death and dragged on the headland,
    wave-roamer wondrous.
  536. gird
    bind with something round or circular
    Then girt him Beowulf
    in martial mail, nor mourned for his life.
  537. martial
    suggesting war or military life
    Then girt him Beowulf
    in martial mail, nor mourned for his life.
  538. hue
    the quality of a color as determined by its dominant wavelength
    His breastplate broad and bright of hues,
    woven by hand, should the waters try;
    well could it ward the warrior’s body
    that battle should break on his breast in vain
    nor harm his heart by the hand of a foe.
  539. vain
    characteristic of false pride; having an exaggerated sense of self-importance
    His breastplate broad and bright of hues,
    woven by hand, should the waters try;
    well could it ward the warrior’s body
    that battle should break on his breast in vain
    nor harm his heart by the hand of a foe.
  540. whirl
    the shape of something rotating rapidly
    And the helmet white that his head protected
    was destined to dare the deeps of the flood,
    through wave- whirl win: ’twas wound with chains,
    decked with gold, as in days of yore
    the weapon-smith worked it wondrously,
    with swine-forms set it, that swords nowise,
    brandished in battle, could bite that helm.
  541. orator
    a person who delivers a speech or oration
    Nor was that the meanest of mighty helps
    which Hrothgar’s orator offered at need:
  542. poison
    any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism
    “Hrunting” they named the hilted sword,
    of old-time heirlooms easily first;
    iron was its edge, all etched with poison,
    with battle-blood hardened, nor blenched it at fight
    in hero’s hand who held it ever,
    on paths of peril prepared to go
    to folkstead {21b} of foes.
  543. task
    any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
    Not first time this
    it was destined to do a daring task.
  544. guardian
    a person who cares for persons or property
    Be guardian, thou, to this group of my thanes,
    my warrior-friends, if War should seize me;
    and the goodly gifts thou gavest me,
  545. stare
    look at with fixed eyes
    Hrethel’s son see, when he stares at the treasure,
    that I got me a friend for goodness famed,
    and joyed while I could in my jewel-bestower.
  546. brine
    a strong solution of salt and water used for pickling
    Then bore this brine-wolf, when bottom she touched,
    the lord of rings to the lair she haunted
    whiles vainly he strove, though his valor held,
    weapon to wield against wondrous monsters
    that sore beset him; sea-beasts many
    tried with fierce tusks to tear his mail,
    and swarmed on the stranger.
  547. swarm
    a group of many things in the air or on the ground
    Then bore this brine-wolf, when bottom she touched,
    the lord of rings to the lair she haunted
    whiles vainly he strove, though his valor held,
    weapon to wield against wondrous monsters
    that sore beset him; sea-beasts many
    tried with fierce tusks to tear his mail,
    and swarmed on the stranger.
  548. fang
    canine tooth of a carnivorous animal; used to seize and tear its prey
    But soon he marked
    he was now in some hall, he knew not which,
    where water never could work him harm,
    nor through the roof could reach him ever
    fangs of the flood.
  549. monstrous
    distorted and unnatural in shape or size; abnormal and hideous
    Then the warrior was ware of that wolf-of-the-deep,
    mere-wife monstrous.
  550. stroke
    a single complete movement
    For mighty stroke
    he swung his blade, and the blow withheld not.
  551. withhold
    hold back; refuse to hand over or share
    For mighty stroke
    he swung his blade, and the blow withheld not.
  552. seemly
    according with custom or propriety
    Then sang on her head that seemly blade
    its war-song wild.
  553. shrink
    wither, as with a loss of moisture
    Seized then by shoulder, shrank not from combat,
    the Geatish war-prince Grendel’s mother.
  554. stumble
    miss a step and fall or nearly fall
    Spent with struggle, stumbled the warrior,
    fiercest of fighting-men, fell adown.
  555. withstand
    resist or confront with resistance
    -- On his shoulder lay
    braided breast-mail, barring death,
    withstanding entrance of edge or blade.
  556. entrance
    something that provides access (to get in or get out)
    -- On his shoulder lay
    braided breast-mail, barring death,
    withstanding entrance of edge or blade.
  557. allow
    make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen
    The Lord of Heaven allowed his cause;
    and easily rose the earl erect.
  558. erect
    upright in position or posture
    The Lord of Heaven allowed his cause;
    and easily rose the earl erect.
  559. bandy
    discuss lightly
    ’MID the battle-gear saw he a blade triumphant,
    old-sword of Eotens, with edge of proof,
    warriors’ heirloom, weapon unmatched,
    -- save only ’twas more than other men
    to bandy-of-battle could bear at all --
    as the giants had wrought it, ready and keen.
  560. smite
    inflict a heavy blow on, with the hand, a tool, or a weapon
    Seized then its chain-hilt the Scyldings’ chieftain,
    bold and battle-grim, brandished the sword,
    reckless of life, and so wrathfully smote
    that it gripped her neck and grasped her hard,
    her bone-rings breaking: the blade pierced through
    that fated-one’s flesh: to floor she sank.
  561. raise
    move upwards
    By the wall then went he; his weapon raised
    high by its hilts the Hygelac-thane,
    angry and eager.
  562. slumber
    be asleep
    Grendel to guerdon for grim raids many,
    for the war he waged on Western-Danes
    oftener far than an only time,
    when of Hrothgar’s hearth-companions
    he slew in slumber, in sleep devoured,
    fifteen men of the folk of Danes,
    and as many others outward bore,
    his horrible prey.
  563. horrible
    provoking horror
    Grendel to guerdon for grim raids many,
    for the war he waged on Western-Danes
    oftener far than an only time,
    when of Hrothgar’s hearth-companions
    he slew in slumber, in sleep devoured,
    fifteen men of the folk of Danes,
    and as many others outward bore,
    his horrible prey.
  564. prone
    having a tendency (to); often used in combination
    For now prone he saw
  565. conquest
    the act of conquering
    Old men together,
    hoary-haired, of the hero spake;
    the warrior would not, they weened, again,
    proud of conquest, come to seek
    their mighty master.
