order

Order is the formal arrangement of things — putting that pile of paper on your desk into neat stacks of bills, papers, letters, to-do lists and napkin poems.

Order has many meanings. You can put a line of people in order from tallest to shortest, or from youngest to oldest. As a very, order also means command: Talk out of turn in court and the judge will order you to be quiet. In a restaurant you give the waiter your order, which is what you want to eat, not your idea of how to organize the pantry. An order is also a group, like the Freemasons or the Order of St. Benedict.

PRIMARY MEANINGS OF: order

1
nv
logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements
bring order to or into
2
nv
(often plural) a command given by a superior (e.g., a military or law enforcement officer) that must be obeyed
give instructions to or direct somebody to do something with authority
3
nv
a request for something to be made, supplied, or served
make a request for something
4
nv
a formal association of people with similar interests
appoint to a clerical posts
5
n
a degree in a continuum of size or quantity
FULL DEFINITIONS OF: order
1

n logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements

“we shall consider these questions in the inverse order of their presentation”
Synonyms:
ordering, ordination
Types:
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bacteria order
an order of bacteria
word order
the order of words in a text
genetic code
the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
genome
the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism
series
similar things placed in order or happening one after another
Stations, Stations of the Cross
(Roman Catholic Church) a devotion consisting of fourteen prayers said before a series of fourteen pictures or carvings representing successive incidents during Jesus' passage from Pilate's house to his crucifixion at Calvary
chain, concatenation
a series of things depending on each other as if linked together
cordon
a series of sentinels or of military posts enclosing or guarding some place or thing
course, line
a connected series of events or actions or developments
cycle
a series of poems or songs on the same theme
electrochemical series, electromotive force series, electromotive series
a serial arrangement of metallic elements or ions according to their electrode potentials determined under specified conditions; the order shows the tendency of one metal to reduce the ions of any other metal below it in the series
hierarchy
a series of ordered groupings of people or things within a system
triplet code
the normal version of the genetic code in which a sequence of three nucleotides codes for the synthesis of a specific amino acid
nexus
a connected series or group
patterned advance, progression
a series with a definite pattern of advance
blizzard, rash
a series of unexpected and unpleasant occurrences
sequence
serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern
string, train
a sequentially ordered set of things or events or ideas in which each successive member is related to the preceding
succession
a group of people or things arranged or following in order
wave train
a succession of waves spaced at regular intervals
helium group
the series of inert gases
actinide series
(chemistry) a series of 15 radioactive elements with increasing atomic numbers from actinium to lawrencium
lanthanide series
the rare-earth elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71; having properties similar to lanthanum
Type of:
arrangement
an orderly grouping (of things or persons) considered as a unit; the result of arranging

n a condition of regular or proper arrangement

“he put his desk in order
“the machine is now in working order
Synonyms:
orderliness
Antonyms:
disorder, disorderliness
a condition in which things are not in their expected places
Types:
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spit and polish
careful attention to order and appearance (as in the military)
kelter, kilter
in working order
tidiness
the habit of being tidy
neatness, spruceness
the state of being neat and smart and trim
Type of:
condition, status
a state at a particular time

n established customary state (especially of society)

order ruled in the streets”
“law and order
Antonyms:
disorder
a disturbance of the peace or of public order
Types:
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civil order, polity
the form of government of a social organization
rule of law
a state of order in which events conform to the law
quiet, tranquility, tranquillity
an untroubled state; free from disturbances
concord, concordance, harmony
a harmonious state of things in general and of their properties (as of colors and sounds); congruity of parts with one another and with the whole
stability
a stable order (especially of society)
peace
the state prevailing during the absence of war
peace
harmonious relations; freedom from disputes
comity
a state or atmosphere of harmony or mutual civility and respect
amity
a state of friendship and cordiality
armistice, cease-fire, truce
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
accord, agreement
harmony of people's opinions or actions or characters
conciliation
the state of manifesting goodwill and cooperation after being reconciled
collective security
a system for international peace
Pax Romana
the Roman peace; the long period of peace enforced on states in the Roman Empire
Type of:
state
the way something is with respect to its main attributes

n a body of rules followed by an assembly

Synonyms:
parliamentary law, parliamentary procedure, rules of order
Examples:
Robert's Rules of Order
a book of rules for presiding over a meeting; written by Henry M. Martin in 1876 and subsequently updated through many editions
Types:
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interpellation
(parliament) a parliamentary procedure of demanding that a government official explain some act or policy
standing order
a rule of order permanently in force
closure, cloture, gag law, gag rule
a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body
point of order
a question as to whether the current proceedings are allowed by parliamentary procedure
previous question
a motion calling for an immediate vote on the main question under discussion by a deliberative assembly
closure by compartment, guillotine
closure imposed on the debate of specific sections of a bill
Type of:
prescript, rule
prescribed guide for conduct or action

n the act of putting things in a sequential arrangement

Synonyms:
ordering
Types:
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rank order
an arrangement according to rank
grading, scaling
the act of arranging in a graduated series
sequence, succession
the action of following in order
layout
the act of laying out (as by making plans for something)
alphabetisation, alphabetization
the act of putting in alphabetical order
chess opening, opening
a recognized sequence of moves at the beginning of a game of chess
alternation
successive change from one thing or state to another and back again
Type of:
organisation, organization
the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically

v bring order to or into

Antonyms:
disarray, disorder
bring disorder to
Types:
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clean up, neaten, square away, straighten, straighten out, tidy, tidy up
put (things or places) in order
systematise, systematize, systemise, systemize
arrange according to a system or reduce to a system
collate
to assemble in proper sequence
disentangle, straighten out, unsnarl
extricate from entanglement
make, make up
put in order or neaten
digest
systematize, as by classifying and summarizing
codify
organize into a code or system, such as a body of law
loosen, tease, tease apart
disentangle and raise the fibers of
ravel, ravel out, unravel
disentangle
clean, clean house, houseclean
clean and tidy up the house
Type of:
arrange, set up
put into a proper or systematic order

v place in a certain order

order the photos chronologically”
Type of:
arrange, set up
put into a proper or systematic order

v assign a rank or rating to

Synonyms:
grade, place, range, rank, rate
Types:
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superordinate
place in a superior order or rank
shortlist
put someone or something on a short list
seed
distribute (players or teams) so that outstanding teams or players will not meet in the early rounds
reorder
assign a new order to
subordinate
rank or order as less important or consider of less value
prioritise, prioritize
assign a priority to
sequence
arrange in a sequence
downgrade
rate lower; lower in value or esteem
upgrade
rate higher; raise in value or esteem
invert, reverse
reverse the position, order, relation, or condition of
countermarch
change the order of soldiers during a march
outclass
cause to appear in a lower class
Type of:
evaluate, judge, pass judgment
form a critical opinion of

v arrange thoughts, ideas, temporal events

Synonyms:
arrange, put, set up
Types:
contemporise, contemporize, synchronise, synchronize
arrange or represent events so that they co-occur
phrase
divide, combine, or mark into phrases
Type of:
organise, organize
cause to be structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or idea
2

n (often plural) a command given by a superior (e.g., a military or law enforcement officer) that must be obeyed

