organic compound

DEFINITIONS OF: organic compound

1

n any compound of carbon and another element or a radical

Types:
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aldehyde
any of a class of highly reactive chemical compounds; used in making resins and dyes and organic acids
aliphatic compound
organic compound that is an alkane or alkene or alkyne or their derivative
alkylbenzene
organic compound that has an alkyl group bound to a benzene ring
alkyl halide, haloalkane
organic compound in which halogen atoms have been substituted for hydrogen atoms in an alkane
amino acid, aminoalkanoic acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
diamine
any organic compound containing two amino groups
enol
an organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group bonded to a carbon atom which in turn is doubly bonded to another carbon atom
halon
a compound in which the hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon have been replaced by bromine and other halogen atoms; very stable; used in fire extinguishers although it is thought to release bromine that depletes the ozone layer
peptone
any of various water-soluble compounds that form by hydrolysis in the digestion of proteins to amino acids
quaternary ammonium compound
a compound derived from ammonium with hydrogen atoms replaced by organic groups; used as surface-active agents, disinfectants, and in drugs
proenzyme, zymogen
any of a group of compounds that are inactive precursors of enzymes and require some change (such as the hydrolysis of a fragment that masks an active enzyme) to become active
propylthiouracil
a crystalline compound used as an antithyroid drug in the treatment of goiter
ether
any of a class of organic compounds that have two hydrocarbon groups linked by an oxygen atom
acetal
any organic compound formed by adding alcohol molecules to aldehyde molecules
aldehyde-alcohol, aldol
an oily colorless liquid obtained by the condensation of two molecules of acetaldehyde; contains an alcohol group (-OH) and an aldehyde group (-CHO)
alkaloid
natural bases containing nitrogen found in plants
amide
any organic compound containing the group -CONH2
rennet
a substance that curdles milk in making cheese and junket
azadirachtin
insecticide
thiazine
a compound made up of a ring of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom and one nitrogen atom
cacodyl, tetramethyldiarsine
a poisonous oily liquid with a garlicky odor composed of 2 cacodyl groups; undergoes spontaneous combustion in dry air
neurochemical
any organic substance that occurs in neural activity
acid anhydrides, acyl anhydrides
organic compounds that react with water to form an acid
acid halide, acyl halide
organic compounds containing the group -COX where X is a halogen atom
coal-tar creosote, creosote
a dark oily liquid obtained by distillation of coal tar; used as a preservative for wood
creosote
a colorless or yellowish oily liquid obtained by distillation of wood tar; used as an antiseptic
cyanide, nitril, nitrile
any of a class of organic compounds containing the cyano radical -CN
cyanohydrin
any organic compound in which the cyano radical -CN and the hydroxyl radical -OH are attached to the same carbon atom
ester
formed by reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water
furan, furane, furfuran
a colorless toxic flammable liquid used in the synthesis of nylon
glycoside
a group of compounds derived from monosaccharides
resin, rosin
any of a class of solid or semisolid viscous substances obtained either as exudations from certain plants or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules
halocarbon
one of various compounds of carbon and any of the halogens
hemiacetal
an organic compound usually formed as an intermediate product in the preparation of acetals from aldehydes or ketones
erythrocytolysin, erythrolysin, haemolysin, hemolysin
any substance that can cause lysis (destruction) of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the release of their hemoglobin
humic substance
an organic residue of decaying organic matter
hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
ketone
any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals
macromolecule, supermolecule
any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals
nitrobenzene
a poisonous oily water-soluble liquid used as a solvent and in the manufacture of aniline
oxime
any compound containing the group -C=NOH
petrochemical
any compound obtained from petroleum or natural gas
creatine phosphate, creatine phosphoric acid, phosphocreatine
an organic compound of creatine and phosphoric acid; found in the muscles of vertebrates where its hydrolysis releases energy for muscular contraction
phenol