  566. wont
    an established custom
    Now that sword began,
    from blood of the fight, in battle-droppings, {23c}
    war-blade, to wane: ’twas a wondrous thing
    that all of it melted as ice is wont
    when frosty fetters the Father loosens,
    unwinds the wave-bonds, wielding all
    seasons and times: the true God he!
  567. perish
    pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life
    Nor took from that dwelling the duke of the Geats
    save only the head and that hilt withal
    blazoned with jewels: the blade had melted,
    burned was the bright sword, her blood was so hot,
    so poisoned the hell-sprite who perished within there.
  568. lapse
    drop to a lower level, as in one's morals or standards
    The clashing waters were cleansed now,
    waste of waves, where the wandering fiend
    her life-days left and this lapsing world.
  569. deftly
    in a deft manner
    Soon from the hardy one helmet and armor
    deftly they doffed: now drowsed the mere,
    water ’neath welkin, with war-blood stained.
  570. doff
    remove
    Soon from the hardy one helmet and armor
    deftly they doffed: now drowsed the mere,
    water ’neath welkin, with war-blood stained.
  571. courageous
    possessing or displaying courage; able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching
    Courageous men
    carried the head from the cliff by the sea,
    an arduous task for all the band,
    the firm in fight, since four were needed
    on the shaft-of-slaughter {23d} strenuously
    to bear to the gold-hall Grendel’s head.
  572. arduous
    characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort
    Courageous men
    carried the head from the cliff by the sea,
    an arduous task for all the band,
    the firm in fight, since four were needed
    on the shaft-of-slaughter {23d} strenuously
    to bear to the gold-hall Grendel’s head.
  573. meadow
    a field where grass or alfalfa are grown to be made into hay
    Their master-of-clan
    mighty amid them the meadow-ways trod.
  574. marvel
    be amazed at
    Grendel’s head, where the henchmen were drinking,
    an awe to clan and queen alike,
    a monster of marvel: the men looked on.
  575. effort
    use of physical or mental energy; hard work
    In war under water this work I essayed
    with endless effort; and even so
    my strength had been lost had the Lord not shielded me.
  576. vouchsafe
    grant in a condescending manner
    Not a whit could I with Hrunting do
    in work of war, though the weapon is good;
    yet a sword the Sovran of Men vouchsafed me
    to spy on the wall there, in splendor hanging,
    old, gigantic, -- how oft He guides
    the friendless wight! -- and I fought with that brand,
    felling in fight, since fate was with me,
    the house’s wardens.
  577. splendor
    the quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand
    Not a whit could I with Hrunting do
    in work of war, though the weapon is good;
    yet a sword the Sovran of Men vouchsafed me
    to spy on the wall there, in splendor hanging,
    old, gigantic, -- how oft He guides
    the friendless wight! -- and I fought with that brand,
    felling in fight, since fate was with me,
    the house’s wardens.
  578. gigantic
    so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth
    Not a whit could I with Hrunting do
    in work of war, though the weapon is good;
    yet a sword the Sovran of Men vouchsafed me
    to spy on the wall there, in splendor hanging,
    old, gigantic, -- how oft He guides
    the friendless wight! -- and I fought with that brand,
    felling in fight, since fate was with me,
    the house’s wardens.
  579. scatter
    to cause to separate and go in different directions
    Now it passed into power of the people’s king,
    best of all that the oceans bound
    who have scattered their gold o’er Scandia’s isle.
  580. estranged
    caused to be unloved
    Hrothgar spake -- the hilt he viewed,
    heirloom old, where was etched the rise
    of that far-off fight when the floods o’erwhelmed,
    raging waves, the race of giants
    (fearful their fate!), a folk estranged
    from God Eternal: whence guerdon due
    in that waste of waters the Wielder paid them.
  581. runic
    relating to or consisting of runes
    So on the guard of shining gold
    in runic staves it was rightly said
    for whom the serpent-traced sword was wrought,
    best of blades, in bygone days,
    and the hilt well wound.
  582. maintain
    keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., "keep clean"
    Firmly thou
    shalt all maintain,
    mighty strength with mood of wisdom.
  583. assure
    inform positively and with certainty and confidence
    Love of
    mine will I assure thee,
    as, awhile ago, I promised; thou shalt prove a stay
    in future,
    in far-off years, to folk of thine,
    to the heroes a help.
  584. future
    the time yet to come
    Love of
    mine will I assure thee,
    as, awhile ago, I promised; thou shalt prove a stay
    in future,
    in far-off years, to folk of thine,
    to the heroes a help.
  585. virtue
    the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong
    Of virtue advise thee!
  586. estate
    extensive landed property (especially in the country) retained by the owner for his own use
    Wondrous seems
    how to sons of men Almighty God
    in the strength of His spirit sendeth wisdom,
    estate, high station: He swayeth all things.
  587. fortress
    a fortified defensive structure
    Whiles He letteth right lustily fare
    the heart of the hero of high-born race, --
    in seat ancestral assigns him bliss,
    his folk’s sure fortress in fee to hold,
    puts in his power great parts of the earth,
    empire so ample, that end of it
    this wanter-of-wisdom weeneth none.
  588. empire
    the domain ruled by an emperor or empress; the region over which imperial dominion is exercised
    Whiles He letteth right lustily fare
    the heart of the hero of high-born race, --
    in seat ancestral assigns him bliss,
    his folk’s sure fortress in fee to hold,
    puts in his power great parts of the earth,
    empire so ample, that end of it
    this wanter-of-wisdom weeneth none.
  589. ample
    more than enough in size or scope or capacity
    Whiles He letteth right lustily fare
    the heart of the hero of high-born race, --
    in seat ancestral assigns him bliss,
    his folk’s sure fortress in fee to hold,
    puts in his power great parts of the earth,
    empire so ample, that end of it
    this wanter-of-wisdom weeneth none.