“the British ships dropped anchor and waited for orders from London”
Types:
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marching orders
an order from a superior officer for troops to depart
summons
an order to appear in person at a given place and time
word
a verbal command for action
call up
an order to report for military duty
Type of:
bid, bidding, command, dictation
an authoritative direction or instruction to do something

n a legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)

“a friend in New Mexico said that the order caused no trouble out there”
Synonyms:
decree, edict, fiat, rescript
Types:
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consent decree
an agreement between two parties that is sanctioned by the court; for example, a company might agree to stop certain questionable practices without admitting guilt
curfew
an order that after a specific time certain activities (as being outside on the streets) are prohibited
decree nisi
a decree issued on a first petition for divorce; becomes absolute at some later date
imperial decree
a decree issued by a sovereign ruler
judicial separation, legal separation
a judicial decree regulating the rights and responsibilities of a married couple living apart
programma
an edict that has been publicly posted
ban, prohibition, proscription
a decree that prohibits something
stay
a judicial order forbidding some action until an event occurs or the order is lifted
bull, papal bull
a formal proclamation issued by the pope (usually written in antiquated characters and sealed with a leaden bulla)
ukase
an edict of the Russian tsar
pragmatic, pragmatic sanction
an imperial decree that becomes part of the fundamental law of the land
stay of execution
an order whereby a judgment is precluded from being executed for a specific period of time
banning-order
an order that bans something
cease and desist order, enjoining, enjoinment, injunction
(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
interdict, interdiction
a court order prohibiting a party from doing a certain activity
Type of:
act, enactment
a legal document codifying the result of deliberations of a committee or society or legislative body

v give instructions to or direct somebody to do something with authority

“She ordered him to do the shopping”
Synonyms:
enjoin, say, tell
Types:
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direct
command with authority
instruct
give instructions or directions for some task
command, require
make someone do something
call, send for
order, request, or command to come
warn
ask to go away
charge
instruct or command with authority
charge
instruct (a jury) about the law, its application, and the weighing of evidence
burden, charge, saddle
impose a task upon, assign a responsibility to
requisition
make a formal request for official services
cite, summon, summons
call in an official matter, such as to attend court
beep
call, summon, or alert with a beeper
call back, recall
summon to return
call in
summon to a particular activity or employment
lift
call to stop the hunt or to retire, as of hunting dogs
muster
call to duty, military service, jury duty, etc.
disallow, forbid, interdict, nix, prohibit, proscribe, veto
command against
hail
call for
summon
ask to come
stet
printing: direct that a matter marked for omission or correction is to be retained (used in the imperative)
call up, mobilise, mobilize, rally
call to arms; of military personnel
Type of:
request
ask (a person) to do something

v bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations

Synonyms:
govern, regularise, regularize, regulate
Antonyms:
deregulate
lift the regulations on
Types:
standardise, standardize
cause to conform to standard or norm
district, zone
regulate housing in; of certain areas of towns
gauge
adapt to a specified measurement
Type of:
decide, determine, make up one's mind
reach, make, or come to a decision about something

v issue commands or orders for

Synonyms:
dictate, prescribe
Types:
mandate
make mandatory
Type of:
bring down, impose, inflict, visit
impose something unpleasant
3

n a request for something to be made, supplied, or served

“I gave the waiter my order
“the company's products were in such demand that they got more orders than their call center could handle”
Types:
short order
an order for food that can be prepared quickly
Type of:
asking, request
the verbal act of requesting

n a commercial document used to request someone to supply something in return for payment and providing specifications and quantities

“IBM received an order for a hundred computers”
Synonyms:
purchase order
Types:
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bill-me order, credit order
an order that is received without payment; requires billing at a later date
indent
an order for goods to be exported or imported
market order
an order to a broker to sell or buy stocks or commodities at the prevailing market price
production order
an order that initiates the manufacturing process
reorder
a repeated order for the same merchandise
stop order, stop-loss order
an order to a broker to sell (buy) when the price of a security falls (rises) to a designated level
stop payment
a depositor's order to a bank to refuse payment on a check
mail order
a purchase negotiated by mail
open account
an unpaid credit order
Type of:
commercial document, commercial instrument
a document of or relating to commerce

v make a request for something

order a work stoppage”
Types:
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reorder
make a new request to be supplied with
place
to arrange for
call
order or request or give a command for
wish
order politely; express a wish for
commission
place an order for
Type of:
bespeak, call for, quest, request
express the need or desire for; ask for
4

n a formal association of people with similar interests

“men from the fraternal order will staff the soup kitchen today”
Synonyms:
club, gild, guild, lodge, social club, society
Types:
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athenaeum, atheneum
a literary or scientific association for the promotion of learning
bookclub
a club that people join in order to buy selected books at reduced prices
chapter
a local branch of some fraternity or association
chess club
a club of people to play chess
country club
a suburban club for recreation and socializing
frat, fraternity
a social club for male undergraduates
glee club
a club organized to sing together
golf club
a club of people to play golf
hunt, hunt club
an association of huntsmen who hunt for sport
investors club
a club of small investors who buy and sell securities jointly
jockey club
a club to promote and regulate horse racing
racket club
club for players of racket sports
rowing club
a club for rowers
slate club
a group of people who save money in a common fund for a specific purpose (usually distributed at Christmas)
sorority
a social club for female undergraduates
turnverein
a club of tumblers or gymnasts
boat club, yacht club
club that promotes and supports yachting and boating
service club
a club of professional or business people organized for their coordination and active in public services
tennis club
a club of people to play tennis
International Association of Lions clubs, Lions Club
club dedicated to promoting responsible citizenship and good government and community and national and international welfare
Rotary Club, Rotary International
a group of businessmen in a town organized as a service club and to promote world peace
Type of:
association
a formal organization of people or groups of people

n a group of person living under a religious rule

“the order of Saint Benedict”
Synonyms:
monastic order
Types:
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Augustinian order
any of several monastic orders observing a rule derived from the writings of St. Augustine
Benedictine order, order of Saint Benedict
a Roman Catholic monastic order founded in the 6th century; noted for liturgical worship and for scholarly activities
Carmelite order, Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
a Roman Catholic mendicant order founded in the 12th century
Carthusian order
an austere contemplative Roman Catholic order founded by St. Bruno in 1084
Dominican order
a Roman Catholic order of mendicant preachers founded in the 13th century
Franciscan order
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Francis of Assisi in the 13th century
Jesuit order, Society of Jesus
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen; it is strongly committed to education and scholarship
Augustinian Canons
an Augustinian monastic order
Augustinian Hermits
a monastic order of friars established in 1256 by the Pope
Austin Friars
an Augustinian monastic order
Type of:
religious order, religious sect, sect
a subdivision of a larger religious group

