process

Some people love to have a process laid out for them, so they don't have to think about the steps they need to follow to get something done. Some people love to talk about process––forever planning out those steps without actually ever taking any.

You hear this word being used a lot to describe work. "I am in the process of drafting a memo, even if I kill myself with late nights in the process." The related word procession describes people or vehicles moving forward in an orderly way––a wedding opens with the bridal procession.

PRIMARY MEANINGS OF: process

1
nv
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
shape, form, or improve a material
2
nv
a writ issued by authority of law; usually compels the defendant's attendance in a civil suit; failure to appear results in a default judgment against the defendant
deliver a warrant or summons to someone
3
n
a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant
4
v
march in a procession
FULL DEFINITIONS OF: process
1

n a particular course of action intended to achieve a result

“it was a process of trial and error”
Synonyms:
procedure
Types:
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Bertillon system
a system or procedure for identifying persons
fingerprinting
the procedure of taking inked impressions of a person's fingerprints for the purpose of identification
genetic fingerprinting, genetic profiling
the procedure of analyzing the DNA in samples of a person's body tissue or body fluid for the purpose of identification
diagnostic procedure, diagnostic technique
a procedure followed in making a medical diagnosis
emergency procedure
(medicine) a procedure adopted to meet an emergency (especially a medical emergency)
experimental procedure
the specific techniques used in conducting a particular experiment
calculation, computation, computing
the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods
medical procedure
a procedure employed by medical or dental practitioners
chromosome mapping, mapping
(genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome
operating procedure
a procedure for operating something or for dealing with a given situation
stiffening
the act of becoming stiff
indirection
indirect procedure or action
rigamarole, rigmarole
a long and complicated and confusing procedure
modus operandi, routine
an unvarying or habitual method or procedure
condition, experimental condition
the procedure that is varied in order to estimate a variable's effect by comparison with a control condition
formula, rule
(mathematics) a standard procedure for solving a class of mathematical problems
prenatal diagnosis
any of the diagnostic procedures used to determine whether a fetus has a genetic abnormality
double-blind experiment, double-blind procedure, double-blind study
an experimental procedure in which neither the subjects of the experiment nor the persons administering the experiment know the critical aspects of the experiment
cardiac massage, heart massage
an emergency procedure that employs rhythmic compression of the heart (either through the chest wall or, during surgery, directly to the heart) in an attempt to maintain circulation during cardiac arrest
operation, surgery, surgical operation, surgical procedure, surgical process
a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body
artificial respiration
an emergency procedure whereby breathing is maintained artificially
cardiography, electrocardiography
diagnostic procedure consisting of recording the activity of the heart electronically with a cardiograph (and producing a cardiogram)
echocardiography
a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart
echoencephalography
a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study the anatomy of the brain
CPR, cardiac resuscitation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, kiss of life, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration; the first treatment for a person who has collapsed and has no pulse and has stopped breathing; attempts to restore circulation of the blood and prevent death or brain damage due to lack of oxygen
Heimlich maneuver, Heimlich manoeuvere
an emergency procedure to help someone who is choking because food is lodged in the trachea
transposition
(mathematics) the transfer of a quantity from one side of an equation to the other along with a change of sign
number crunching
performing complex and lengthy numerical calculations
mathematical operation, mathematical process, operation
(mathematics) calculation by mathematical methods
recalculation
the act of calculating again (usually to eliminate errors or to include additional data)
auscultation
listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
X-ray photography, roentgenography
radiography that uses X-rays to produce a roentgenogram
electromyography
diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders with the use of an electromyograph
mammography
a diagnostic procedure to detect breast tumors by the use of X rays
thermography
diagnostic technique using a thermograph to record the heat produced by different parts of the body; used to study blood flow and to detect tumors
dental procedure
a procedure employed by a dentist
SOP, standard operating procedure, standard procedure, standing operating procedure
a prescribed procedure to be followed routinely
rat race
an exhausting routine that leaves no time for relaxation
groove, rut
a settled and monotonous routine that is hard to escape
metarule
a rule that describes how other rules should be used (as in AI)
algorithm, algorithmic program, algorithmic rule
a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem
heuristic, heuristic program, heuristic rule
a commonsense rule (or set of rules) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem
recursion
(mathematics) an expression such that each term is generated by repeating a particular mathematical operation
Type of:
activity
any specific behavior