  590. obstinate
    tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield
    So he waxes in wealth, nowise can harm him
    illness or age; no evil cares
    shadow his spirit; no sword-hate threatens
    from ever an enemy: all the world
    wends at his will, no worse he knoweth,
    till all within him obstinate pride
    waxes and wakes while the warden slumbers,
    the spirit’s sentry; sleep is too fast
    which masters his might, and the murderer nears,
    stealthily shooting the shafts from his bow!
  591. sentry
    a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event
    So he waxes in wealth, nowise can harm him
    illness or age; no evil cares
    shadow his spirit; no sword-hate threatens
    from ever an enemy: all the world
    wends at his will, no worse he knoweth,
    till all within him obstinate pride
    waxes and wakes while the warden slumbers,
    the spirit’s sentry; sleep is too fast
    which masters his might, and the murderer nears,
    stealthily shooting the shafts from his bow!
  592. stealthily
    in a stealthy manner
    So he waxes in wealth, nowise can harm him
    illness or age; no evil cares
    shadow his spirit; no sword-hate threatens
    from ever an enemy: all the world
    wends at his will, no worse he knoweth,
    till all within him obstinate pride
    waxes and wakes while the warden slumbers,
    the spirit’s sentry; sleep is too fast
    which masters his might, and the murderer nears,
    stealthily shooting the shafts from his bow!
  593. avail
    be of use to, be useful to
    “UNDER harness his heart then is hit indeed
    by sharpest shafts; and no shelter avails
    from foul behest of the hellish fiend. {25a}
  594. foul
    highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust
    “UNDER harness his heart then is hit indeed
    by sharpest shafts; and no shelter avails
    from foul behest of the hellish fiend. {25a}
  595. behest
    an authoritative command or request
    “UNDER harness his heart then is hit indeed
    by sharpest shafts; and no shelter avails
    from foul behest of the hellish fiend. {25a}
  596. possess
    have ownership or possession of
    Him seems too little what long he possessed.
  597. fragile
    easily broken or damaged or destroyed
    Yet in the end it ever comes
    that the frame of the body fragile yields,
    fated falls; and there follows another
    who joyously the jewels divides,
    the royal riches, nor recks of his forebear.
  598. forebear
    a person from whom you are descended
    Yet in the end it ever comes
    that the frame of the body fragile yields,
    fated falls; and there follows another
    who joyously the jewels divides,
    the royal riches, nor recks of his forebear.
  599. profit
    the advantageous quality of being beneficial
    Ban, then, such baleful thoughts, Beowulf dearest,
    best of men, and the better part choose,
    profit eternal; and temper thy pride,
    warrior famous!
  600. temper
    a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling
    Ban, then, such baleful thoughts, Beowulf dearest,
    best of men, and the better part choose,
    profit eternal; and temper thy pride,
    warrior famous!
  601. odious
    unequivocally detestable
    The flower of thy might
    lasts now a while: but erelong it shall be
    that sickness or sword thy strength shall minish,
    or fang of fire, or flooding billow,
    or bite of blade, or brandished spear,
    or odious age; or the eyes’ clear beam
    wax dull and darken: Death even thee
    in haste shall o’erwhelm, thou hero of war!
  602. dull
    so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness
    The flower of thy might
    lasts now a while: but erelong it shall be
    that sickness or sword thy strength shall minish,
    or fang of fire, or flooding billow,
    or bite of blade, or brandished spear,
    or odious age; or the eyes’ clear beam
    wax dull and darken: Death even thee
    in haste shall o’erwhelm, thou hero of war!
  603. shift
    move very slightly
    Lo, sudden the shift!
  604. secure
    free from danger or risk
    To me seated secure
    came grief for joy when Grendel began
    to harry my home, the hellish foe;
    for those ruthless raids, unresting I suffered
    heart-sorrow heavy.
  605. grief
    intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)
    To me seated secure
    came grief for joy when Grendel began
    to harry my home, the hellish foe;
    for those ruthless raids, unresting I suffered
    heart-sorrow heavy.
  606. extend
    stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point
    Lord Eternal, for life extended
    that I on this head all hewn and bloody,
    after long evil, with eyes may gaze!
  607. yearn
    desire strongly or persistently
    The doughty ones rose:
    for the hoary-headed would hasten to rest,
    aged Scylding; and eager the Geat,
    shield-fighter sturdy, for sleeping yearned.
  608. rapture
    a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion
    Stately the hall
    rose gabled and gilt where the guest slept on
    till a raven black the rapture-of-heaven {25b}
    blithe-heart boded.
  609. slander
    words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another
    Bade then the hardy-one Hrunting be brought
    to the son of Ecglaf, the sword bade him take,
    excellent iron, and uttered his thanks for it,
    quoth that he counted it keen in battle,
    “war-friend” winsome: with words he slandered not
    edge of the blade: ’twas a big-hearted man!
  610. neighbor
    a person who lives (or is located) near another
    If it come to me ever across the seas
    that neighbor foemen annoy and fright thee, --
    as they that hate thee erewhile have used, --
    thousands then of thanes I shall bring,
    heroes to help thee.
  611. annoy
    cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations
    If it come to me ever across the seas
    that neighbor foemen annoy and fright thee, --
    as they that hate thee erewhile have used, --
    thousands then of thanes I shall bring,
    heroes to help thee.
  612. wary
    marked by keen caution and watchful prudence
    Thou art strong of main and in mind art wary,
    art wise in words!
  613. mutual
    common to or shared by two or more parties
    Thou hast brought it about that both our peoples,
    sons of the Geat and Spear-Dane folk,
    shall have mutual peace, and from murderous strife,
    such as once they waged, from war refrain.
  614. refrain
    resist doing something
    Thou hast brought it about that both our peoples,
    sons of the Geat and Spear-Dane folk,
    shall have mutual peace, and from murderous strife,
    such as once they waged, from war refrain.