v appoint to a clerical posts

Synonyms:
consecrate, ordain, ordinate
Type of:
enthrone, invest, vest
provide with power and authority
5

n a degree in a continuum of size or quantity

“it was on the order of a mile”
“an explosion of a low order of magnitude”
Synonyms:
order of magnitude
Type of:
magnitude
the property of relative size or extent (whether large or small)

n (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more families

Types:
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animal order
the order of animals
protoctist order
the order of protoctists
plant order
the order of plants
fungus order
the order of fungi
Eubacteriales, order Eubacteriales
one of two usually recognized orders of true bacteria; Gram-positive spherical or rod-shaped forms; some are motile; in some classifications considered an order of Schizomycetes
Pseudomonadales, order Pseudomonadales
one of two usually recognized orders of true bacteria; Gram-negative spiral or spherical or rod-shaped bacteria usually motile by polar flagella; some contain photosynthetic pigments
Rickettsiales, order Rickettsiales
pleomorphic Gram-negative microorganisms
Mycoplasmatales, order Mycoplasmatales
coextensive with the family Mycoplasmataceae
Actinomycetales, order Actinomycetales
filamentous or rod-shaped bacteria
Myxobacterales, Myxobacteriales, order Myxobacterales, order Myxobacteria, order Myxobacteriales
an order of higher bacteria
Spirochaetales, order Spirochaetales
higher bacteria; slender spiral rodlike forms
Heliozoa, order Heliozoa
mostly freshwater protozoa
Radiolaria, order Radiolaria
marine protozoa
Amoebida, Amoebina, order Amoebida, order Amoebina
the animal order including amoebas
Foraminifera, order Foraminifera
foraminifers
Testacea, order Testacea
testacean rhizopods
Heterotrichales, order Heterotrichales
yellow-green algae with simple or branching filaments; comprising the single family Tribonemaceae
Laminariales, order Laminariales
in some classifications coextensive with family Laminariaceae: marine brown algae of cold or polar seas
Fucales, order Fucales
coextensive with the family Fucaceae
Ulvales, order Ulvales
an order of protoctist
Volvocales, order Volvocales
chiefly freshwater green algae; solitary or colonial
Zygnemales, Zygnematales, order Zygnemales, order Zygnematales
pond scums; desmids
Chlorococcales, order Chlorococcales
unicellular green algae that reproduce by spores
Oedogoniales, order oedogoniales
simple or branched filamentous freshwater green algae
Charales, order Charales
small order of macroscopic fresh and brackish water algae with a distinct axis: stoneworts
Cilioflagellata, Dinoflagellata, order Cilioflagellata, order Dinoflagellata
in some classifications considered a phylum of the kingdom Protista; in others included in the plant phylum Pyrrophyta
Hypermastigina, order Hypermastigina
cellulose-producing flagellates
Polymastigina, order Polymastigina
small usually parasitic flagellates
Coccidia, order Coccidia
an order in the subclass Telosporidia
Gregarinida, order Gregarinida
an order in the subclass Telosporidia
Haemosporidia, order Haemosporidia
an order in the subclass Telosporidia
Sarcosporidia, order Sarcosporidia
imperfectly known parasites of the muscles of vertebrates
Haplosporidia, order Haplosporidia
an order in the subclass Acnidosporidia
Actinomyxidia, order Actinomyxidia
parasites of worms
Mycrosporidia, order Mycrosporidia
an order in the subclass Cnidosporidia
Myxosporidia, order Myxosporidia
an order in the subclass Cnidosporidia
Malacopterygii, superorder Malacopterygii
an extensive group of teleost fishes having fins supported by flexible cartilaginous rays
Cypriniformes, order Cypriniformes
an order of animals including almost entirely freshwater fishes: characins; loaches; carp; suckers; sometimes classified as a suborder of Ostariophysi
Berycomorphi, order Berycomorphi
an order of spiny-finned fish in the superorder Acanthopterygii
Zeomorphi, order Zeomorphi
dories
Solenichthyes, order Solenichthyes
bellows fishes; shrimpfishes; cornetfishes; pipefishes; small order of chiefly tropical marine fishes of varied and bizarre form all having a small mouth at the end of a drawn-out tubular snout
Ostracodermi, order Ostracodermi
extinct group of armored jawless vertebrates; taxonomy is not clear
Heterostraci, suborder Heterostraci
extinct group of armored jawless fishes or fish-like vertebrate; taxonomy is not clear
Cephalaspida, Osteostraci, suborder Cephalaspida, suborder Osteostraci
extinct group of armored fish-like vertebrates; taxonomy is not clear
Anaspida, order Anaspida
extinct order of jawless vertebrates
Conodonta, Conodontophorida, order Conodonta, order Conodontophorida
extinct order of primitive vertebrates; the precise taxonomy is not clear; in some classifications considered a separate phylum
Cyclostomata, order Cyclostomata
primitive jawless aquatic vertebrate: lampreys; hagfishes
Hyperoartia, Petromyzoniformes, suborder Hyperoartia, suborder Petromyzoniformes
lampreys as distinguished from hagfishes
Hyperotreta, Myxiniformes, Myxinoidea, Myxinoidei, suborder Hyperotreta, suborder Myxiniformes, suborder Myxinoidei
hagfishes as distinguished from lampreys
Torpediniformes, order Torpediniformes
rays with bodies shaped like torpedoes
Batoidei, Rajiformes, order Batoidei, order Rajiformes
fish with dorsoventrally flattened bodies; includes: rays; skates; guitarfishes; sawfishes
Ratitae, superorder Ratitae
used in former classifications to include all ratite bird orders
Struthioniformes, order Struthioniformes
a ratite bird order: ostriches and related extinct birds; known from the Pleistocene onward
Casuariiformes, order Casuariiformes
a ratite bird order: cassowaries and emus
Apterygiformes, order Apterygiformes
a ratite bird order: flightless ground birds having vestigial wings and long bills and small eyes: kiwis
Rheiformes, order Rheiformes
a ratite bird order: birds intermediate in characteristics between ostriches and emus: recent and extinct rheas
Aepyorniformes, order Aepyorniformes
huge extinct flightless birds: elephant birds
Dinornithiformes, order Dinornithiformes
a ratite bird order: recently extinct flightless birds of New Zealand
Insessores, order Insessores, percher, perching bird
a bird with feet adapted for perching (as on tree branches); this order is now generally abandoned by taxonomists
Passeriformes, order Passeriformes
largest order of birds comprising about half the known species; rooks; finches; sparrows; tits; warblers; robins; wrens; swallows; etc.; the four suborders are Eurylaimi and Tyranni and Menurae and Oscines or Passeres
