fundamental quantity

DEFINITIONS OF: fundamental quantity

1

n one of the four quantities that are the basis of systems of measurement

Synonyms:
fundamental measure
Examples:
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Age of Reason
a movement in Europe from about 1650 until 1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrine
Elizabethan age
a period in British history during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century; an age marked by literary achievement and domestic prosperity
Victorian age
a period in British history during the reign of Queen Victoria in the 19th century; her character and moral standards restored the prestige of the British monarchy but gave the era a prudish reputation
Bronze Age
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron Ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
Iron Age
(archeology) the period following the Bronze Age; characterized by rapid spread of iron tools and weapons
Stone Age
(archeology) the earliest known period of human culture, characterized by the use of stone implements
Eolithic Age
the earliest part of the Stone Age marked by the earliest signs of human culture
Paleolithic Age
second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC
Lower Paleolithic
the oldest part of the Paleolithic Age with the emergence of the hand ax; ended about 120,000 years ago
Middle Paleolithic
the time period of Neanderthal man; ended about 35,000 years BC
Upper Paleolithic
the time period during which only modern Homo sapiens was known to have existed; ended about 10,000 years BC
Epipaleolithic
middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago
Neolithic Age
latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the Middle East (but later elsewhere)
Caliphate
the era of Islam's ascendancy from the death of Mohammed until the 13th century; some Moslems still maintain that the Moslem world must always have a calif as head of the community
Christian era
the time period beginning with the supposed year of Christ's birth
Baroque period
the historic period from about 1600 until 1750 when the baroque style of art, architecture, and music flourished in Europe
Middle Ages
the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries
Italian Renaissance
the early period when Italy was the center of the Renaissance
technological revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
New Deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the United States during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
Reconstruction Period
the period after the American Civil War when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union; 1865-1877
Restoration
the reign of Charles II in England; 1660-1685
Great Depression
a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
Regency
the period from 1811-1820 when the Prince of Wales was regent during George III's periods of insanity
Great Schism
the period from 1378 to 1417 during which there were two papacies in the Roman Catholic Church, one in Rome and one in Avignon
8 May 1945
the date of Allied victory in Europe, World War II
15 August 1945
the date of Allied victory over Japan, World War II
Types:
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temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
mass
the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field
length
the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest dimension of something that is fixed in place
period, period of time, time period
an amount of time
absolute temperature
temperature measured on the absolute scale
absolute zero
(cryogenics) the lowest temperature theoretically attainable (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal); 0 Kelvin or -273.15 centigrade or -459.67 Fahrenheit
Curie point, Curie temperature
the temperature above which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes paramagnetic
dew point
the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins
flash point, flashpoint
the lowest temperature at which the vapor of a combustible liquid can be ignited in air
freezing point, melting point
the temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid
boil, boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level
mercury
temperature measured by a mercury thermometer
room temperature
the normal temperature of room in which people live
simmer
temperature just below the boiling point
blood heat, body temperature
temperature of the body; normally 98.6 F or 37 C in humans; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health
cold, coldness, frigidity, frigidness, low temperature
the absence of heat
heat, high temperature, hotness
the presence of heat
body
the main mass of a thing
biomass
the total mass of living matter in a given unit area
critical mass
the minimum mass of fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
rest mass
(physics) the mass of a body as measured when the body is at rest relative to an observer, an inherent property of the body
relativistic mass
(physics) the mass of a body in motion relative to the observer: it is equal to the rest mass multiplied by a factor that is greater than 1 and that increases as the magnitude of the velocity increases
bulk
the property possessed by a large mass
gravitational mass
(physics) the mass of a body as measured by its gravitational attraction for other bodies
inertial mass
(physics) the mass of a body as determined by the second law of motion from the acceleration of the body when it is subjected to a force that is not due to gravity
atomic mass, atomic weight, relative atomic mass
(chemistry) the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units
mass energy
(physics) the mass of a body regarded relativistically as energy
molecular weight, relative molecular mass
(chemistry) the sum of the relative atomic masses of the constituent atoms of a molecule
circumference
the length of the closed curve of a circle
diam, diameter
the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference
r, radius
the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere
longness
the property of being of long spatial extent
shortness
the property of being of short spatial extent
mass defect, mass deficiency
the amount by which the mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent particles
test period, trial period
a period of time during which someone or something is tested
time frame
a time period during which something occurs or is expected to occur
hours
an indefinite period of time
downtime
a period of time when something (as a machine or factory) is not operating (especially as a result of malfunctions)
uptime
a period of time when something (as a machine or factory) is functioning and available for use
work time
a time period when you are required to work
time off
a time period when you are not required to work
bout
a period of illness
hospitalization
a period of time when you are confined to a hospital
travel time
a period of time spent traveling
times
a more or less definite period of time now or previously present
time
an indefinite period (usually marked by specific attributes or activities)
elapsed time
the time that elapses while some event is occurring
continuance, duration
the period of time during which something continues
calendar week, week
a period of seven consecutive days starting on Sunday
midweek
the middle of a week
field day
a time of unusual pleasure and success
life, life-time, lifespan, lifetime
the period during which something is functional (as between birth and death)
life
the period between birth and the present time
life
the period from the present until death
millenary, millennium
a span of 1000 years
bimillenary, bimillennium
a span of 2000 years
occupation
the period of time during which a place or position or nation is occupied