  615. longing
    prolonged unfulfilled desire or need
    Was this hero so dear to him.
    his breast’s wild billows he banned in vain;
    safe in his soul a secret longing,
    locked in his mind, for that loved man
    burned in his blood.
  616. plot
    a small area of ground covered by specific vegetation
    Then Beowulf strode,
    glad of his gold-gifts, the grass- plot o’er,
    warrior blithe.
  617. length
    the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place
    As they hastened onward, Hrothgar’s gift
    they lauded at length.
  618. esteemed
    having an illustrious reputation; respected
    A sword to the boat-guard Beowulf gave,
    mounted with gold; on the mead-bench since
    he was better esteemed, that blade possessing,
    heirloom old.
  619. timber
    the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material
    A sea-cloth was set, a sail with ropes,
    firm to the mast; the flood- timbers moaned; {27a}
    nor did wind over billows that wave-swimmer blow
    across from her course.
  620. current
    occurring in or belonging to the present time
    The craft sped on,
    foam-necked it floated forth o’er the waves,
    keel firm-bound over briny currents,
    till they got them sight of the Geatish cliffs,
    home-known headlands.
  621. humble
    marked by meekness or modesty; not arrogant or prideful
    Nor humble her ways,
    nor grudged she gifts to the Geatish men,
    of precious treasure.
  622. grudge
    a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation
    Nor humble her ways,
    nor grudged she gifts to the Geatish men,
    of precious treasure.
  623. brief
    of short duration or distance
    And brief the respite;
    soon as they seized him, his sword-doom was spoken,
    and the burnished blade a baleful murder
    proclaimed and closed.
  624. proclaim
    declare formally; declare someone to be something; of titles
    And brief the respite;
    soon as they seized him, his sword-doom was spoken,
    and the burnished blade a baleful murder
    proclaimed and closed.
  625. onslaught
    (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)
    For over their ale men also told
    that of these folk-horrors fewer she wrought,
    onslaughts of evil, after she went,
    gold-decked bride, to the brave young prince,
    atheling haughty, and Offa’s hall
    o’er the fallow flood at her father’s bidding
    safely sought, where since she prospered,
    royal, throned, rich in goods,
    fain of the fair life fate had sent her,
    and leal in love to the lord of warriors.
  626. dispense
    administer or bestow, as in small portions
    The mead dispensing,
    came through the high hall Haereth’s daughter,
    winsome to warriors, wine-cup bore
    to the hands of the heroes.
  627. lofty
    of imposing height; especially standing out above others
    Hygelac then
    his comrade fairly with question plied
    in the lofty hall, sore longing to know
    what manner of sojourn the Sea-Geats made.
  628. sojourn
    a temporary stay (e.g., as a guest)
    Hygelac then
    his comrade fairly with question plied
    in the lofty hall, sore longing to know
    what manner of sojourn the Sea-Geats made.
  629. yearning
    prolonged unfulfilled desire or need
    “What came of thy quest, my kinsman Beowulf,
    when thy yearnings suddenly swept thee yonder
    battle to seek o’er the briny sea,
    combat in Heorot?
  630. suddenly
    happening unexpectedly
    “What came of thy quest, my kinsman Beowulf,
    when thy yearnings suddenly swept thee yonder
    battle to seek o’er the briny sea,
    combat in Heorot?
  631. yonder
    distant but within sight (`yon' is dialectal)
    “What came of thy quest, my kinsman Beowulf,
    when thy yearnings suddenly swept thee yonder
    battle to seek o’er the briny sea,
    combat in Heorot?
  632. venture
    any venturesome undertaking especially one with an uncertain outcome
    With waves of care
    my sad heart seethed; I sore mistrusted
    my loved one’s venture: long I begged thee
    by no means to seek that slaughtering monster,
    but suffer the South-Danes to settle their feud
    themselves with Grendel.
  633. purpose
    what something is used for
    Hrothgar to greet in the hall of gifts,
    where Healfdene’s kinsman high-renowned,
    soon as my purpose was plain to him,
    assigned me a seat by his son and heir.
  634. proffer
    present for acceptance or rejection
    Freawaru name, when fretted gold
    she proffered the warriors.
  635. seldom
    not often
    But seldom ever
    when men are slain, does the murder-spear sink
    but briefest while, though the bride be fair! {28a}
  636. stern
    of a stern or strict bearing or demeanor; forbidding in aspect
    Then, over the ale, on this heirloom gazing,
    some ash-wielder old who has all in mind
    that spear-death of men, {28c} -- he is stern of mood,
    heavy at heart, -- in the hero young
    tests the temper and tries the soul
    and war-hate wakens, with words like these: --
  637. occasion
    an event that occurs at a critical time
    Thus he urges and eggs him all the time
    with keenest words, till occasion offers
    that Freawaru’s thane, for his father’s deed,
    after bite of brand in his blood must slumber,
    losing his life; but that liegeman flies
    living away, for the land he kens.
  638. staid
    characterized by dignity and propriety
    He fled away,
    and a little space his life preserved;
    but there staid behind him his stronger hand
    left in Heorot; heartsick thence
    on the floor of the ocean that outcast fell.
  639. legend
    a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events
    Whiles the hero his harp bestirred,
    wood-of-delight; now lays he chanted
    of sooth and sadness, or said aright
    legends of wonder, the wide-hearted king;
    or for years of his youth he would yearn at times,
    for strength of old struggles, now stricken with age,
    hoary hero: his heart surged full
    when, wise with winters, he wailed their flight.
  640. greed
    reprehensible acquisitiveness; insatiable desire for wealth (personified as one of the deadly sins)
    Anon full ready
    in greed of vengeance, Grendel’s mother
    set forth all doleful.
  641. doleful
    filled with or evoking sadness
    Anon full ready
    in greed of vengeance, Grendel’s mother
    set forth all doleful.
  642. beseech
    ask for or request earnestly
    The leader then, by thy life, besought me
    (sad was his soul) in the sea-waves’ coil
    to play the hero and hazard my being
    for glory of prowess: my guerdon he pledged.