Oscines, Passeres, suborder Oscines, suborder Passeres
two names for the suborder of typical songbirds
Menurae, suborder Menurae
lyrebirds and scrubbirds
Eurylaimi, suborder Eurylaimi
broadbills
Tyranni, suborder Tyranni
New World flycatchers; antbirds; oven birds; woodhewers
Clamatores, suborder Clamatores
used in some classification systems; a suborder or superfamily nearly coextensive with suborder Tyranni; Passeriformes having relatively simple vocal organs and little power of song; clamatorial birds
Raptores, order Raptores
term used in former classifications; erroneously grouped together birds of the orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes
Falconiformes, order Falconiformes
chiefly diurnal carnivorous birds having hooked beaks and long talons with opposable hind toe: falcons; hawks; eagles; ospreys; caracaras; vultures
Strigiformes, order Strigiformes
owls
Caudata, Urodella, order Caudata, order Urodella
salamanders; newts; congo snakes
Anura, Batrachia, Salientia, order Anura, order Batrachia, order Salientia
frogs, toads, tree toads
Gymnophiona, order Gymnophiona
an order of amphibians including caecilians
Labyrinthodonta, Labyrinthodontia, superorder Labyrinthodonta, superorder Labyrinthodontia
extinct amphibians typically resembling heavy-bodied salamanders or crocodiles and having a solid flattened skull and conical teeth; Devonian through Triassic
Stereospondyli, order Stereospondyli
formerly a suborder of Stegocephalia; amphibia having vertebrae whose component elements are fused into a single piece
Stegocephalia, order Stegocephalia
in former classifications a division of class Amphibia comprising all pre-Jurassic and some later extinct large salamandriform amphibia
Temnospondyli, order Temnospondyli
formerly a suborder of Stegocephalia; large Carboniferous and Permian amphibians having vertebrae in which some elements remain separate
Chelonia, Testudinata, Testudines, order Chelonia, order Testudinata, order Testudines
tortoises and turtles
Rhynchocephalia, order Rhynchocephalia
tuataras; extinct forms from middle Triassic
Squamata, order Squamata
diapsid reptiles: snakes and lizards
Lacertilia, Sauria, suborder Lacertilia, suborder Sauria
true lizards; including chameleons and geckos
Crocodilia, Crocodylia, order Crocodilia, order Crocodylia
crocodiles; alligators; caimans; gavials
Loricata, order Loricata
former name for the order Crocodylia
Ornithischia, order Ornithischia
extinct terrestrial reptiles having bird-like pelvises: armored dinosaurs (thyreophorans); boneheaded and horned dinosaurs (marginocephalians); duck-billed dinosaurs (euronithopods)
Thyreophora, suborder Thyreophora, thyreophoran
armored dinosaurs: stegosaurs and ankylosaurs
Marginocephalia, marginocephalian, suborder Marginocephalia
includes boneheaded (pachycephalosaurs) and horned (ceratopsian) dinosaurs
suborder Pachycephalosaurus
boneheaded dinosaurs; late Cretaceous
Ceratopsia, suborder Ceratopsia
horned dinosaurs
Euronithopoda, Ornithopoda, euronithopod, suborder Euronithopoda, suborder Ornithopoda
widespread group including duck-billed dinosaurs and their early relatives (hadrosaurs, trachodon and iguanodon)
Saurischia, order Saurischia
extinct terrestrial reptiles: theropods (carnivorous); sauropods (herbivorous)
Sauropodomorpha, suborder Sauropodomorpha
gigantic herbivorous dinosaurs having huge bodies with long necks and small heads: Prosauropoda and Sauropoda (apatosaurus, diplodocus and titanosaurs)
Prosauropoda, suborder Prosauropoda
the earliest known dinosaurs
Sauropoda, suborder Sauropoda
any of the sauropod dinosaurs
Theropoda, suborder Theropoda
carnivorous saurischian dinosaurs with short forelimbs; Jurassic and Cretaceous
suborder Ceratosaura
primitive saurischian dinosaurs
Carnosaura, suborder Carnosaura
largest carnivorous land animals ever known
Ornithomimida, suborder Ornithomimida
lightly built medium-size theropods
Maniraptora, suborder Maniraptora
advanced theropods including oviraptorids and dromaeosaurs and possibly even modern birds
Therapsida, order Therapsida
extinct mammal-like reptiles found inhabiting all continents from the mid Permian to late Triassic
Ictodosauria, order Ictodosauria
extinct reptiles of the later Triassic period
Pelycosauria, order Pelycosauria
edaphosaurus; dimetrodon
Pterosauria, order Pterosauria
extinct flying reptiles: pterosaurs
Thecodontia, order Thecodontia
extinct terrestrial reptiles having teeth set in sockets; of the late Permian to Triassic
Ichthyosauria, order Ichthyosauria
extinct marine reptiles: ichthyosaurs
Sauropterygia, order Sauropterygia
extinct marine reptiles: plesiosaurs; nothosaurs
Plesiosauria, suborder Plesiosauria
any of the plesiosaurs
Nothosauria, suborder Nothosauria
a suborder of Sauropterygia
Ophidia, Serpentes, suborder Ophidia, suborder Serpentes
snakes
Opiliones, Phalangida, order Opiliones, order Phalangida
harvestmen
Scorpionida, order Scorpionida
true scorpions
Chelonethida, Pseudoscorpiones, Pseudoscorpionida, order Chelonethida, order Pseudoscorpiones, order Pseudoscorpionida
false scorpions
Pedipalpi, Uropygi, order Pedipalpi, order Uropygi
whip scorpions
Araneae, Araneida, order Araneae, order Araneida
spiders
Acarina, order Acarina
mites and ticks
Geophilomorpha, order Geophilomorpha
small elongate centipedes living in soil and under stones and having more than 30 pairs of legs
Pycnogonida, order Pycnogonida
sea spiders
Xiphosura, order Xiphosura
horseshoe crabs and extinct forms
Eurypterida, order Eurypterida
extinct aquatic arthropods of the Paleozoic
Galliformes, order Galliformes
pheasants; turkeys; grouse; partridges; quails; chickens; brush turkeys; curassows; hoatzins
Tinamiformes, order Tinamiformes
coextensive with the family Tinamidae
Columbiformes, order Columbiformes
sand grouse; pigeons; doves; extinct dodos and solitaires
Psittaciformes, order Psittaciformes
an order of birds including parrots and amazons and cockatoos and lorikeets and lories and macaws and parakeets
Cuculiformes, order Cuculiformes
cuckoos; touracos; etc.
Coraciiformes, order Coraciiformes
rollers; kingfishers; hornbills; hoopoes; motmots; bee eaters; todies
Picariae, order Picariae
term used in some classifications as nearly equivalent to the order Coraciiformes
Apodiformes, order Apodiformes
swifts; hummingbirds
Caprimulgiformes, order Caprimulgiformes
goatsuckers; frogmouths; oilbirds
Piciformes, order Piciformes
woodpeckers; jacamars; puffbirds; barbets; honey guides; toucans
Trogoniformes, order Trogoniformes
trogons
Anseriformes, order Anseriformes
ducks; geese; swans; screamers
Anseres, suborder Anseres