n a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states

“events now in process
“the process of calcification begins later for boys than for girls”
Synonyms:
physical process
Types:
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phenomenon
any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning
chelation
(medicine) the process of removing a heavy metal from the bloodstream by means of a chelate as in treating lead or mercury poisoning
dealignment
a process whereby voters are moved toward nonpartisanship thus weakening the structure of political parties
decrease, decrement
a process of becoming smaller or shorter
degeneration, devolution
the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality
development, evolution
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
economic process
any process affecting the production and development and management of material wealth
encapsulation
the process of enclosing (as in a capsule)
execution, instruction execution
(computer science) the process of carrying out an instruction by a computer
human process
a process in which human beings are involved
growth, increase, increment
a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important
industrial process
a systematic series of mechanical or chemical operations that produce or manufacture something
irreversible process
any process that is not reversible
iteration, looping
(computer science) executing the same set of instructions a given number of times or until a specified result is obtained
iteration, loop
(computer science) a single execution of a set of instructions that are to be repeated
action, activity, natural action, natural process
a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings)
functioning, operation, performance
process or manner of functioning or operating
biological process, organic process
a process occurring in living organisms
photography
the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces
processing
preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure
reversible process
any process in which a system can be made to pass through the same states in the reverse order when the process is reversed
sensitisation, sensitization
(psychology) the process of becoming highly sensitive to specific events or situations (especially emotional events or situations)
defining, shaping
any process serving to define the shape of something
variation
the process of varying or being varied
covariation
(statistics) correlated variation
radiation
the spread of a group of organisms into new habitats
natural phenomenon
all phenomena that are not artificial
levitation
the phenomenon of a person or thing rising into the air by apparently supernatural means
metempsychosis, rebirth
after death the soul begins a new cycle of existence in another human body
consequence, effect, event, issue, outcome, result, upshot
a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
chance, fortune, hazard, luck
an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another
fortune, luck
an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a favorable outcome
pulsation
a periodically recurring phenomenon that alternately increases and decreases some quantity
absorption
(physics) the process in which incident radiated energy is retained without reflection or transmission on passing through a medium
accession
a process of increasing by addition (as to a collection or group)
accretion, accumulation
an increase by natural growth or addition
accretion
(geology) an increase in land resulting from alluvial deposits or waterborne sediment
accretion
(biology) growth by addition as by the adhesion of parts or particles
accretion
(astronomy) the formation of a celestial object by the effect of gravity pulling together surrounding objects and gases
Acheson process
an industrial process for making graphite by heating a mixture of coke and clay
acidification
the process of becoming acid or being converted into an acid
adaptation, adaption, adjustment
the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
adiabatic process
(thermodynamics) any process that occurs without gain or loss of heat
aeration
the process of exposing to air (so as to purify)
agglutination
a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins)
ageing, aging, senescence
the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age
anaglyphy
the process of producing pictures in contrasting colors that appear three-dimensional when superimposed and viewed through spectacles with one red and one green lens
anovulation
the absence of ovulation due to immaturity or post-maturity or pregnancy or oral contraceptive pills or dysfunction of the ovary
antiredeposition
the process of preventing redeposition
antisepsis, asepsis
the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms
assibilation
the development of a consonant phoneme into a sibilant
absorption, assimilation
the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion
attack
the onset of a corrosive or destructive process (as by a chemical agent)
autotype, autotypy
process for producing permanent prints in a carbon pigment
autoregulation
(physiology) processes that maintain a generally constant physiological state in a cell or organism
bacteriostasis
inhibition of the growth of bacteria
batch processing
the serial execution of computer programs
Bessemer process
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities; the first successful method of making steel in quantity at low cost
bloom, blooming
the organic process of bearing flowers
blowing
processing that involves blowing a gas
activity, bodily function, bodily process, body process