  643. hazard
    an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another
    The leader then, by thy life, besought me
    (sad was his soul) in the sea-waves’ coil
    to play the hero and hazard my being
    for glory of prowess: my guerdon he pledged.
  644. customs
    money collected under a tariff
    “So held this king to the customs old,
    that I wanted for nought in the wage I gained,
    the meed of my might; he made me gifts,
  645. disposal
    the act or means of getting rid of something
    Healfdene’s heir, for my own disposal.
  646. treachery
    an act of deliberate betrayal
    So should kinsmen be,
    not weave one another the net of wiles,
    or with deep-hid treachery death contrive
    for neighbor and comrade.
  647. contrive
    make or work out a plan for; devise
    So should kinsmen be,
    not weave one another the net of wiles,
    or with deep-hid treachery death contrive
    for neighbor and comrade.
  648. remark
    make or write a comment on
    Thus showed his strain the son of Ecgtheow
    as a man remarked for mighty deeds
    and acts of honor.
  649. lap
    the upper side of the thighs of a seated person
    The brand he laid in Beowulf’s lap;
    and of hides assigned him seven thousand, {29b}
    with house and high-seat.
  650. inheritance
    hereditary succession to a title or an office or property
    They held in common
    land alike by their line of birth,
    inheritance, home: but higher the king
    because of his rule o’er the realm itself.
  651. pressure
    the act of pressing; the exertion of pressure
    THAT way he went with no will of his own,
    in danger of life, to the dragon’s hoard,
    but for pressure of peril, some prince’s thane.
  652. fatal
    bringing death
    He fled in fear the fatal scourge,
    seeking shelter, a sinful man,
    and entered in.
  653. scourge
    something causing misery or death
    He fled in fear the fatal scourge,
    seeking shelter, a sinful man,
    and entered in.
  654. wretched
    deserving or inciting pity
    At the awful sight
    tottered that guest, and terror seized him;
    yet the wretched fugitive rallied anon
    from fright and fear ere he fled away,
    and took the cup from that treasure-hoard.
  655. fugitive
    someone who is sought by law officers; someone trying to elude justice
    At the awful sight
    tottered that guest, and terror seized him;
    yet the wretched fugitive rallied anon
    from fright and fear ere he fled away,
    and took the cup from that treasure-hoard.
  656. rally
    gather
    At the awful sight
    tottered that guest, and terror seized him;
    yet the wretched fugitive rallied anon
    from fright and fear ere he fled away,
    and took the cup from that treasure-hoard.
  657. bicker
    argue over petty things
    Polishers sleep
    who could brighten and burnish the battle-mask;
    and those weeds of war that were wont to brave
    over bicker of shields the bite of steel
    rust with their bearer.
  658. twilight
    the time of day immediately following sunset
    His hoard-of-bliss
    that old ill-doer open found,
    who, blazing at twilight the barrows haunteth,
    naked foe-dragon flying by night
    folded in fire: the folk of earth
    dread him sore.
  659. thereby
    by that means or because of that
    ’Tis his doom to seek
    hoard in the graves, and heathen gold
    to watch, many-wintered: nor wins he thereby!
  660. plague
    any large scale calamity (especially when thought to be sent by God)
    Powerful this plague-of-the-people thus
    held the house of the hoard in earth
    three hundred winters; till One aroused
    wrath in his breast, to the ruler bearing
    that costly cup, and the king implored
    for bond of peace.
  661. aroused
    aroused to action
    Powerful this plague-of-the-people thus
    held the house of the hoard in earth
    three hundred winters; till One aroused
    wrath in his breast, to the ruler bearing
    that costly cup, and the king implored
    for bond of peace.
  662. implore
    call upon in supplication; entreat
    Powerful this plague-of-the-people thus
    held the house of the hoard in earth
    three hundred winters; till One aroused
    wrath in his breast, to the ruler bearing
    that costly cup, and the king implored
    for bond of peace.
  663. plunder
    steal goods; take as spoils
    So the barrow was plundered,
    borne off was booty.
  664. kindle
    catch fire
    When the dragon awoke, new woe was kindled.
  665. stark
    severely simple
    The stark-heart found
    footprint of foe who so far had gone
    in his hidden craft by the creature’s head.
  666. desire
    the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state
    Yet war he desired,
    was eager for battle.
  667. discover
    discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
    The barrow he entered,
    sought the cup, and discovered soon
    that some one of mortals had searched his treasure,
    his lordly gold.
  668. enduring
    unceasing
    The guardian waited
    ill- enduring till evening came;
    boiling with wrath was the barrow’s keeper,
    and fain with flame the foe to pay
    for the dear cup’s loss.
  669. soil
    material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use)
    By its wall no more
    was it glad to bide, but burning flew
    folded in flame: a fearful beginning
    for sons of the soil; and soon it came,
    in the doom of their lord, to a dreadful end.
  670. hint
    an indirect suggestion
    To hidden lair,
    to its hoard it hastened at hint of dawn.
  671. assume
    take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof
    The sage assumed that his sovran God
    he had angered, breaking ancient law,
    and embittered the Lord.
  672. destroy
    do away with, cause the destruction or undoing of
    The folk’s own fastness that fiery dragon
    with flame had destroyed, and the stronghold all
    washed by waves; but the warlike king,
    prince of the Weders, plotted vengeance.
  673. fleeting
    lasting for a markedly brief time
    -- Atheling brave,
    he was fated to finish this fleeting life, {31a}
    his days on earth, and the dragon with him,
    though long it had watched o’er the wealth of the hoard!