used in some especially older classifications; coextensive with the family Anatidae
Monotremata, order Monotremata
coextensive with the subclass Prototheria
Marsupialia, order Marsupialia
coextensive with the subclass Metatheria
Insectivora, order Insectivora
shrews; moles; hedgehogs; tenrecs
Lipotyphla, suborder Lipotyphla
moles; hedgehogs; true shrews
Menotyphla, suborder Menotyphla
elephant shrews; tree shrews
Siphonophora, order Siphonophora
marine colonial hydrozoans
Actinaria, Actiniaria, order Actinaria, order Actiniaria
sea anemones
Alcyonaria, order Alcyonaria
corals and sea anemones having eight branches
Alcyonacea, suborder Alcyonacea
comprising the soft corals
Gorgonacea, Gorgoniacea, suborder Gorgonacea, suborder Gorgoniacea
red corals and sea fans
Madreporaria, order Madreporaria
stony corals
Cydippea, Cydippida, Cydippidea, order Cydippea, order Cydippida, order Cydippidea
ctenophores having two long pinnate tentacles
Platyctenea, order Platyctenea
an order of Tentaculata
Cestida, order Cestida
ctenophore having short tentacles; one family
Lobata, order Lobata
ctenophore having tentacles only in the immature stage; body compressed vertically having two large oral lobes and four pointed processes
Nudibranchia, order Nudibranchia
comprising numerous marine gastropod mollusks lacking a shell in the adult state and usually having a body like a slug
Pulmonata, order Pulmonata
large order of gastropods usually breathing by means of a lung-like sac comprising most land snails and slugs and many freshwater snails
Pectinibranchia, order Pectinibranchia
large order of gastropods comprising univalve mollusks that have a single gill resembling a comb
Aplacophora, Solenogastres, order Aplacophora, order Solenogastres
an order of Amphineura
Myaceae, order Myaceae
clams
Octopoda, order Octopoda
octopuses and paper nautilus
Decapoda, order Decapoda
squids and cuttlefishes
Belemnoidea, order Belemnoidea
order of extinct dibranchiate cephalopods related to the surviving spirulas
Decapoda, order Decapoda
lobsters; crayfish; crabs; shrimps; prawns
Brachyura, suborder Brachyura
an order of crustaceans (including true crabs) having a reduced abdomen folded against the ventral surface
Reptantia, suborder Reptantia
lobsters; crabs
Natantia, suborder Natantia
shrimp; prawns; etc.
Schizopoda
in former classifications a division of Malacostraca; superseded by the orders Mysidacea and Euphausiacea
Euphausiacea, order Euphausiacea
small commonly luminescent crustaceans; important element of marine plankton: krill
Mysidacea, order Mysidacea
opossum shrimp
Stomatopoda, order Stomatopoda
mantis shrimps
Isopoda, order Isopoda
woodlice
Amphipoda, order Amphipoda
small flat-bodied semiterrestrial crustaceans: whale lice; sand-hoppers; skeleton shrimp
Anostraca, order Anostraca
small aquatic crustaceans lacking a carapace: fairy shrimps; brine shrimps
Notostraca, order Notostraca
small freshwater crustaceans with a shield-shaped carapace
Branchiura, order Branchiura
copepods with suctorial mouthparts; parasitic on fishes
Ciconiiformes, order Ciconiiformes
order of chiefly tropical marsh-dwelling fish-eating wading birds with long legs and bills and (except for flamingos) unwebbed feet: herons; storks; spoonbills; flamingos; ibises
Gruiformes, order Gruiformes
inland marsh-dwelling birds with long legs and necks and bills that wade in water in search of food: cranes; rails; bustards
Otides, suborder Otides
terrestrial game birds of the Old World and Australia: bustards
Charadriiformes, order Charadriiformes
large diverse order of aquatic birds found along seacoasts and inland waters: shorebirds and coastal diving birds; most feed on anima life
Charadrii, suborder Charadrii
shorebirds: plovers; sandpipers; avocets; phalaropes; coursers; stone curlews
Limicolae, suborder Limicolae
term used in some classifications for migratory shorebirds; coextensive with the Charadrii
Lari, suborder Lari
gulls; terns; jaegers; skimmers
Gaviiformes, order Gaviiformes
large aquatic birds: loons and some extinct forms
Colymbiformes, Podicipediformes, Podicipitiformes, order Colymbiformes, order Podicipediformes, order Podicipitiformes
grebes
Pelecaniformes, order Pelecaniformes
pelicans; frigate birds; gannets; cormorants
Sphenisciformes, order Sphenisciformes
penguins
Procellariiformes, order Procellariiformes
petrels; albatrosses; shearwaters; diving petrels
Cetacea, order Cetacea
an order of Eutheria
Mysticeti, suborder Mysticeti
baleen whales: right whales; rorquals; blue whales; humpbacks
Odontoceti, suborder Odontoceti
toothed whales: dolphins; porpoises; sperm whales; beaked whales
Sirenia, order Sirenia
an animal order including: manatees; dugongs; Steller's sea cow
Carnivora, order Carnivora
cats; lions; tigers; panthers; dogs; wolves; jackals; bears; raccoons; skunks; and members of the suborder Pinnipedia
Pinnipedia, suborder Pinnipedia
seals; sea lions; walruses
Tubulidentata, order Tubulidentata
an order of Eutheria
Chiroptera, order Chiroptera
an old order dating to early Eocene: bats: suborder Megachiroptera (fruit bats); suborder Microchiroptera (insectivorous bats)
Megachiroptera, suborder Megachiroptera
fruit bats
Microchiroptera, suborder Microchiroptera
most of the bats in the world; all bats except fruit bats insectivorous bats
Mantophasmatodea, order mantophasmatodea
an order of insect identified in 2002 in a 45 million year old piece of amber from the Baltic region
Mecoptera, order Mecoptera
an order of carnivorous insects usually having long membranous wings and long beaklike heads with chewing mouths at the tip
Collembola, order Collembola
minute wingless arthropods: springtails
Protura, order Protura
minute wingless arthropods: telsontails
Coleoptera, order Coleoptera
beetles
Embiodea, Embioptera, order Embiodea, order Embioptera
web spinners
Anoplura, order Anoplura
sucking lice
Mallophaga, order Mallophaga
biting lice
Siphonaptera, order Siphonaptera
fleas
Diptera, order Diptera
a large order of insects having a single pair of wings and sucking or piercing mouths; includes true flies and mosquitoes and gnats and crane flies
Nematocera, suborder Nematocera
mosquitoes; fungus gnats; crane flies; gnats; sand flies
Hymenoptera, order Hymenoptera
an order of insects including: bees; wasps; ants; ichneumons; sawflies; gall wasps; etc.
Isoptera, order Isoptera
order of social insects that live in colonies, including: termites; often placed in subclass Exopterygota
Orthoptera, order Orthoptera
grasshoppers and locusts; crickets
Phasmatodea, Phasmida, order Phasmatodea, order Phasmida
in some classifications considered a suborder of Orthoptera: stick insects; leaf insects