any of a class of weakly acidic organic compounds; molecule contains one or more hydroxyl groups
pyrimidine
a heterocyclic organic compound with a penetrating odor
quassia
a bitter compound used as an insecticide and tonic and vermifuge; extracted from the wood and bark of trees of the genera Quassia and Picrasma
steroid
any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects
nonsteroid, nonsteroidal
an organic compound that does no contain a steroid
thiouracil
depresses the function of the thyroid gland
carbamide, urea
the chief solid component of mammalian urine; synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide and used as fertilizer and in animal feed and in plastics
imide
any of a class of organic compounds that contain the divalent radical -CONHCO-
xanthine
crystalline oxidation product of the metabolism of nucleoproteins; precursor of uric acid; found in many organs and in urine
atropine
a poisonous crystalline alkaloid extracted from the nightshade family; used as an antispasmodic and to dilate the eye pupil; also administered in large amounts as an antidote for organophosphate nerve agents or organophosphate insecticides
DES, diethylstilbesterol, stilbesterol
synthetic nonsteroid with the properties of estrogen; formerly used to treat menstrual problems but was found to be associated with vaginal cancers in the daughters of women so treated during pregnancy
hyoscyamine
a poisonous crystalline alkaloid (isometric with atropine but more potent); used to treat excess motility of the gastrointestinal tract
pilocarpine
cholinergic alkaloid used in eyedrops to treat glaucoma
hyoscine, scopolamine
an alkaloid with anticholinergic effects that is used as a sedative and to treat nausea and to dilate the pupils in ophthalmic procedures
physostigmine
used in treatment of Alzheimer's disease and glaucoma
East India kino, Malabar kino, kino gum
reddish or black juice or resin from certain trees of the genus Pterocarpus and used in medicine and tanning etc
Jamaica quassia
similar to the extract from Quassia amara
acetone, dimethyl ketone, propanone
the simplest ketone; a highly inflammable liquid widely used as an organic solvent and as material for making plastics
acetylene, alkyne, ethyne
a colorless flammable gas used chiefly in welding and in organic synthesis
alicyclic compound
an aliphatic compound that contains a ring of atoms
alanine
a crystalline amino acid that occurs in many proteins
asparagine
a crystalline amino acid found in proteins and in many plants (e.g., asparagus)
aspartic acid
a crystalline amino acid found in proteins and occurring naturally in sugar beets and sugar cane
canavanine
an amino acid found in the jack bean
chlorobenzene
a colorless volatile flammable liquid with an almond odor that is made from chlorine and benzene; used as a solvent and in the production of phenol and DDT and other organic compounds
citrate
a salt or ester of citric acid
citrulline
an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is an intermediate in the conversion of ornithine to arginine
cysteine
an amino acid containing sulfur that is found in most proteins; oxidizes on exposure to air to form cystine
cystine
a crystalline amino acid found in proteins (especially keratin); discovered in bladder stones
dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopa
amino acid that is formed in the liver and converted into dopamine in the brain
essential amino acid
an amino acid that is required by animals but that they cannot synthesize; must be supplied in the diet
GABA, gamma aminobutyric acid
an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
glutamic acid, glutaminic acid
an amino acid occurring in proteins; important in the nitrogen metabolism of plants; used in monosodium glutamate to enhance the flavor of meats
glutamine
a crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins; important in protein metabolism
glycine
the simplest amino acid found in proteins and the principal amino acid in sugar cane
hydroxyproline
a crystalline amino acid obtained from gelatin or collagen
iodoamino acid
an amino acid with iodine added
ornithine
an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea
aromatic compound
a hydrocarbon containing one or more benzene rings that are characteristic of the benzene series of compounds
pyrogallic acid, pyrogallol
a toxic white lustrous crystalline phenol used to treat certain skin diseases and as a photographic developer
haloform
compounds with the formula CHX3, where X is a halogen atom
lactate
a salt or ester of lactic acid
proline
an amino acid that is found in many proteins (especially collagen)
gasohol
a gasoline substitute consisting of 90% gasoline and 10% grain alcohol from corn
gas, gasolene, gasoline, petrol
a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines
coal oil, kerosene, kerosine, lamp oil
a flammable hydrocarbon oil used as fuel in lamps and heaters
ethanal trimer, paraldehyde
a colorless liquid (a cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde) that is used as a sedative and a solvent
acetaldol
unsaturated aldol
acetaldehyde, ethanal
a colorless volatile water-soluble liquid aldehyde used chiefly in the manufacture of acetic acid and perfumes and drugs
acetamide, ethanamide
a colorless solid amide of acetic acid used as a solvent and in the synthesis of organic compounds
acrylamide
a white crystalline amide of propenoic acid can damage the nervous system and is carcinogenic in laboratory animals
alkene, olefin, olefine
any unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
cinchonine
an alkaloid derivative of the bark of cinchona trees that is used as an antimalarial drug
ephedrine
white odorless powdered or crystalline alkaloid from plants of the genus Ephedra (especially Ephedra sinica) or made synthetically; used as a bronchodilator to treat bronchitis and asthma
Ergotrate Maleate, ergonovine
an alkaloid derived from ergot (trade name Ergotrate Maleate) that is less toxic than ergot; induces muscular contraction of the uterus and is administered after childbirth or abortion
ergotamine
an alkaloid derived from ergot that is less toxic than ergot; causes constriction of blood vessels and is used to treat migraine
pseudoephedrine
poisonous crystalline alkaloid occurring with ephedrine and isomorphic with it
nicotine
an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide
strychnine
an alkaloid plant toxin extracted chiefly from nux vomica; formerly used as a stimulant
brucine
a bitter alkaloid poison resembling strychnine and extracted from nux vomica
betaine
a sweet tasting alkaloid that occurs in sugar beets
protein
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
peptide
amide combining the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another; usually obtained by partial hydrolysis of protein
caffein, caffeine
a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
aromatic hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings that are characteristic of the benzene series of organic compounds
methylene blue, methylthionine chloride
a dark green dye used as a stain, an antiseptic, a chemical indicator, and an antidote in cyanide poisoning
phenothiazine, thiodiphenylamine
a compound used primarily in veterinary medicine to rid farm animals of internal parasites
banana oil
a liquid ester derived from amyl alcohol; has the odor of bananas
butanone, methyl ethyl ketone
colorless soluble flammable liquid ketone used as a solvent for resins and as a paint remover and in lacquers and cements and adhesives and cleaning fluids and celluloid
carbohydrate, saccharide, sugar
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
cellulose ester
any ester of cellulose with an acid
neurotransmitter
a neurochemical that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
acetyl chloride, ethanoyl chloride
colorless liquid acyl chloride (CH3COCl) that has a pungent odor
endorphin
a neurochemical occurring naturally in the brain and having analgesic properties
indene
a colorless liquid hydrocarbon extracted from petroleum or coal tar and used in making synthetic resins
creatin, creatine
an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine; supplies energy for muscle contraction
creosol
a colorless to yellow aromatic liquid that is a constituent of creosote
cresol, methyl phenol
any of three poisonous colorless isomeric phenols; derived from coal or wood tar; used as a disinfectant
cyclohexanol phthalate
the cyclohexanol ester of phthalic acid
cymene
any of three isotopes of a colorless aromatic liquid hydrocarbon occurring in the volatile oil of cumin and thyme and used in the manufacture of synthetic resins
dioxin
any of several toxic or carcinogenic hydrocarbons that occur as impurities in herbicides
C2H6, ethane
a colorless odorless alkane gas used as fuel
ethyl acetate
a fragrant colorless flammable volatile liquid ester made from ethanol and acetic acid; used in flavorings and perfumes and as a solvent for plastics
propanamide, proprionamide
the amide of propionic acid (C2H5CONH2)
flavin
a ketone that forms the nucleus of certain natural yellow pigments like riboflavin
fluorocarbon
a halocarbon in which some hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine; used in refrigerators and aerosols
formaldehyde, methanal
a colorless poisonous gas; made by the oxidation of methanol
fulvic acid
a yellow to yellow-brown humic substance that is soluble in water under all pH conditions
furfural, furfuraldehyde
a liquid aldehyde with a penetrating odor; made from plant hulls and corncobs; used in making furan and as a solvent