  674. reckon
    make a mathematical calculation or computation
    Shame he reckoned it, sharer-of-rings,
    to follow the flyer-afar with a host,
    a broad-flung band; nor the battle feared he,
    nor deemed he dreadful the dragon’s warring,
    its vigor and valor: ventures desperate
    he had passed a-plenty, and perils of war,
    contest-crash, since, conqueror proud,
  675. vigor
    forceful exertion
    Shame he reckoned it, sharer-of-rings,
    to follow the flyer-afar with a host,
    a broad-flung band; nor the battle feared he,
    nor deemed he dreadful the dragon’s warring,
    its vigor and valor: ventures desperate
    he had passed a-plenty, and perils of war,
    contest-crash, since, conqueror proud,
  676. wholly
    to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')
    Hrothgar’s hall he had wholly purged,
    and in grapple had killed the kin of Grendel,
    loathsome breed!
  677. naught
    a quantity of no importance
    Then swam over ocean Ecgtheow’s son
    lonely and sorrowful, seeking his land,
    where Hygd made him offer of hoard and realm,
    rings and royal-seat, reckoning naught
    the strength of her son to save their kingdom
    from hostile hordes, after Hygelac’s death.
  678. horde
    a vast multitude
    Then swam over ocean Ecgtheow’s son
    lonely and sorrowful, seeking his land,
    where Hygd made him offer of hoard and realm,
    rings and royal-seat, reckoning naught
    the strength of her son to save their kingdom
    from hostile hordes, after Hygelac’s death.
  679. sway
    move back and forth or sideways
    -- Wandering exiles
    sought him o’er seas, the sons of Ohtere,
    who had spurned the sway of the Scylfings’-helmet,
    the bravest and best that broke the rings,
    in Swedish land, of the sea-kings’ line,
    haughty hero. {31c} Hence Heardred’s end.
  680. arise
    move upward
    He had heard whence all the harm arose
    and the killing of clansmen; that cup of price
    on the lap of the lord had been laid by the finder.
  681. cringe
    draw back, as with fear or pain
    In the throng was this one thirteenth man,
    starter of all the strife and ill,
    care-laden captive; cringing thence
    forced and reluctant, he led them on
    till he came in ken of that cavern-hall,
    the barrow delved near billowy surges,
    flood of ocean.
  682. reluctant
    not eager
    In the throng was this one thirteenth man,
    starter of all the strife and ill,
    care-laden captive; cringing thence
    forced and reluctant, he led them on
    till he came in ken of that cavern-hall,
    the barrow delved near billowy surges,
    flood of ocean.
  683. cavern
    a large cave or a large chamber in a cave
    In the throng was this one thirteenth man,
    starter of all the strife and ill,
    care-laden captive; cringing thence
    forced and reluctant, he led them on
    till he came in ken of that cavern-hall,
    the barrow delved near billowy surges,
    flood of ocean.
  684. delve
    turn up, loosen, or remove earth
    In the throng was this one thirteenth man,
    starter of all the strife and ill,
    care-laden captive; cringing thence
    forced and reluctant, he led them on
    till he came in ken of that cavern-hall,
    the barrow delved near billowy surges,
    flood of ocean.
  685. jealous
    suspicious or unduly suspicious or fearful of being displaced by a rival
    Within ’twas full
    of wire-gold and jewels; a jealous warden,
    warrior trusty, the treasures held,
    lurked in his lair.
  686. strew
    spread by scattering ("straw" is archaic)
    For the eldest of these, by unmeet chance,
    by kinsman’s deed, was the death-bed strewn,
    when Haethcyn killed him with horny bow,
    his own dear liege laid low with an arrow,
    missed the mark and his mate shot down,
    one brother the other, with bloody shaft.
  687. gallows
    an instrument of execution consisting of a wooden frame from which a condemned person is executed by hanging
    Too awful it is for an aged man
    to bide and bear, that his bairn so young
    rides on the gallows.
  688. incur
    make oneself subject to; bring upon oneself; become liable to
    Still is he minded, as morning breaks,
    of the heir gone elsewhere; {32c} another he hopes not
    he will bide to see his burg within
    as ward for his wealth, now the one has found
    doom of death that the deed incurred.
  689. chamber
    a natural or artificial enclosed space
    “THEN he goes to his chamber, a grief-song chants
    alone for his lost.
  690. loathing
    hate coupled with disgust
    No way could he take
    to avenge on the slayer slaughter so foul;
    nor e’en could he harass that hero at all
    with loathing deed, though he loved him not.
  691. wealthy
    having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value
    Lands and cities he left his sons
    (as the wealthy do) when he went from earth.
  692. brook
    a natural stream of water smaller than a river (and often a tributary of a river)
    There was strife and struggle ’twixt Swede and Geat
    o’er the width of waters; war arose,
    hard battle-horror, when Hrethel died,
    and Ongentheow’s offspring grew
    strife-keen, bold, nor brooked o’er the seas
    pact of peace, but pushed their hosts
    to harass in hatred by Hreosnabeorh.
  693. bargain
    an agreement between parties (usually arrived at after discussion) fixing obligations of each
    Men of my folk for that feud had vengeance,
    for woful war (‘tis widely known),
    though one of them bought it with blood of his heart,
    a bargain hard: for Haethcyn proved
    fatal that fray, for the first-of-Geats.
  694. split
    separate into parts or portions
    Wide split the war-helm: wan he fell,
    hoary Scylfing; the hand that smote him
    of feud was mindful, nor flinched from the death-blow.
  695. flinch
    draw back, as with fear or pain
    Wide split the war-helm: wan he fell,
    hoary Scylfing; the hand that smote him
    of feud was mindful, nor flinched from the death-blow.
  696. champion
    someone who has won first place in a competition
    Ever I fought in the front of all,
    sole to the fore; and so shall I fight
    while I bide in life and this blade shall last
    that early and late hath loyal proved
    since for my doughtiness Daeghrefn fell,
    slain by my hand, the Hugas’ champion.
  697. cleft
    a long narrow opening
    Up stood then with shield the sturdy champion,
    stayed by the strength of his single manhood,
    and hardy ’neath helmet his harness bore
    under cleft of the cliffs: no coward’s path!