an organic process that takes place in the body
capture
any process in which an atomic or nuclear system acquires an additional particle
capture
a process whereby a star or planet holds an object in its gravitational field
carbon cycle
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
catabolism, destructive metabolism, dissimilation, katabolism
breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
cell division, cellular division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
centrifugation
the process of separating substances of different densities by the use of a centrifuge
chemical action, chemical change, chemical process
(chemistry) any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved
chromatography
a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency
concretion
the formation of stonelike objects within a body organ (e.g., the kidneys)
condensation
the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
convection
(meteorology) the vertical movement of heat or other properties by massive motion within the atmosphere
crossing over, crossover
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
clotting, coagulation, curdling
the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
cyanide process
an industrial process for extracting gold and silver by treating ore with a sodium cyanide solution
data processing
(computer science) a series of operations on data by a computer in order to retrieve or transform or classify information
decay, decline
a gradual decrease; as of stored charge or current
decay
the process of gradually becoming inferior
decline, diminution
change toward something smaller or lower
deepening
a process of becoming deeper and more profound
deflation
a contraction of economic activity resulting in a decline of prices
defoliation
the loss of foliage
demagnetisation, demagnetization
the process of removing magnetization
demand
the ability and desire to purchase goods and services
deossification
the loss of the mineral content of bone tissue
desensitisation, desensitization
the process of reducing sensitivity
desorption
changing from an adsorbed state on a surface to a gaseous or liquid state
developing, development
processing a photosensitive material in order to make an image visible
diffusion
(physics) the process in which there is movement of a substance from an area of high concentration of that substance to an area of lower concentration
digestion
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
digital photography
a photographic method that stores the image digitally for later reproduction
disinflation
a reduction of prices intended to improve the balance of payments
disintegration, dissolution
separation into component parts
distillation, distillment
the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors
drift
the gradual departure from an intended course due to external influences (as a ship or plane)
dry plate, dry plate process
a former photographic method that used a glass plate coated with a light-sensitive gelatinous emulsion
eburnation
a change that occurs in degenerative joint disease in which bone is converted into a dense smooth substance resembling ivory
ecchymosis
the escape of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the surrounding tissue to form a purple or black-and-blue spot on the skin
economic growth
steady growth in the productive capacity of the economy (and so a growth of national income)
effacement
shortening of the uterine cervix and thinning of its walls as it is dilated during labor
effervescence
the process of bubbling as gas escapes
cataphoresis, dielectrolysis, electrophoresis, ionophoresis
the motion of charged particles in a colloid under the influence of an electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative to the anode
electrostatic precipitation
a process that removes suspended dust particles from a gas by applying a high voltage electrostatic charge to the particles and collecting them on charged plates
erythropoiesis
the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrow
ecesis, establishment
(ecology) the process by which a plant or animal becomes established in a new habitat
eutrophication
excessive nutrients in a lake or other body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (animal waste, fertilizers, sewage) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life; the decomposition of the plants depletes the supply of oxygen, leading to the death of animal life
evolution, organic evolution, phylogenesis, phylogeny
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
expression
(genetics) the process of expressing a gene
extinction
the reduction of the intensity of radiation as a consequence of absorption and radiation
extraction
the process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical or physical or mechanical means
extravasation
the process of exuding or passing out of a vessel into surrounding tissues; said of blood or lymph or urine
feedback
the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output
filtration
the process whereby fluids pass through a filter or a filtering medium
flocculation
the process of flocculating; forming woolly cloudlike aggregations
flow
any uninterrupted stream or discharge
formation
natural process that causes something to form
fossilisation, fossilization
the process of fossilizing a plant or animal that existed in some earlier age; the process of being turned to stone
fractional process, fractionation
a process that uses heat to separate a substance into its components
gastrulation
the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
geologic process, geological process