past
a earlier period in someone's life (especially one that they have reason to keep secret)
shelf life
the length of time a packaged food or drug will last without deteriorating
puerperium
time period following childbirth when the mother's uterus shrinks and the other functional and anatomic changes of pregnancy are resolved
lactation
the period following birth during which milk is secreted
time of life
a period of time during which a person is normally in a particular life state
calendar day, civil day
a day reckoned from midnight to midnight
festival
a day or period of time set aside for feasting and celebration
day, daylight, daytime
the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside
forenoon, morn, morning, morning time
the time period between dawn and noon
dark, night, nighttime
the time after sunset and before sunrise while it is dark outside
night
the time between sunset and midnight
night
the period spent sleeping
night
a period of ignorance or backwardness or gloom
eve
the period immediately before something
evening
the early part of night (from dinner until bedtime) spent in a special way
hebdomad, week
any period of seven consecutive days
fortnight, two weeks
a period of fourteen consecutive days
weekend
a time period usually extending from Friday night through Sunday; more loosely defined as any period of successive days including one and only one Sunday
Indian summer, Saint Martin's summer
a period of unusually warm weather in the autumn
year
the period of time that it takes for a planet (as, e.g., Earth or Mars) to make a complete revolution around the sun
school, school day, schooltime
the period of instruction in a school; the time period when school is in session
twelvemonth, year, yr
a period of time containing 365 (or 366) days
year
a period of time occupying a regular part of a calendar year that is used for some particular activity
semester
half a year; a period of 6 months
bimester
a period of 2 months
Olympiad
one of the four-year intervals between Olympic Games; used to reckon time in ancient Greece for twelve centuries beginning in 776 BC
lustrum
a period of five years
decade, decennary, decennium
a period of 10 years
century
a period of 100 years
quadrennium
a period of four years
quinquennium
a period of five years
half-century
a period of 50 years
quarter-century
a period of 25 years
quarter
a fourth part of a year; three months
phase of the moon
a time when the Moon presents a particular recurring appearance
day
the period of time taken by a particular planet (e.g. Mars) to make a complete rotation on its axis
calendar month, month
one of the twelve divisions of the calendar year
mid-January
the middle part of January
mid-February
the middle part of February
mid-March
the middle part of March
mid-April
the middle part of April
mid-May
the middle part of May
mid-June
the middle part of June
mid-July
the middle part of July
mid-August
the middle part of August
mid-September
the middle part of September
mid-October
the middle part of October
mid-November
the middle part of November
mid-December
the middle part of December
time limit
a time period within which something must be done or completed
term
a limited period of time
trimester
a period of three months; especially one of the three three-month periods into which human pregnancy is divided
hour
a special and memorable period
silly season
a time usually late summer characterized by exaggerated news stories about frivolous matters for want of real news
Golden Age
(classical mythology) the first and best age of the world, a time of ideal happiness, prosperity, and innocence; by extension, any flourishing and outstanding period
silver age
(classical mythology) the second age of the world, characterized by opulence and irreligion; by extension, a period secondary in achievement to a golden age
bronze age
(classical mythology) the third age of the world, marked by war and violence
iron age
(classical mythology) the last and worst age of the world
Platonic year, great year
time required for one complete cycle of the precession of the equinoxes, about 25,800 years
regulation time
(sports) the normal prescribed duration of a game
extra time, overtime
playing time beyond regulation, to break a tie
season, time of year
one of the natural periods into which the year is divided by the equinoxes and solstices or atmospheric conditions
canicular days, canicule, dog days
the hot period between early July and early September; a period of inactivity
midwinter
the middle of winter
season
a recurrent time marked by major holidays
season
a period of the year marked by special events or activities in some field
age, long time, years
a prolonged period of time
long haul, long run
a period of time sufficient for factors to work themselves out
drought, drouth
a prolonged shortage
epoch, era
a period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event
generation
the normal time between successive generations
prehistoric culture, prehistory
the time during the development of human culture before the appearance of the written word
reign
a period during which something or somebody is dominant or powerful
run
the continuous period of time during which something (a machine or a factory) operates or continues in operation
early days, youth
an early period of development
dawn
an opening time period
evening
a later concluding time period
time
a period of time considered as a resource under your control and sufficient to accomplish something
nap, sleep
a period of time spent sleeping
lease, term of a contract
the period of time during which a contract conveying property to a person is in effect
half life, half-life
the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
lunar time period, tide
there are usually two high and two low tides each day
phase, stage
any distinct time period in a sequence of events
multistage
occurring in more than one stage
watch
the period during which someone (especially a guard) is on duty
peacetime
a period of time during which there is no war
wartime
a period of time during which there is armed conflict
duty tour, enlistment, hitch, term of enlistment, tour, tour of duty
a period of time spent in military service
honeymoon
the early (usually calm and harmonious) period of a relationship; business or political
indiction
a 15-year cycle used as a chronological unit in ancient Rome and adopted in some medieval kingdoms
prohibition, prohibition era
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
incubation period
the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
rainy day
a (future) time of financial need
noviciate, novitiate
the period during which you are a novice (especially in a religious order)
bloom, blossom, efflorescence, flower, flush, heyday, peak, prime
the period of greatest prosperity or productivity
running time
the length of time that a movie or tv show runs
clotting time
the time it takes for a sample of blood to clot; used to diagnose some clotting disorders
air alert
the time period during which military and civilian agencies are prepared for an enemy air attack
question time
a period during a parliamentary session when members of British Parliament may ask questions of the ministers
real time
(computer science) the time it takes for a process under computer control to occur
real time
the actual time that it takes a process to occur
study hall
a period of time during the school day that is set aside for study
usance
the period of time permitted by commercial usage for the payment of a bill of exchange (especially a foreign bill of exchange)
window
the time period that is considered best for starting or finishing something
Type of:
amount, measure, quantity
how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify
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