Dictyoptera, order Dictyoptera
in some classifications replaced by the orders (here suborders) Blattodea (cockroaches) and Manteodea (mantids); in former classifications often subsumed under a much broader order Orthoptera
Blattaria, Blattodea, suborder Blattaria, suborder Blattodea
cockroaches; in some classifications considered an order
Manteodea, suborder Manteodea
mantises; in former classifications considered a suborder of Orthoptera
Hemiptera, order Hemiptera
plant bugs; bedbugs; some true bugs; also includes suborders Heteroptera (true bugs) and Homoptera (e.g., aphids, plant lice and cicadas)
Heteroptera, suborder Heteroptera
true bugs
Homoptera, suborder Homoptera
plant lice (aphids); whiteflies; cicadas; leafhoppers; plant hoppers; scale insects and mealybugs; spittle insects
Corrodentia, Psocoptera, order Corrodentia, order Psocoptera
an order of insects: includes booklice and bark-lice
Ephemerida, Ephemeroptera, order Ephemerida, order Ephemeroptera
mayflies
Plecoptera, order Plecoptera
stoneflies
Neuroptera, order Neuroptera
an order of insects including: lacewings; antlions; dobsonflies; alderflies; fish flies; mantispids; spongeflies
Megaloptera, suborder Megaloptera
in some classifications considered a separate order: alderflies; dobsonflies; snake flies
Odonata, order Odonata
dragonflies and damselflies
Anisoptera, suborder Anisoptera
dragonflies
Zygoptera, suborder Zygoptera
damselflies
Trichoptera, order Trichoptera
an order of insects consisting of caddis flies
Thysanura, order Thysanura
firebrats; silverfish; machilids
Thysanoptera, order Thysanoptera
thrips
Dermaptera, order Dermaptera
earwigs and a few related forms
Lepidoptera, order Lepidoptera
moths and butterflies
Exocycloida, order Exocycloida
flat sea urchins
Spatangoida, order Spatangoida
heart-shaped sea urchins
Lagomorpha, order Lagomorpha
rabbits; hares; pikas; formerly considered the suborder Duplicidentata of the order Rodentia
Rodentia, order Rodentia
small gnawing animals: porcupines; rats; mice; squirrels; marmots; beavers; gophers; voles; hamsters; guinea pigs; agoutis
Myomorpha, suborder Myomorpha
true rats and mice and related rodents
Hystricomorpha, suborder Hystricomorpha
an order of rodents including: porcupines; guinea pigs; chinchillas; etc.
Sciuromorpha, suborder Sciuromorpha
large more or less primitive rodents: squirrels; marmots; gophers; beavers; etc.
Dinocerata, order Dinocerata
small order of primitive ungulates of the Paleocene and Eocene
Hyracoidea, order Hyracoidea
hyraxes and some extinct animals
Perissodactyla, order Perissodactyla
nonruminant ungulates: horses; tapirs; rhinoceros; extinct forms
Artiodactyla, order Artiodactyla
an order of hooved mammals of the subclass Eutheria (including pigs and peccaries and hippopotami and members of the suborder Ruminantia) having an even number of functional toes
Ruminantia, suborder Ruminantia
cattle; bison; sheep; goats; antelopes; deer; chevrotains; giraffes; camels
Edentata, order Edentata
order of mammals having few or no teeth including: New World anteaters; sloths; armadillos
Xenarthra, suborder Xenarthra
armadillos; American anteaters; sloths
Pholidota, order Pholidota
pangolins; in some former classifications included in the order Edentata
Primates, order Primates
an animal order including lemurs and tarsiers and monkeys and apes and human beings
Anthropoidea, suborder Anthropoidea
monkeys; apes; hominids
Scandentia, order Scandentia
a small order comprising only the tree shrews: in some classifications tree shrews are considered either primates (and included in the suborder Prosimii) or true insectivores (and included in the order Insectivora)
Prosimii, suborder Prosimii
not used in all classifications; in some classifications considered coextensive with the Lemuroidea; in others includes both Lemuroidea and Tarsioidea
Lemuroidea, suborder Lemuroidea
Lemuridae; Lorisidae; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; used in some classifications instead of Prosimii; in others considered a subdivision of Prosimii
Strepsirhini, suborder Strepsirhini
in some classifications either coextensive with the Lemuroidea or comprising the true lemurs
Tarsioidea, suborder Tarsioidea
in some classifications assigned to the suborder Prosimii
Dermoptera, order Dermoptera
flying lemurs
Proboscidea, order Proboscidea
an order of animals including elephants and mammoths
Siluriformes, order Siluriformes
an order of fish belonging to the superorder Malacopterygii including catfishes
Gadiformes, order Gadiformes
cods, haddocks, grenadiers; in some classifications considered equivalent to the order Anacanthini
Anacanthini, order Anacanthini
at least partially equivalent to the order Gadiformes in some classifications
Anguilliformes, order Anguilliformes, order Apodes
elongate fishes with pelvic fins and girdle absent or reduced
Isospondyli, order Isospondyli
most primitive teleost fishes; all are soft-finned: salmon; trout; herring; shad; sardines; anchovies; whitefish; smelts; tarpon
Order Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossiformes
teleost fish with bony tongues
Pediculati, order Pediculati
anglers and batfishes; spiny-finned marine fishes having pectoral fins at the ends of armlike processes and a long movable spine on the dorsal fin to lure prey to the large mouth
Synentognathi, order Synentognathi
order of fishes having spineless fins; needlefishes; sauries; flying fishes; halfbeaks
Acanthopterygii, superorder Acanthopterygii
teleost fishes having fins with sharp bony rays
Perciformes, Percomorphi, order Perciformes, order Percomorphi
one of the largest natural groups of fishes of both marine and fresh water: true perches; basses; tuna
Percoidea, suborder Percoidea
in some classifications nearly or exactly equivalent to the Perciformes which are considered a suborder
Discocephali, order Discocephali
small order of fishes comprising the remoras
Mugiloidea, suborder Mugiloidea
fishes distinguished by abdominal pelvic fins: families Mugilidae; Atherinidae; Sphyraenidae
Blennioidea, suborder Blennioidea
blennies; butterfishes; gunnels
Scombroidea, suborder Scombroidea
mackerels; tunas; albacores; bonitos; swordfishes; sailfishes
Ganoidei, order Ganoidei
a group of mostly extinct primitive bony fishes characterized by armor-like bony scales
Scleroparei, order Scleroparei
scorpionfishes; sculpins; gurnards; greenlings; flying gurnards
Scorpaenoidea, suborder Scorpaenoidea
mail-cheeked fishes: scorpionfishes; gurnards
Plectognathi, order Plectognathi, order Tetraodontiformes
boxfishes; filefishes; globefishes; ocean sunfishes; triggerfishes; puffers