bottled gas, liquefied petroleum gas
hydrocarbon gases, usually propane or butane, kept under pressure
glyceraldehyde, glyceric aldehyde
a sweet crystalline aldehyde formed by the breakdown of sugars
glyceryl ester
an ester of glycerol
glucoside
a glycoside derived from glucose
natural resin
a plant exudate
synthetic resin
a resin having a polymeric structure; especially a resin in the raw state; used chiefly in plastics
humic acid
a dark brown humic substance that is soluble in water only at pH values greater than 2
humin
a black humic substance that is not soluble in water
bitumen
any of various naturally occurring impure mixtures of hydrocarbons
butadiene
a gaseous hydrocarbon C4H6; used in making synthetic rubbers
acetone body, ketone body
a ketone that is an intermediate product of the breakdown of fats in the body; any of three compounds (acetoacetic acid, acetone, and/or beta-hydroxybutyric acid) found in excess in blood and urine of persons with metabolic disorders
lipid, lipide, lipoid
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
maleate
a salt or ester of maleic acid; used as a nontricyclic antidepressant drug for psychomotor activation
alkane, alkane series, methane series, paraffin, paraffin series
a series of non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH(2n+2)
naphtha
any of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures; used chiefly as solvents
naphthalene
a white crystalline strong-smelling hydrocarbon made from coal tar or petroleum and used in organic synthesis and as a fumigant in mothballs
naphthol
either of two phenols derived from naphthalene
pyrene
a pale yellow crystalline hydrocarbon C16H10 extracted from coal tar
nitrofuran
derivative of furan used to inhibit bacterial growth
nucleic acid
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
nucleoside
a glycoside formed by partial hydrolysis of a nucleic acid
base, nucleotide
a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside; the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
octane
any isomeric saturated hydrocarbon found in petroleum and used as a fuel and solvent
gas oil
an oil formed through distillation of petroleum of intermediate boiling range and viscosity
polyester
a complex ester used for making fibers or resins or plastics or as a plasticizer
propanal, propionaldehyde
a colorless liquid aldehyde
acrolein, propenal
a pungent colorless unsaturated liquid aldehyde made from propene
acrylonitrile, propenonitrile, vinyl cyanide
a colorless liquid unsaturated nitrile made from propene
rauwolfia
any of several alkaloids extracted from the shrub Rauwolfia serpentina
resorcinol
a crystalline phenol obtained from various resins; used in ointments for acne and in dandruff shampoos
sarcosine
a sweetish crystalline amino acid
serine
a sweetish crystalline amino acid involved in the synthesis by the body of cysteine
ketosteroid
a steroid containing a ketone group
steroid alcohol, sterol
any of a group of natural steroid alcohols derived from plants or animals; they are waxy insoluble substances
bile acid
any of the steroid acids generated in the liver and stored with bile
cardiac glucoside, cardiac glycoside
obtained from a number of plants and used to stimulate the heart in cases of heart failure
streptolysin
any of several hemolysins derived from strains of streptococcus
strophanthin
a bitter and very toxic glycoside derived from plants of the genus Strophanthus; in moderate doses it is a cardiac stimulant but in larger doses it is a powerful poison; used in Africa as an arrow poison
tannic acid, tannin
any of various complex phenolic substances of plant origin; used in tanning and in medicine
terpene
an unsaturated hydrocarbon obtained from plants
thyme camphor, thymic acid, thymol
a colorless crystalline solid used in perfume or preserving biological specimens or in embalming or medically as a fungicide or antiseptic
thyronine
a phenolic amino acid of which thyroxine is a derivative
methylbenzene, toluene
a colorless flammable liquid obtained from petroleum or coal tar; used as a solvent for gums and lacquers and in high-octane fuels
tyramine
amino acid derived from tyrosine; has a sympathomimetic action; found in chocolate and cola drinks and ripe cheese and beer
tyrosine
an amino acid found in most proteins; a precursor of several hormones
urethane
an ester of carbamic acid
provitamin
vitamin precursor; a substance that is converted into a vitamin in animal tissues
curare, tubocurarine
a toxic alkaloid found in certain tropical South American trees that is a powerful relaxant for striated muscles
Type of:
chemical compound, compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
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