(geology) a natural process whereby geological features are modified
globalisation, globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
glycogenesis
the formation in animals of glycogen from glucose
development, growing, growth, maturation, ontogenesis, ontogeny
(biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level
growth
a progression from simpler to more complex forms
Haber process, Haber-Bosch process
an industrial process for producing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen by combining them under high pressure in the presence of an iron catalyst
curing, hardening, set, solidification, solidifying
the process of becoming hard or solid by cooling or drying or crystallization
haematogenesis, haematopoiesis, haemogenesis, haemopoiesis, hematogenesis, hematopoiesis, hemogenesis, hemopoiesis, sanguification
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
heredity
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
humification
the process of the formation of humus from plant remains
epistasis, hypostasis
the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene
implantation, nidation
(embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals
inactivation
the process of rendering inactive
inflation, rising prices
a general and progressive increase in prices
inhibition
(physiology) the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ or part
infolding, introversion, intussusception, invagination
the folding in of an outer layer so as to form a pocket in the surface
involution
reduction in size of an organ or part (as in the return of the uterus to normal size after childbirth)
ion exchange
a process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an insoluble (usually resinous) solid; widely used in industrial processing
ionisation, ionization
the process of ionizing; the formation of ions by separating atoms or molecules or radicals or by adding or subtracting electrons from atoms by strong electric fields in a gas
cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
karyokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the nucleus of a cell during mitosis or meiosis
keratinisation, keratinization
organic process by which keratin is deposited in cells and the cells become horny (as in nails and hair)
Krebs citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle
in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
leach, leaching
the process of leaching
linguistic process
a process involved in human language
lymphopoiesis
the formation of lymphocytes in the bone marrow and lymph nodes and thymus and spleen
lysogenisation, lysogenization
the process by which a bacterium acquires a phage that becomes integrated into its genome
magnetic induction, magnetisation, magnetization
the process that makes a substance magnetic (temporarily or permanently)
market forces
the interaction of supply and demand that shapes a market economy
materialisation, materialization
the process of coming into being; becoming reality
maturation, maturement, ripening
coming to full development; becoming mature
metabolic process, metabolism
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
metabolism, metamorphosis
the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
multiplication
a multiplicative increase
concurrent execution, multiprogramming
the execution of two or more computer programs by a single computer
narrowing
a decrease in width
nitrogen cycle
the circulation of nitrogen; nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants which are eaten by animals that die and decay returning the nitrogen back to the soil
nitrogen fixation
the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria
nondevelopment
failure of normal development to occur
nuclear reaction
(physics) a process that alters the energy or structure or composition of atomic nuclei
nutrition
(physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance
obsolescence
the process of becoming obsolete; falling into disuse or becoming out of date
opacification
the process of becoming cloudy or opaque
organification
the process of organ formation
oscillation
the process of oscillating between states
ossification
the developmental process of bone formation
ossification
the process of becoming rigidly fixed in a conventional pattern of thought or behavior
ovulation
the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
oxidative phosphorylation
an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP
oxygenation
the process of providing or combining or treating with oxygen
pair creation, pair formation, pair production
the transformation of a gamma-ray photon into an electron and a positron when the photon passes close to an atomic nucleus
birth, birthing, giving birth, parturition
the process of giving birth
pathologic process, pathological process
an organic process occurring as a consequence of disease
perennation
the process of living through a number of years (as a perennial plant)
phase change, phase transition, physical change, state change
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
photomechanics, photoplate making
the process whereby printing surfaces (plates or cylinders) are produced by photographic methods
population growth
increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state
powder method, powder photography, powder technique
a process for identifying minerals or crystals; a small rod is coated with a powdered form of the substance and subjected to suitably modified X-rays; the pattern of diffracted rings is used for identification
precession of the equinoxes
a slow westward shift of the equinoxes along the plane of the ecliptic caused by precession of the Earth's axis of rotation