  698. coward
    a person who shows fear or timidity
    Up stood then with shield the sturdy champion,
    stayed by the strength of his single manhood,
    and hardy ’neath helmet his harness bore
    under cleft of the cliffs: no coward’s path!
  699. survivor
    one who lives through affliction
    Soon spied by the wall that warrior chief,
    survivor of many a victory-field
    where foemen fought with furious clashings,
    an arch of stone; and within, a stream
    that broke from the barrow.
  700. arch
    (architecture) a masonry construction (usually curved) for spanning an opening and supporting the weight above it
    Soon spied by the wall that warrior chief,
    survivor of many a victory-field
    where foemen fought with furious clashings,
    an arch of stone; and within, a stream
    that broke from the barrow.
  701. loathe
    find repugnant
    Stout by the stone-way his shield he raised,
    lord of the Geats, against the loathed-one;
    while with courage keen that coiled foe
    came seeking strife.
  702. deny
    declare untrue; contradict
    But Wyrd denied it,
    and victory’s honors.
  703. marred
    blemished by injury or rough wear
    Kinship true
    can never be marred in a noble mind!
  704. oppressed
    burdened psychologically or mentally
    His king he now saw
    with heat under helmet hard oppressed.
  705. linger
    remain present although waning or gradually dying
    Not long he lingered.
  706. portion
    something determined in relation to something that includes it
    For winters this war-gear Weohstan kept,
    breastplate and board, till his bairn had grown
    earlship to earn as the old sire did:
    then he gave him, mid Geats, the gear of battle,
    portion huge, when he passed from life,
    fared aged forth.
  707. bequest
    (law) a gift of personal property by will
    Neither softened his soul, nor the sire’s bequest
    weakened in war. {34b} So the worm found out
    when once in fight the foes had met!
  708. heedless
    marked by or paying little heed or attention
    Heedless of harm, though his hand was burned,
    hardy-hearted, he helped his kinsman.
  709. inflict
    impose something unpleasant
    The wound began,
    which that dragon-of-earth had erst inflicted,
    to swell and smart; and soon he found
    in his breast was boiling, baleful and deep,
    pain of poison.
  710. swell
    increase in size, magnitude, number, or intensity
    The wound began,
    which that dragon-of-earth had erst inflicted,
    to swell and smart; and soon he found
    in his breast was boiling, baleful and deep,
    pain of poison.
  711. structure
    a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts
    The prince walked on,
    wise in his thought, to the wall of rock;
    then sat, and stared at the structure of giants,
    where arch of stone and steadfast column
    upheld forever that hall in earth.
  712. column
    a line of units following one after another
    The prince walked on,
    wise in his thought, to the wall of rock;
    then sat, and stared at the structure of giants,
    where arch of stone and steadfast column
    upheld forever that hall in earth.
  713. spite
    malevolence by virtue of being malicious or spiteful or nasty
    Beowulf spake in spite of his hurt,
    his mortal wound; full well he knew
    his portion now was past and gone
    of earthly bliss, and all had fled
    of his file of days, and death was near:
  714. bestow
    give as a gift
    “I would fain bestow on son of mine
    this gear of war, were given me now
    that any heir should after me come
    of my proper blood.
  715. proper
    marked by suitability or rightness or appropriateness
    “I would fain bestow on son of mine
    this gear of war, were given me now
    that any heir should after me come
    of my proper blood.
  716. threat
    declaration of an intention or a determination to inflict harm on another
    No folk-king was there,
    none at all, of the neighboring clans
    who war would wage me with ’warriors’-friends’ {35a}
    and threat me with horrors.
  717. bereaved
    sorrowful through loss or deprivation
    Wiglaf loved, now the worm lies low,
    sleeps, heart-sore, of his spoil bereaved.
  718. rusty
    covered with or consisting of rust
    Then the clansman keen, of conquest proud,
    passing the seat, {36a} saw store of jewels
    and glistening gold the ground along;
    by the wall were marvels, and many a vessel
    in the den of the dragon, the dawn-flier old:
    unburnished bowls of bygone men
    reft of richness; rusty helms
    of the olden age; and arm-rings many
    wondrously woven.
  719. glance
    throw a glance at; take a brief look at
    His glance too fell on a gold-wove banner
    high o’er the hoard, of handiwork noblest,
    brilliantly broidered; so bright its gleam,
    all the earth-floor he easily saw
    and viewed all these vessels.
  720. vestige
    an indication that something has been present
    No vestige now
    was seen of the serpent: the sword had ta’en him.
  721. injured
    harmed
    -- The blade of his lord
    -- its edge was iron -- had injured deep
    one that guarded the golden hoard
    many a year and its murder-fire
    spread hot round the barrow in horror-billows
    at midnight hour, till it met its doom.
  722. barter
    exchange goods without involving money
    Now I’ve bartered here for booty of treasure
    the last of my life, so look ye well
    to the needs of my land!
  723. tarry
    leave slowly and hesitantly
    No longer I tarry.
  724. memorial
    a recognition of meritorious service
    ’Twill shine by the shore of the flood,
    to folk of mine memorial fair
    on Hrones Headland high uplifted,
    that ocean-wanderers oft may hail
  725. writhe
    to move in a twisting or contorted motion, (especially when struggling)
    But the slayer too,
    awful earth-dragon, empty of breath,
    lay felled in fight, nor, fain of its treasure,
    could the writhing monster rule it more.
  726. perilous
    fraught with danger
    Forsooth among folk but few achieve,
    -- though sturdy and strong, as stories tell me,
    and never so daring in deed of valor, --
    the perilous breath of a poison-foe
    to brave, and to rush on the ring-board hall,
    whenever his watch the warden keeps
    bold in the barrow.
  727. laggard
    someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind
    Befell erelong
    that the laggards in war the wood had left,
    trothbreakers, cowards, ten together,
    fearing before to flourish a spear
    in the sore distress of their sovran lord.