Heterosomata, order Heterosomata, order Pleuronectiformes
flatfishes: halibut; sole; flounder; plaice; turbot; tonguefishes
Anthocerotales, order Anthocerotales
hornworts; liverworts having a thalloid gametophyte; in some classification systems included in the class Hepaticopsida
Andreaeales, order Andreaeales
comprises a single genus: Andreaea
Bryales, order Bryales
category used in some classification systems for mosses having the spore case separated from the capsule wall by a hollow intercellular space
Dicranales, order Dicranales
widely distributed order of mosses with erect gametophores and sporophytes at the tips of stems
Eubryales, order Eubryales
mosses with perennial erect gametophores and stems with rows of leaves and drooping capsules
Sphagnales, order Sphagnales
coextensive with the genus Sphagnum; in some classifications isolated in a separate subclass
Jungermanniales, order Jungermanniales
large order of chiefly tropical liverworts
Marchantiales, order Marchantiales
liverworts with gametophyte differentiated internally
Sphaerocarpales, order Sphaerocarpales
small order sometimes included in the order Jungermanniales
Gnetales, order Gnetales
chiefly tropical or xerophytic woody plants; practically unknown as fossils but considered close to the ancestral line of angiosperms
Cycadales, order Cycadales
primitive tropical gymnosperms abundant in the Mesozoic, now reduced to a few scattered tropical forms
Bennettitales, order Bennettitales
fossil gymnospermous plants of the Carboniferous
Cycadofilicales, Lyginopteridales, order Cycadofilicales, order Lyginopteridales
fossil gymnospermous trees or climbing plants from the Devonian: seed ferns
Cordaitales, order Cordaitales
extinct plants having tall arborescent trunks comparable to or more advanced than cycads; known from the Pennsylvanian period; probably extinct since the Mesozoic era
Coniferales, order Coniferales
profusely branching and chiefly evergreen trees and some shrubs having narrow or needlelike leaves
Taxales, order Taxales
coextensive with the family Taxaceae: yews
Ginkgoales, order Ginkgoales
coextensive with the family Ginkgoaceae: plants that first appeared in the Permian and now represented by a single surviving species; often included in Coniferales
Ranales, Ranunculales, order Ranales, order Ranunculales
herbs, shrubs and trees: includes families Ranunculaceae; Annonaceae; Berberidaceae; Magnoliaceae; Menispermaceae; Myristicaceae; Nymphaeaceae; Lardizabalaceae; Lauraceae; Calycanthaceae; Ceratophyllaceae; Cercidiphyllaceae
Myricales, order Myricales
coextensive with the family Myricaceae
Arales, order Arales
Araceae; Lemnaceae
Aristolochiales, order Aristolochiales
order of plants distinguished by tubular petaloid perianth and inferior ovary
Caryophyllales, Chenopodiales, order Caryophyllales, order-Chenopodiales
corresponds approximately to the older group Centrospermae
Opuntiales, order Opuntiales
coextensive with the family Cactaceae: cactuses
Papaverales, Rhoeadales, order Papaverales, order Rhoeadales
an order of dicotyledonous plants
Campanulales, order Campanulales
an order of plants of the subclass Asteridae including: Campanulaceae; Lobeliaceae; Cucurbitaceae; Goodeniaceae; Compositae
Orchidales, order Orchidales
order of plants with irregular flowers having minute seeds: Orchidaceae; Burmanniaceae
Primulales, order Primulales
Primulaceae; Theophrastaceae; Myrsinaceae; and (in some classifications) Plumbaginaceae
Plumbaginales, order Plumbaginales
coextensive with the family Plumbaginaceae; usually included in order Primulales
Graminales, order Graminales
grasses; sedges; rushes
Pandanales, order Pandanales
families Typhaceae; Sparganiaceae; Pandanaceae
Malvales, order Malvales
Malvaceae; Bombacaceae; Elaeocarpaceae; Sterculiaceae; Tiliaceae
Umbellales, order Umbellales
plants having umbels or corymbs of uniovulate flowers; includes the Umbelliferae (chiefly herbs) and Cornaceae (chiefly trees or shrubs)
Proteales, order Proteales
coextensive with the family Proteaceae
Casuarinales, order Casuarinales
order of chiefly Australian trees and shrubs comprising the casuarinas; 1 family: Casuarinaceae
Ericales, order Ericales
Ericaceae; Clethraceae; Diapensiaceae; Epacridaceae; Lennoaceae; Pyrolaceae; Monotropaceae
Diapensiales, order Diapensiales
used in some classifications: coextensive with family Diapensiaceae
Fagales, order Fagales
an order of dicotyledonous trees of the subclass Hamamelidae
Gentianales, order Gentianales
an order of dicotyledonous plants having gamopetalous flowers; Gentianaceae; Apocynaceae; Asclepiadaceae; Loganiaceae; Oleaceae; Salvadoraceae
Oleales, order Oleales
coextensive with the family Oleaceae; in some classifications included in the order Gentianales
Juglandales, order Juglandales
coextensive with the family Juglandaceae
Myrtales, Thymelaeales, order Myrtales, order Thymelaeales
Myrtaceae; Combretaceae; Elaeagnaceae; Haloragidaceae; Melastomaceae; Lecythidaceae; Lythraceae; Rhizophoraceae; Onagraceae; Lecythidaceae; Punicaceae
Musales, order Musales
tropical plants
Hypericales, Parietales, order Hypericales, order Parietales
a large order of dicotyledonous plants of subclass Dilleniidae
Guttiferales, order Guttiferales
used in some classifications; coextensive with Parietales
Urticales, order Urticales
an order of dicotyledonous plants including Moraceae and Urticaceae and Ulmaceae
Liliales, order Liliales
an order of monocotyledonous plants including Amaryllidaceae and Liliaceae and Iridaceae
Palmales, order Palmales
coextensive with the family Palmae: palms
Plantaginales, order Plantaginales
coextensive with the family Plantaginaceae
Polygonales, order Polygonales
coextensive with the family Polygonaceae,
Commelinales, Xyridales, order Commelinales, order Xyridales
an order of monocotyledonous herbs
Alismales, Naiadales, order Alismales, order Naiadales
an order of aquatic monocotyledonous herbaceous plants
Rosales, order Rosales
in some classifications this category does not include Leguminosae
Rubiales, order Rubiales
an order of dicotyledonous plants of the subclass Asteridae; have opposite leaves and an inferior compound ovary
Geraniales, order Geraniales
an order of plants of subclass Rosidae including geraniums and many other plants; see Euphorbiaceae; Geraniaceae; Rutaceae; Malpighiaceae; Simaroubaceae; Meliaceae; Zygophyllaceae; Tropaeolaceae
Salicales, order Salicales
coextensive with the family Salicaceae
Santalales, order Santalales
order of plants distinguished by having a one-celled inferior ovary; many are parasitic or partly parasitic usually on roots