preservation
a process that saves organic substances from decay
proliferation
a rapid increase in number (especially a rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons)
psychoanalytic process
a process that is assumed to occur in psychoanalytic theory
pullulation
a rapid and abundant increase
quellung, quellung reaction
the swelling of the capsule surrounding a microorganism after reaction with an antibody; the basis of certain tests for identifying microorganisms
quickening
the process of showing signs of life
radiography, skiagraphy
the process of making a radiograph; producing an image on a radiosensitive surface by radiation other than visible light
purification, refinement, refining
the process of removing impurities (as from oil or metals or sugar etc.)
regeneration
(biology) growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs
regulation
(embryology) the ability of an early embryo to continue normal development after its structure has been somehow damaged or altered
relaxation
(physiology) the gradual lengthening of inactive muscle or muscle fibers
release
a process that liberates or discharges something
replication
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
reproduction
the process of generating offspring
reabsorption, resorption
the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
ageing, aging, ripening
acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
saltation
(geology) the leaping movement of sand or soil particles as they are transported in a fluid medium over an uneven surface
scanning
the process of translating photographs into a digital form that can be recognized by a computer
scattering
the physical process in which particles are deflected haphazardly as a result of collisions
secernment, secretion
the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance
segregation
(genetics) the separation of paired alleles during meiosis so that members of each pair of alleles appear in different gametes
sericulture
raising silkworms in order to obtain raw silk
shedding, sloughing
the process whereby something is shed
sink
(technology) a process that acts to absorb or remove energy or a substance from a system
slippage
a decrease of transmitted power in a mechanical system caused by slipping
soak, soakage, soaking
the process of becoming softened and saturated as a consequence of being immersed in water (or other liquid)
social process
a process involved in the formation of groups of persons
softening
the process of becoming softer
Solvay process
an industrial process for producing sodium carbonate from sodium chloride and ammonia and carbon dioxide
sorption
the process in which one substance takes up or holds another (by either absorption or adsorption)
source
(technology) a process by which energy or a substance enters a system
spiral
a continuously accelerating change in the economy
rigidification, rigidifying, stiffening
the process of becoming stiff or rigid
stimulation
(physiology) the effect of a stimulus (on nerves or organs etc.)
ecological succession, succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
summation
(physiology) the process whereby multiple stimuli can produce a response (in a muscle or nerve or other part) that one stimulus alone does not produce
supply
offering goods and services for sale
natural selection, selection, survival, survival of the fittest
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
symphysis
a growing together of parts or structures
synapsis
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis
synergism, synergy
the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects
synezesis, synizesis
the contraction of chromatin towards one side of the nucleus during the prophase of meiosis
temperature change
a process whereby the degree of hotness of a body (or medium) changes
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA; the process whereby a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized on a template of complementary DNA
transduction
the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form
transduction
(genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
folding, protein folding
the process whereby a protein molecule assumes its intricate three-dimensional shape
translocation
(genetics) an exchange of chromosome parts
translocation
the transport of dissolved material within a plant
transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
transpiration
the passage of gases through fine tubes because of differences in pressure or temperature
tumefaction
the process of tumefying; the organic process whereby tissue becomes swollen by the accumulation of fluid within it
ulceration
the process of ulcer formation; the process of becoming ulcerated
flowering, unfolding
a developmental process
uptake
a process of taking up or using up or consuming
vascularisation, vascularization
the organic process whereby body tissue becomes vascular and develops capillaries
blistering, vesication, vesiculation
the formation of vesicles in or beneath the skin
video digitizing
the process of capturing and converting and storing video images for use by a computer
vitrification
the process of becoming vitreous
vulcanisation, vulcanization
process of treating rubber or rubberlike materials with sulphur at great heat to improve elasticity and strength or to harden them
wastage
the process of wasting
broadening, widening
an increase in width
macular degeneration
eye disease caused by degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea and results in blurred vision; can cause blindness
Type of:
physical entity
an entity that has physical existence