  728. flourish
    grow vigorously
    Befell erelong
    that the laggards in war the wood had left,
    trothbreakers, cowards, ten together,
    fearing before to flourish a spear
    in the sore distress of their sovran lord.
  729. distress
    a state of adversity (danger or affliction or need)
    Befell erelong
    that the laggards in war the wood had left,
    trothbreakers, cowards, ten together,
    fearing before to flourish a spear
    in the sore distress of their sovran lord.
  730. barrier
    a structure or object that impedes free movement
    Though well he wished it, in world no more
    could he barrier life for that leader-of-battles
    nor baffle the will of all-wielding God.
  731. baffle
    be a mystery or bewildering to
    Though well he wished it, in world no more
    could he barrier life for that leader-of-battles
    nor baffle the will of all-wielding God.
  732. revenge
    action taken in return for an injury or offense
    God, gave him grace that he got revenge
    sole with his sword in stress and need.
  733. toil
    work hard
    THAT battle- toil bade he at burg to announce,
    at the fort on the cliff, where, full of sorrow,
    all the morning earls had sat,
    daring shieldsmen, in doubt of twain:
    would they wail as dead, or welcome home,
    their lord beloved?
  734. announce
    make known; make an announcement
    THAT battle-toil bade he at burg to announce,
    at the fort on the cliff, where, full of sorrow,
    all the morning earls had sat,
    daring shieldsmen, in doubt of twain:
    would they wail as dead, or welcome home,
    their lord beloved?
  735. awesome
    inspiring awe or admiration or wonder
    And beside him is stretched that slayer-of-men
    with knife-wounds sick: {38b} no sword availed
    on the awesome thing in any wise
    to work a wound.
  736. besiege
    surround so as to force to give up
    With his host he besieged there what swords had left,
    the weary and wounded; woes he threatened
    the whole night through to that hard-pressed throng:
    some with the morrow his sword should kill,
    some should go to the gallows-tree
    for rapture of ravens.
  737. tone
    (music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound)
    But rescue came
    with dawn of day for those desperate men
    when they heard the horn of Hygelac sound,
    tones of his trumpet; the trusty king
    had followed their trail with faithful band.
  738. citadel
    a stronghold into which people could go for shelter during a battle
    The ancient king with his atheling band
    sought his citadel, sorrowing much:
  739. peaceful
    not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war
    Yet after him came
    with slaughter for Swedes the standards of Hygelac
    o’er peaceful plains in pride advancing,
    till Hrethelings fought in the fenced town. {39a}
  740. advance
    move forward, also in the metaphorical sense
    Yet after him came
    with slaughter for Swedes the standards of Hygelac
    o’er peaceful plains in pride advancing,
    till Hrethelings fought in the fenced town. {39a}
  741. ire
    a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance
    In ire, at the king
  742. intent
    an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions
    No fear felt he,
    stout old Scylfing, but straightway repaid
    in better bargain that bitter stroke
    and faced his foe with fell intent.
  743. render
    give or supply
    Nor swift enough was the son of Wonred
    answer to render the aged chief;
    too soon on his head the helm was cloven;
    blood-bedecked he bowed to earth,
    and fell adown; not doomed was he yet,
    and well he waxed, though the wound was sore.
  744. bountiful
    producing in abundance
    -- Now haste is best,
    that we go to gaze on our Geatish lord,
    and bear the bountiful breaker-of-rings
    to the funeral pyre.
  745. funeral
    a ceremony at which a dead person is buried or cremated
    -- Now haste is best,
    that we go to gaze on our Geatish lord,
    and bear the bountiful breaker-of-rings
    to the funeral pyre.
  746. fragment
    a piece broken off or cut off of something else
    No fragments merely
    shall burn with the warrior.
  747. obtain
    come into possession of
    Wealth of jewels,
    gold untold and gained in terror,
    treasure at last with his life obtained,
    all of that booty the brands shall take,
    fire shall eat it.
  748. mirth
    great merriment
    No maiden fair
    shall wreathe her neck with noble ring:
    nay, sad in spirit and shorn of her gold,
    oft shall she pass o’er paths of exile
    now our lord all laughter has laid aside,
    all mirth and revel.
  749. lavish
    very generous
    Found on the sand there, stretched at rest,
    their lifeless lord, who had lavished rings
    of old upon them.
  750. scorch
    burn slightly and superficially so as to affect color
    The fiery dragon,
    fearful fiend, with flame was scorched.
  751. potent
    having or wielding force or authority
    For {40c} princes potent, who placed the gold,
    with a curse to doomsday covered it deep,
    so that marked with sin the man should be,
    hedged with horrors, in hell-bonds fast,
    racked with plagues, who should rob their hoard.
  752. hedge
    a fence formed by a row of closely planted shrubs or bushes
    For {40c} princes potent, who placed the gold,
    with a curse to doomsday covered it deep,
    so that marked with sin the man should be,
    hedged with horrors, in hell-bonds fast,
    racked with plagues, who should rob their hoard.
  753. pleasant
    affording pleasure; being in harmony with your taste or likings
    I was within there, and all I viewed,
    the chambered treasure, when chance allowed me
    (and my path was made in no pleasant wise)
    under the earth-wall.
  754. torch
    a light usually carried in the hand; consists of some flammable substance
    In hand one bore
    a lighted torch and led the way.
  755. pile
    a collection of objects laid on top of each other
    THEN fashioned for him the folk of Geats
    firm on the earth a funeral- pile,
    and hung it with helmets and harness of war
    and breastplates bright, as the boon he asked;
    and they laid amid it the mighty chieftain,
    heroes mourning their master dear.
  756. descry
    catch sight of
    The folk of the Weders fashioned there
    on the headland a barrow broad and high,
    by ocean-farers far descried:
    in ten days’ time their toil had raised it,
    the battle-brave’s beacon.
  757. lament
    a cry of sorrow and grief
    Then about that barrow the battle-keen rode,
    atheling-born, a band of twelve,
    lament to make, to mourn their king,
    chant their dirge, and their chieftain honor.