Sapindales, order Sapindales
an order of dicotyledonous plants
Ebenales, order Ebenales
trees or shrubs of the families Ebenaceae or Sapotaceae or Styracaceae or Symplocaceae
Sarraceniales, order Sarraceniales
plants that are variously modified to serve as insect traps: families Sarraceniaceae; Nepenthaceae; Droseraceae
Polemoniales, order Polemoniales
Polemoniaceae; Solanaceae; Boraginaceae; Labiatae; Lentibulariaceae; Pedaliaceae; in some classifications includes the order Scrophulariales
Scrophulariales, order Scrophulariales
used in some classification systems; often included in the order Polemoniales
Ophioglossales, order Ophioglossales
coextensive with the family Ophioglossaceae
Erysiphales, order Erysiphales
saprophytic and parasitic fungi that live on plants
Sphaeriales, order Sphaeriales
large order of ascomycetous fungi usually having a dark hard perithecia with definite ostioles; in more recent classifications often divided among several orders
Hypocreales, order Hypocreales
used in some classifications for the family Hypocreaceae
Helotiales, order Helotiales
order of fungi having asci in a disk-shaped to goblet-shaped apothecium
Sclerodermatales, order Sclerodermatales
an order of fungi having a peridium surrounding a gleba (sometimes placed in subclass Homobasidiomycetes)
Hymenogastrales, order Hymenogastrales
an order of fungi belonging to the class Gasteromycetes; has a distinct basidiocarp with a fleshy or waxy gleba (sometimes placed in subclass Homobasidiomycetes)
Mucorales, order Mucorales
an order of mostly saprophytic fungi
Entomophthorales, order Entomophthorales
coextensive with the family Entomophthoraceae
Chytridiales, order Chytridiales
simple aquatic fungi mostly saprophytic but some parasitic on higher plants or animals or fresh water fungi; sometimes placed in class Oomycetes
Blastocladiales, order Blastocladiales
fungi that carry out asexual reproduction by thick-walled resting spores that produce zoospores upon germination; sometimes placed in class Oomycetes
Saprolegniales, order Saprolegniales
order of chiefly aquatic fungi
Peronosporales, order Peronosporales
order of chiefly parasitic lower fungi: Albuginaceae and Peronosporaceae and Pythiaceae
Tuberales, order Tuberales
small order of fungi belonging to the subdivision Ascomycota having closed underground ascocarps
Lichenales, order Lichenales
category used especially in former classifications for organisms now constituting the division Lichenes
Lechanorales, order Lechanorales
category used in some classification systems for all lichens that produce apothecia
Agaricales, order Agaricales
typical gilled mushrooms belonging to the subdivision Basidiomycota
Endomycetales, order Endomycetales
fungi having a zygote or a single cell developing directly into an ascus
Aspergillales, Eurotiales, order Aspergillales, order Eurotiales
order of fungi having a closed ascocarp (cleistothecium) with the asci scattered rather than gathered in a hymenium
Pezizales, order Pezizales
order of mostly saprophytic fungi having cup-shaped ascocarps
Tulostomatales, order Tulostomatales
an order of fungi belonging to the class Gasteromycetes
Lycoperdales, order Lycoperdales
small order of basidiomycetous fungi having fleshy often globose fruiting bodies; includes puffballs and earthstars
Nidulariales, order Nidulariales
small order of basidiomycetous fungi comprising families Nidulariaceae and Sphaerobolaceae
Secotiales, order Secotiales
an order of fungi belonging to the class Gasteromycetes
Aphyllophorales, order Aphyllophorales
includes chiefly saprophytic fungi typically with shelflike bodies; sometimes placed in class Hymenomycetes or included in Agaricales
Tremellales, order Tremellales
fungi varying from gelatinous to waxy or even horny in texture; most are saprophytic
Auriculariales, order Auriculariales
coextensive with the family Auriculariaceae; sometimes included in the order Tremellales
Uredinales, order Uredinales
rust fungi: parasitic fungi causing rust in plants; sometimes placed in
Ustilaginales, order Ustilaginales
parasitic fungi causing smuts; sometimes placed in class Tiliomycetes
Moniliales, order Moniliales
order of imperfect fungi lacking conidiophores of having conidiophores that are superficial and not enclosed in a pycnidium
Mycelia Sterilia, order Mycelia Sterilia
order of imperfect fungi having no known spore stage
Rhamnales, order Rhamnales
an order of dicotyledonous plants
Piperales, order Piperales
Piperaceae; Saururaceae; Chloranthaceae
Filicales, Polypodiales, order Filicales, order Polypodiales
true (leptosporangiate) ferns
Marattiales, order Marattiales
lower ferns coextensive with the family Marattiaceae
Psilotales, order Psilotales
lower vascular plants having dichotomously branched sporophyte divided into aerial shoot and rhizome and lacking true roots
Psilophytales, order Psilophytales
Paleozoic simple dichotomously branched plants of Europe and eastern Canada including the oldest known vascular land plants
Equisetales, order Equisetales
lower tracheophytes in existence since the Devonian
Lepidodendrales, order Lepidodendrales
fossil arborescent plants arising during the early Devonian and conspicuous throughout the Carboniferous
Lycopodiales, order Lycopodiales
lower vascular plants coextensive with the family Lycopodiaceae; in some classifications includes the Selaginellaceae and Isoetaceae
Selaginellales, order Selaginellales
in some classifications included in Lycopodiales
Isoetales, order Isoetales
aquatic or marsh-growing fern allies; known to have existed since the Cenozoic; sometimes included in Lycopodiales
Type of:
taxon, taxonomic category, taxonomic group
animal or plant group having natural relations

n (architecture) one of original three styles of Greek architecture distinguished by the type of column and entablature used or a style developed from the original three by the Romans

Types:
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Dorian order, Doric order
the oldest and simplest of the Greek orders and the only one that normally has no base
Ionian order, Ionic order
the second Greek order; the capital is decorated with spiral scrolls
Corinthian order
the last Greek order; similar to the Ionic order except the capital is decorated with carvings of acanthus leaves
Composite order
a Roman order that combines the Corinthian acanthus leaves with the spiral scrolls of the Ionic order
Tuscan order
a Roman order that resembles the Doric order but without a fluted shaft
Type of:
artistic style, idiom
the style of a particular artist or school or movement
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