n (psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents

“the process of thinking”
Synonyms:
cognitive operation, cognitive process, mental process, operation
Types:
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basic cognitive process
cognitive processes involved in obtaining and storing knowledge
higher cognitive process
cognitive processes that presuppose the availability of knowledge and put it to use
attending, attention
the process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others
inattention
lack of attention
intuition
instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)
perception
the process of perceiving
apperception
the process whereby perceived qualities of an object are related to past experience
believing
the cognitive process that leads to convictions
categorisation, categorization, classification, sorting
the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories
discrimination, secernment
the cognitive process whereby two or more stimuli are distinguished
acquisition, learning
the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge
memory, remembering
the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered
representational process
any basic cognitive process in which some entity comes to stand for or represent something else
search
the examination of alternative hypotheses
cerebration, intellection, mentation, thinking, thought, thought process
the process of using your mind to consider something carefully
suggestion
the sequential mental process in which one thought leads to another by association
deciding, decision making
the cognitive process of reaching a decision
knowing
a clear and certain mental apprehension
language, linguistic process
the cognitive processes involved in producing and understanding linguistic communication
Type of:
cognition, knowledge, noesis
the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning

n a mental process that you are not directly aware of

“the process of denial”
Synonyms:
unconscious process
Types:
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sleep talking, somniloquism, somniloquy
uttering speech while asleep
condensation
(psychoanalysis) an unconscious process whereby two ideas or images combine into a single symbol; especially in dreams
defence, defence mechanism, defence reaction, defense, defense mechanism, defense reaction
(psychiatry) an unconscious process that tries to reduce the anxiety associated with instinctive desires
compensation
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism that conceals your undesirable shortcomings by exaggerating desirable behaviors
conversion
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism represses emotional conflicts which are then converted into physical symptoms that have no organic basis
denial
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism that denies painful thoughts
displacement
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism that transfers affect or reaction from the original object to some more acceptable one
idealisation, idealization
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism that splits something you are ambivalent about into two representations--one good and one bad
intellectualisation, intellectualization
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism that uses reasoning to block out emotional stress and conflict
isolation
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which memory of an unacceptable act or impulse is separated from the emotion originally associated with it
projection
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism by which your own traits and emotions are attributed to someone else
rationalisation, rationalization
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism by which your true motivation is concealed by explaining your actions and feelings in a way that is not threatening
reaction formation
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which a person unconsciously develops attitudes and behavior that are the opposite of unacceptable repressed desires and impulses and serve to conceal them
regression
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which you flee from reality by assuming a more infantile state
repression
(psychiatry) the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
Type of:
cognition, knowledge, noesis
the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning

v shape, form, or improve a material

process iron”
Synonyms:
work, work on
forge, form, mold, mould, shape, work
make something, usually for a specific function
Types:
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hot-work
roll, press, forge, or shape (metal) while hot
cold work, coldwork
shape (metal) without heat
overwork
use too much
make over, retread, rework
use again in altered form
rack
work on a rack
tool
work with a tool
till
work land as by ploughing, harrowing, and manuring, in order to make it ready for cultivation
plough, plow, turn
to break and turn over earth especially with a plow
hoe
dig with a hoe
Type of:
transform, transmute, transubstantiate
change or alter in form, appearance, or nature

v subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition

process cheese”
process hair”
Synonyms:
treat
Types:
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propagate
cause to propagate, as by grafting or layering
iodise, iodize
treat with iodine
nitrate
treat with nitric acid, so as to change an organic compound into a nitrate
tank
treat in a tank
aerate, oxygenate, oxygenise, oxygenize
impregnate, combine, or supply with oxygen
mercerise, mercerize
treat to strengthen and improve the luster
malt
treat with malt or malt extract
fluoridate, fluoridise, fluoridize
subject to fluoridation; treat with fluoride
creosote
treat with creosote
chlorinate
treat or combine with chlorine
carbonate
treat with carbon dioxide
camphorate
treat with camphor
bromate, brominate
treat with bromine
ammoniate
treat with ammonia
irradiate, ray
expose to radiation
scald
treat with boiling water
refine
treat or prepare so as to put in a usable condition
nitrify, nitrogenise, nitrogenize
treat with nitrogen or a nitrogen compound
reverberate
treat, process, heat, melt, or refine in a reverberatory furnace
curry
treat by incorporating fat
seed
sprinkle with silver iodide particles to disperse and cause rain
dose
treat with an agent; add (an agent) to
sulfur, sulphur
treat with sulphur in order to preserve
vulcanise, vulcanize
subject to vulcanization
chrome
treat with a chromium compound
bituminise, bituminize
treat with bitumen
Agenise, Agenize
age or bleach flour with Agene (nitrogen trichloride)
run
cause to perform
carboxylate
treat (a chemical compound) with carboxyl or carboxylic acid
beneficiate
process (ores or other raw materials), as by reduction
digest
convert food into absorbable substances
fume, fumigate
treat with fumes, expose to fumes, especially with the aim of disinfecting or eradicating pests
air-condition
control the humidity and temperature of
inoculate
insert a bud for propagation
bombard
direct high energy particles or radiation against
rerun
cause to perform again
stomach
bear to eat
predigest
digest (food) beforehand
Type of:
affect, bear on, bear upon, impact, touch, touch on
have an effect upon

v deal with in a routine way

process a loan”
process the applicants”
Type of:
care, deal, handle, manage
be in charge of, act on, or dispose of

v perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information

“The results of the elections were still being processed when he gave his acceptance speech”
Type of:
calculate, cipher, compute, cypher, figure, reckon, work out
make a mathematical calculation or computation
2

n a writ issued by authority of law; usually compels the defendant's attendance in a civil suit; failure to appear results in a default judgment against the defendant

Synonyms:
summons
Types:
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citation
a summons that commands the appearance of a party at a proceeding
monition, process of monition
a summons issued after the filing of a libel or claim directing all parties concerned to show cause why the judgment asked for should not be granted
ticket
a summons issued to an offender (especially to someone who violates a traffic regulation)
speeding ticket
a ticket issued for driving above the speed limit
parking ticket
a ticket issued for parking in a restricted place
Type of:
judicial writ, writ
(law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer

v deliver a warrant or summons to someone

“He was processed by the sheriff”
Synonyms:
serve, swear out
Types:
subpoena
serve or summon with a subpoena
rinse, wash
clean with some chemical process
elute
wash out with a solvent, as in chromatography
Type of:
deliver
bring to a destination, make a delivery

v institute legal proceedings against; file a suit against

“He was warned that the district attorney would process him”
Synonyms:
action, litigate, sue
litigate
engage in legal proceedings
Types:
expedite
process fast and efficiently
Type of:
challenge
issue a challenge to
3

n a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant

“a bony process
Synonyms:
appendage, outgrowth
Types:
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horn
one of the bony outgrowths on the heads of certain ungulates
horn
any hard protuberance from the head of an organism that is similar to or suggestive of a horn
crest
a showy growth of e.g. feathers or skin on the head of a bird or other animal
pseudopod, pseudopodium
temporary outgrowth used by some microorganisms as an organ of feeding or locomotion
flagellum
a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa)
hair
a filamentous projection or process on an organism
cirrus
a slender flexible animal appendage as on barnacles or crinoids or many insects; often tactile
spine
a sharp rigid animal process or appendage; as a porcupine quill or a ridge on a bone or a ray of a fish fin
aculea
small spiny outgrowth on the wings of certain insects
style
a slender bristlelike or tubular process
villus
a minute hairlike projection on mucous membrane
tail
the posterior part of the body of a vertebrate especially when elongated and extending beyond the trunk or main part of the body
fetlock
projection behind and above a horse's hoof
tentacle
any of various elongated tactile or prehensile flexible organs that occur on the head or near the mouth in many animals; used for feeling or grasping or locomotion
arista
bristlelike process near the tip of the antenna of certain flies
acromial process, acromion
the outermost point of the spine of the shoulder blade
ala
a flat wing-shaped process or winglike part of an organism
alveolar arch
the part of the upper or lower jawbones in which the teeth are set
alveolar process, alveolar ridge, gum ridge
a ridge that forms the borders of the upper and lower jaws and contains the sockets of the teeth
acrosome
a process at the anterior end of a sperm cell that produces enzymes to facilitate penetration of the egg
caruncle, caruncula
an outgrowth on a plant or animal such as a fowl's wattle or a protuberance near the hilum of certain seeds
condyle
a round bump on a bone where it forms a joint with another bone
coronoid process, processus coronoideus
a sharp triangular process projecting from a bone
epicondyle
a projection on a bone above a condyle serving for the attachment of muscles and ligaments
fimbria
thin projections forming a fringe (especially around the ovarian end of the Fallopian tube)
apophysis
(anatomy) a natural outgrowth or projection on an organ or body part such as the process of a vertebra
spicule, spiculum
small pointed structure serving as a skeletal element in various marine and freshwater invertebrates e.g. sponges and corals
osteophyte
small abnormal bony outgrowth
papilla
a small projection of tissue at the base of a hair or tooth or feather
papilla
a small nipple-shaped protuberance concerned with taste, touch, or smell
appendix, cecal appendage, vermiform appendix, vermiform process
a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
mastoid, mastoid bone, mastoid process, mastoidal
process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
styloid process
extends from the base of the temporal bone
pterygoid process
two bony processes descending from the body of the sphenoid bone
eminence, tubercle, tuberosity
a protuberance on a bone especially for attachment of a muscle or ligament
zygomatic process
a slender process of the temporal bone that strengthens the zygomatic arch
trochanter
one of the bony prominences developed near the upper extremity of the femur to which muscles are attached
transverse process
one of two processes that extend from each vertebra and provide the point of articulation for the ribs
odontoid process
a toothlike process at the back of 2nd vertebra of the neck
metaphysis
the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
olecranon, olecranon process
process of the ulna that forms the outer bump of the elbow and fits into the fossa of the humerus when the arm is extended
ridge
any long raised border or margin of a bone or tooth or membrane
excrescence
(pathology) an abnormal outgrowth or enlargement of some part of the body
papilla
(botany) a tiny outgrowth on the surface of a petal or leaf
enation, plant process
a natural projection or outgrowth from a plant body or organ
antler
deciduous horn of a member of the deer family
tuft
a bunch of feathers or hair
topknot
showy crest or knot of hair or feathers
chorionic villus
one of the tiny villi that stick out of the fetal chorion and combine with the mother's uterine tissue to form the placenta
rattle
loosely connected horny sections at the end of a rattlesnake's tail
cockscomb, comb, coxcomb
the fleshy red crest on the head of the domestic fowl and other gallinaceous birds
ray
any of the stiff bony spines in the fin of a fish
quill
a stiff hollow protective spine on a porcupine or hedgehog
stylet
small needlelike appendage; especially the feeding organ of a tardigrade
bristle
a stiff hair
sensory hair, vibrissa, whisker
a long stiff hair growing from the snout or brow of most mammals as e.g. a cat
seta
a stiff hair or bristle
pilus
hairlike structure especially on the surface of a cell or microorganism
brush
a bushy tail or part of a bushy tail (especially of the fox)
bob, bobtail, dock
a short or shortened tail of certain animals
caudal appendage
tail especially of a mammal posterior to and above the anus
uropygium
posterior part of a bird's body from which the tail feathers grow
oxtail
the skinned tail of cattle; used especially for soups
fluke
either of the two lobes of the tail of a cetacean
scut
a short erect tail
flag
a conspicuously marked or shaped tail
antenna, feeler
one of a pair of mobile appendages on the head of e.g. insects and crustaceans; typically sensitive to touch and taste
barbel, feeler
slender tactile process on the jaws of a fish
deltoid eminence, deltoid tuberosity
a bump on the outside of the humerus where the deltoid muscle attaches
lappet, wattle
a fleshy wrinkled and often brightly colored fold of skin hanging from the neck or throat of certain birds (chickens and turkeys) or lizards
condylar process, condyloid process, mandibular condyle
the condyle of the ramus of the mandible that articulates with the skull
coronoid process of the mandible
the coronoid process that provides an attachment for the temporal muscle
lateral condyle
a condyle on the outer side of the lower extremity of the femur
medial condyle
a condyle on the inner side of the lower extremity of the femur
lateral epicondyle
epicondyle near the lateral condyle of the femur
superciliary arch, superciliary ridge, supraorbital ridge, supraorbital torus
a ridge on the frontal bone above the eye socket
vegetation
an abnormal growth or excrescence (especially a warty excrescence on the valves of the heart)
podetium
an organ or body resembling a stalk; especially the outgrowth of the thallus of certain lichens on which the ascocarp is borne
peristome
(botany) fringe of toothlike appendages surrounding the mouth of a moss capsule
haustorium
a root-like attachment in parasitic plants that penetrates and obtains food from the host
apophysis
(botany) a natural swelling or enlargement: at the base of the stalk or seta in certain mosses or on the cone scale of certain conifers
callus
(botany) an isolated thickening of tissue, especially a stiff protuberance on the lip of an orchid
blister
(botany) a swelling on a plant similar to that on the skin
nodule, tubercle
small rounded wartlike protuberance on a plant
spur
tubular extension at the base of the corolla in some flowers
aculeus
a stiff sharp-pointed plant process
acumen
a tapering point
fuzz, hair, tomentum
filamentous hairlike growth on a plant
leaf node, node
(botany) the small swelling that is the part of a plant stem from which one or more leaves emerge
burl
a large rounded outgrowth on the trunk or branch of a tree
Type of:
body part
any part of an organism such as an organ or extremity
4

v march in a procession

“They processed into the dining room”
Synonyms:
march
Types:
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file
proceed in line
parade, promenade, troop
march in a procession
goose step
march in a military fashion
countermarch
march back along the same way
debouch, march out
march out (as from a defile) into open ground
Type of:
walk
use one's feet to advance; advance by steps

WORD FORMS

nvnvn
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
shape, form, or improve a material
a writ issued by authority of law
deliver a warrant or summons to someone
a natural prolongation from a part of an organism
1 process
v
march in a procession
2 process
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